Problem Statement Scope And Limitation Engineering Essay

Last Updated: 05 Jul 2021
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In this research ZnO thin movie will be doped with aluminum utilizing sol-gel spin-coating method. Then the Al-doped ZnO thin movie ( as seed accelerator ) on a glass substrate will be so superimposed underside of an aligned ZnO nanorod construction which was prepared utilizing sonicated sol-gel submergence technique. The nanorod thin movie parametric quantities will be qualifying through its I-V curve features and besides the optical and optical density of aligned ZnO nanorod thin movie.


1.2.1 Background survey

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UV detector or bases for UV detector are of import devices that can be used in commercial and military applications. The applications are including gas detection, infinite research, high temperature fire sensing, air quality monitoring and many more. UV sensors presently used silicon-based sensors and photomultiplier tubings. These stuffs require dearly-won filters and attenuators. However by replacing those engineerings with broad band-gap semiconducting materials such as Zn oxide ( ZnO ) have been suggested [ 1 ] . UV light breathing or having devices, solar cells, gas detector and transparent electrodes are some of the Zn oxide applications. Assorted deposition methods such as chemical vapour deposition, sputtering and molecular beam epitaxy were used to manufacture ZnO thin movies. However, these deposition methods are high production cost because required high temperature processing and vacuity engineering [ 2 ] .

In this paper, the intent of this research is to manufacture UV detector utilizing zinc oxide thin movie and qualify the detector public presentations by its electrical belongingss. Furthermore, this research is to qualify aluminium doping concentration and the nanostructure of Zn oxide thin movie. In this research, sol-gel spin surfacing method was used to fix Al doped zinc oxide thin movie and an aligned ZnO nanorod structured thin movies on a glass substrate by the sonicated sol-gel submergence method.

1.2.2 Literature Review

ZnO is an n-type semiconducting material with a direct set spread of 3.42eV and because of the O vacancies and intrinsic defects such as interstitial Zn atoms, the electrical conduction of the movies is big. It is really good stuff for electronic device application due to its broad set spread and big exciton adhering energy of 60meV . The belongingss of ZnO thin movie can be improve by a doping procedure and tempering procedure . There are that focal point on the doping procedure. To improved electrical or optical belongingss of ZnO, ZnO were often doped with group 3, 4 and 5 elements such as Gallium ( Ga ) , Sn and Aluminium ( Al ) . Al doping is most suited because it 's inexpensive, abundant and non-toxic stuff and will bring forth Al doped ZnO thin movie with higher optical transmission and low electric resistance in infrared part.

From the diary, radio-frequency ( RF ) reactive magnetron sputtering method was used to lodge Al-doped ZnO on the smooth nucleation side of FSD movies by. The electrical belongingss were discussed. The first negatron concentration increased and following decreased with the addition of Al doping concentration. The maximal bearer concentration achieve when the movie is doped with 2at % Al. Hall mobility is reciprocally relative to the Al doping concentration. The high temperature tempering procedure is use to heighten the Hall mobility of the movies.

From the diary , ZnO thin movies with assorted weight per centums of aluminum and the electrical belongingss were discussed utilizing sol-gel dip-coating method. The conduction shows higher response of the doped ZnO thin movies under UV compared with dark status. Both status cogent evidence that the conduction of ZnO is straight relative to doping concentration. The optical set spread energy is besides straight relative with doping concentration. The transmission of ZnO thin movies is about 75 % when wavelength from 390nm to 850nm.

From the diary, at different dopant concentration the electrical belongingss of Al-doped ZnO thin movies were discussed utilizing sol-gel method. The opposition first lessening with addition aluminum ion concentration. Then the opposition of doped thin movies increased with increasing dopant concentration and it decreases at higher Al concentration. The transmission of ZnO thin movies is about 80 % when wavelength from 370nm to 850nm.

The advantage of Ga is an first-class dopant for increasing the conduction and this beginning is less reactive and more resistive oxidization. Based on the diary [ 5 ] , Ga-doped ZnO nanowires were growing utilizing thermic deposition method. The ZnO nanowires have grown uniformly with high output and mean length of each nanowire is about 1.3um. From the XRD form, it can be deduced that the Ga component doped into the nanowires creates a clear widening. The Ga-doped ZnO nanowires have a greater field-enhancement factor than the undoped ZnO nanowires [ 5 ] .

