All communities in developed countries, such as Australia, are divisions that constantly change to suit their environment, the environment meaning the demographics of its citizens. A community is a group of people that share a common belief or interest. Over the last sixty years, Australian communities have changed due the varied population and migration policies now enforced. As time goes on, communities will change at an increasing rate.
The demographics of a community often control the type of community that will exist: how it will operate. Generally, demographics show the age, status and education that exists within a community. For example, a less isolated, inner-city, urban area will have a generally high education, good job and high standard of living. Ofcourse, a community will attract people of the same background.
Another important factor in a community is the technology that is available. The access to technology illustrates the type of background and plays a vital role in a community's development. The lack of technology in rural communities is what often makes them feel very isolated from the outside world. On the other hand, an urban community will have technology that will help them in everyday life and connect them with the rest of the globe.
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The population of Australia is constantly changing. Like many other countries, it is divided into rural and urban population. The nation has seen a devastating change in population density in rural areas. Residents of rural areas are involved in primary activities such as farming, fishing and mining. The existence of a drought has repelled people from rural areas, making them move to urban areas. This type of migration is called rural-urban migration. As a result, urban areas are experiencing a change in the make-up of communities.
The indigenous people of Australia are of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander descent. After European settlement, the size of the indigenous population declined dramatically. However, this has all changed in the past 60 years. At the end of the 1960's, the indigenous population was at a steady 90, 000 - 100, 000. However, since 1971, the indigenous population has increased to over 400, 000.
Migration is the movement of people from one location to another. Overtime, the number, countries of origin and reasons for migrating to Australia has changed. For example, a woman in the 1950's would have migrated to Australia perhaps to escape war, and could have been from a variety of countries. Nowadays, people migrate to Australia for family or job opportunities, and many come from Europe. In the past 60 years, the proportion of overseas born residents in Australia has increased by 12%. These changes started after World War II, when many Australians feared an invasion from countries to the North. One of these countries was Japan, whose navy proposed an invasion in 1942.
In Australia, people are employed in 4 main work sectors: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary. In the middle of the twentieth century, service jobs in the tertiary and quaternary industries began to expand. By 1954, there were more workers providing services than there were providing goods.
Employment patterns of men and women have changed over the last 25 years. Significantly, the proportion of women who were employed has increased over the period. Changing social attitudes and smaller families have contributed to these changes in women's employment. Greater proportions of women now have higher education qualifications. Education appears to draw women into the workforce by instilling in them more career related attitudes and by enhancing their potential wages in the labour market. Paid work may also provide women with opportunities for social interaction and job satisfaction.
However, it is women who continue to carry the greater responsibility for caring and other unpaid work, effectively placing them under increased time pressures. Women's working patterns may impact on their ability to balance work with other responsibilities.
Marriage trends in Australia have changed increasingly in the past few decades. Proportion of couples marrying in 2004 who lived together before the wedding: 75 per cent; in the 1970s: 16 per cent. The average age at marriage for men in Australia in 2001 was 31, compared to 26 years old in 1981. For women in Australia the average age at marriage in 2001 was 29, compared to the average age of 23 in 1981. Proportion of couples in Australia living together in 2004 who are married: 87.6 per cent.
All in, all out, Australia can only go uphill from here. The Great Southern Land, The Land Down Under...Terra Australis is and continues to be the best place to live in, just after Paradise.
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