Freight transportation systems are very important all over the world and are considered to be very significant to the world for regional and local economies (Konings & H. Nijkamp, 2008). The author has explained that using 1994 gross national product numbers freight transportation made 6. 3 per cent of total expenditure (Knoning & H.Nijkamp, 2008).Freight transportation represents a percentage of total expenditures 38. 52 per cent of the total. Here in the United States freight transportation system has become very important of global network, which has increase capacity and demand for the needs of customers that are placed on freight services.
There have been past studies and concerns about environmental and health issues, for these reasons, yes, I do agree with the author and that he did provide several reasons “ to implement proactive policies to foster intermodal transport innovation and ultimately, enhance the competitive edge of the American economy, foster the role of freight transportation as an agent of economic development and efficiency of the freight system, and to reduce the negative environmental and health externalities, and congestion, produced by freight transportation activity” (Knoning & H.Nijkamp, 2008).
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The author also explained and shows that the absence of intermodal innovation initiatives in the United States and that the analysis may provide proof and insights into how to tackle the problem of defining, implementing intermodal innovation initiatives” (page, 304). It is very clear that that the author has also explains that “well-documented American case provides insights into how best to overcome the challenge associated with defining policies, programmes to foster intermodal innovation (page, 304).
The analysis does provide supporting information that assess the role of the government. The United States is known to be a major the head of transportation research and innovation. The author explained that “it was not easy to identify a consistent or coherent focus on the systemic challenges of freight transportation” due to part of which could be found in the institutional diversity and durability of American transportation finance planning and operations.
The twentieth century, research efforts by the government and universities and private industries has grown and so have diversity (page, 305). The major agency that identifies and sponsor or conduct freight transportation research in the United States that highlights their influence role. (1) National Science Foundation (NSF)-and expanding the partnership with USDOT, based on successful model of public-private research partnership in the semiconductor industry.
(2) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) largest best funded of USDOT, responsible for managing the Federal Aid Highway program. (3) Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) conducts research in the area of safety. Bur of Transportation Statistics (BTS) is the America’s primary repository of data on all aspects of mobility, and in cooperation with the US Census Bureau, BTS is conducts a Commodity Flow Survey (CFS) every five years.
The Department of Transportation (DOT) supports and participates in applied transportation research aimed at for improving maintenance or enhancing their operations and funds freight research projects that is through local universities and the federally sponsored University Transportation Centers (UTCs), which are projects that focus on either specific operational issues or freight transportation modeling to support statewide planning efforts.
National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), administered by the Transportation Research Board under the guidance of the Standing Committee on Research of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). All can be found in additional locations for American transportation research, Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs), by law focus on transportation and land use issues in the United States urbanized areas, and diverse geography from across the MPO jurisdictions, which only some of them would identify freight movement.
The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act, supports exploration of the freight transportation opportunities has enabled intermodal planning and project development which is to become a central focus of the federal and state transportation agencies work according to the author on (pages, 308, 309). The author did show the main challenges of implementing a research programme that could stimulate intermodal innovations in freight transportation.
The author stated that” the size and complexity of the American freight system poses a challenge that the implementation of freight research programme, which conflicting objectives of different freight modes are a reflection of competing with each other. The competition includes all modes and across the whole geography of the country” (page, 315).
Singapore for example, the Netherlands, has a close association between the success or failure of a particular freight enterprise, meaning that the Port of Singapore and Port of Rotterdam and the economic development of the country, shows the importance of freight transportation and intermodal innovation which shows more cooperative working environment between the private industry and the government(page, 316).
So in other words the planning horizons of the system’s operators, which are part of the private sector that keeps day-today operations of time horizons, short. This makes the public agencies responsible for planning, financing and implementing transportation projects. For as planning cycles is complex decision making and to implementing procedures is short term-within two years, medium terms two to five years, long term 10-20-50 year planning horizon.
This planning horizon complicates the process by trying to define goals with transportation agencies and freight industry. When trying to advance the innovations from freight transportation research, disparity needs to take things into account, meaning that the research community and the freight industry should join and work together to consider freight issues for the nation’s economy. The freight industry leaders need to play a very critical role by raising the level of awareness with transportation research, education and training (page, 318).
The analysis did show the focus on the American case conclusions, recommendation, and identified challenges that are related to an institutional setting and features that are related to the American freight transportation system, and related to the government agencies. There needs to be larger steps towards using research for intermodal transport innovation. The public and private policy people need to come together to engage to implement efforts for change.
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