Aqueous solution procedure with post-growth rapid photothermal processing ( RPP ) was used to fix Sn-doped ZnO nanorods to develop aligned Sn-doped ZnO nanostructure. Aqueous solution method was chosen in readying of metal oxide nanoparticles construction due to its cost and environment friendly. Rapid photothermal processing ( RPP ) as an options of thermic tempering was combine with aqueous solution due to short rhythm clip, reduced exposure and flexibleness .

Based on diaries, the optimal doping concentration of aluminum is 2at % , 5at % and 1.5at % severally. Optimal aluminum doping concentration will gives extremely semiconducting belongingss of Al-doped ZnO thin movie for application UV detector. A research had done on assorted Al doping concentration and the optimal doping concentration is at 1at % Al. This research will used 1at % Al concentration based on journal. Aligned ZnO nanorods that were prepared utilizing sonication method are a simple manner and really low cost method compared to other techniques. It besides will growing high quality ZnO nanorod with a little diameter size .

1.2.3 Problem Statement, Scope and Limitation

Most people are cognizant of the effects of UV through the painful status of tan, but the UV spectrum has many other effects whether its benefits or damaging to human wellness. Excessively much exposure to UV radiation can impact human wellness. UV application for optical detector used 230 nanometer to 400nm wavelength which is ultraviolet B ( UVB ) which is harmful to human tegument. Since it is harmful to human tegument, metal oxide semiconducting material movies have been considered due to its first-class chemical and physical belongingss. One of them is zinc oxide stuff. Zinc oxide is non merely good in optoelectronic but besides in electrical belongingss. Zinc oxide is so will be doped with aluminum to heighten the Zn oxide thin movie belongingss by utilizing sol-gel spin-coating method. It is of import to take the right method for fixing aligned ZnO nanorod. The range of this research is to look into the electrical belongingss ( I-V feature ) and the optical belongingss of the ZnO nanorod thin movie at different submergence clip. The restrictions of this research are on the solution readying and deposition status which are different for different groups and on the hole parametric quantity.

1.2.4 Significant of the research

The nanomaterials based detectors are raising the advantage of size decrease and enhanced functionality. This research will used a simple method to fix an aligned ZnO nanorod thin movie which is sol-gel submergence method which is this method has non been reported by any research group. Furthermore it is really low-priced method.

1.2.5 Aims

  1. To fix Al-doped ZnO thin movie as seed accelerator bed.
  2. To fix aligned ZnO nanorod thin movie at different submergence clip.
  3. To manufacture aligned ZnO nanorod thin movie based UV photoconductive detector.
  4. To qualify fancied UV detector.

1.2.6 Research Questions

  1. To accomplish the aim of this research, some research inquiries would necessitate to concentrate on which are:
  2. What is the I-V curve feature of aligned ZnO nanorod thin movies before and after exposing to the UV light?
  3. What is the optical and absorbance feature of aligned ZnO nanorod thin movies?
  4. How to manufacture ZnO thin movie?
  5. What is the factor impacting the nanostructure ZnO thin movie before and after exposing to the UV light?

Chapter 2

2.1 Research Methodology

2.1.1 Al doped ZnO thin movies

Sol-gel spin-coating method was used to fix Al doped ZnO thin movies. The solution include Zn ethanoate dihydrate ( Zn ( CH3COO ) 2 2H2O ) as precursor, aluminum nitrate nonahydrate ( Al ( NO3 ) 3 9H2O ) as a dopant beginning, monoethanolamine ( MEA, C2H7N14 ) as a stabilizer and 2-methoxyethanol as a dissolver were prepared. The concentration of aluminum nitrate was 1.0at % Al doping and the molar ratio of MEA to zinc ethanoate was fixed at 1.0. At 3 hours before aged at room temperature for 24hours to give clear and homogenous solutions the solution was stirred at 80 & A ; deg ; C. The solutions were so used for deposition procedure by spin-coating technique. Substrates used were microscope on the glass substrates. At room temperature, the spin-coating was performed utilizing 10 beads of solution per deposition with a velocity of 3000rpm for 60s. The movies were preheated in atmosphere ambient at 150 & A ; deg ; C for 10 proceedingss to vaporize the solvent each clip after deposition procedure. The movies were annealed at 500 & A ; deg ; C for 1 hr in air ambient utilizing a furnace ( Protherm ) after reiterating the coating process 10 times. The crystal construction and orientation of ZnO thin movies were investigated by X-ray diffractometer ( XRD ) . The cross-section of the movie thickness is observed by utilizing scanning negatron microscope ( SEM ) . By utilizing UV-vis-NIR spectrophotometer, the optical belongingss of ZnO thin movies were measured in the wavelength scope from 200 nanometers to 1500nm. The electrical belongingss were measured by District of Columbia examining system .


  1. Fix the solution of Zn oxide
  2. Precursor: Zn ethanoate dehydrate
  3. Stabilizer: monoethanolamine
  4. Dopant beginning: aluminum nitrate nonahydrate
  5. Solvent: 2-methoxyethanol
  6. Heat and stir the solution
  7. Temperature: 80 & A ; deg ; C
  8. Time: 3hr
  9. Solution stirring and aging
  10. Temperature: room temperature
  11. Time: 24hr
  12. Thin movie deposition utilizing spin-coating tech.
  13. Speed: 3000rpm
  14. Time: 60s
  15. Temperature: room temperature
  16. Solution: 10 beads of solution per deposition
  17. Thin movie drying
  18. Temperature: 150 & A ; deg ; C
  19. Time: 10min
  20. Repeat 10 times
  21. Thin movie tempering
  22. Temperature: 500 & A ; deg ; C
  23. Time: 1hr
  24. End

2.1.2 Aligned ZnO nanorod construction

An aligned ZnO nanorod construction was prepared utilizing the sonicated sol-gel submergence method on a glass substrate coated with a ZnO thin movie that had been doped with 1at % Al. The sol-gel coating method was used to fix the Al-doped ZnO thin movie as a seeded accelerator that was prepared on the glass substrate. A solution was prepared of 0.1M Zn nitrate hexahydrate ( Zn ( NO3 ) 2.6H2O ) and 0.1M hexamethylenetetramine ( HMT, H2NCH2CH2OH ) in deionized H2O ( DI ) . At 50 & A ; deg ; C for 30 proceedingss utilizing an supersonic H2O bath, this solution was sonicated. The solution was so aged and stirred for 3 hours at room temperature. The sonicated and elderly solution was poured into a Schott bottle, at the underside which had been placed the horizontal Al-doped ZnO thin movie coated glass substrate. The capped bottle was so immersed in a 95 & A ; deg ; C H2O bath for 4 hours. After the submergence procedure, the sample was cleaned with DI H2O and allowed to dry in ambient air. By utilizing field emanation scanning electron microscope ( FESEM ) and X-ray diffraction ( XRD ) , the ensuing ZnO nanorod construction was characterized for surface morphology and crystallinity. The optical transmission and optical density belongingss of the sample were characterized by UV-vis-NIR spectrophotometer [ 10 ] .


  • Fix the solution in deionized H2O
  • 0.1M Zn nitrate hexahydrate
  • 0.1M hexamethylenetetramine
  • Sonicated solution utilizing an supersonic H2O bath
  • Temperature: 50 & A ; deg ; C
  • Time: 30min
  • Solution stirring and aging
  • Temperature: room temperature
  • Time: 3hr
  • Placed the horizontal Al-doped ZnO thin movie coated glass substrate at the bottom Schott bottle. Poured sonicated and aged solution
  • Submergence procedure
  • Temperature: 95 & A ; deg ; C H2O bath
  • Time: 4hr
  • Clean with DI H2O and dry in ambient air
  • Nanorod construction word picture
  • Electrical belongingss
  • Optical belongingss
  • End

Chapter 3

3.1 Decision

The electrical belongingss of ZnO thin movie improved when ZnO thin movie was doped with aluminum. Optimum aluminum doping concentration will gives extremely semiconducting belongingss of Al-doped ZnO thin movie for application UV detector. It is of import to happen low cost method. The ZnO nanorods have an mean diameter of 100nm. An mean optical transmission of 78 % was observed. The electrical belongingss and optical belongingss of an aligned ZnO nanorod thin movie were affected when changing the submergence clip. High grade of crystalline, big surface country handiness, a seeable wavelength transparence and high UV soaking up belongingss, this method show it 's suited for UV detector application.

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