Management Key Concepts
Organizational behavior is defined as a study aimed at revealing how individuals, people and groups are interacting. Simply saying, organizational behavior is norms and standards how employees should behave in work environment. Organizational behavior interprets people-organization relations within organization and social system as a whole.
The purpose of organizational behavior is claimed to create more comfortable relations between employees and simply individuals by means of achieving organizational, human and social objectives.
Organizations operate within the four models of behavior: autocratic, custodial, supportive, and collegial. Organizational behavior suggests that the potential of employees should be appreciated; organizational structure, people and technology work together; human problems should be encountered in work; problems are identified and corrective measures are taken. Organizational behavior is primary related to a workplace as it encompasses human behavior, human interactions, teams and leadership.(Damours, p.115)
Organizational culture is defined as attitudes, beliefs, values and experiences within particular organization, firm or company. Organizational culture is a set of specific norms and values which must be shared by all employees, mangers and board of directors and which identify the way people should interact with each other and outside organization. Organization develops its own values stating how employees are expected to achieve the desired objectives and goals. Moreover, organizational culture prescribes norms of behavior in particular situations.
The primary task is to integrate individuals into effective team which is able to adapt to external and internal environment of organization. Culture is “an active living phenomenon through which people jointly create and recreate the worlds in which they live”. (Damours, p.122) Elements of organizational culture are stated values, customs and rituals, comfortable climate, etc. Organizational culture is related to a workplace as it sets norms and values of behavior and means of achieving organizational values.
Diversity at workplace is defined as differences and similarities among organizational personnel. Diversity embraces, gender, age, cultural and ethnic background, physical abilities, religion, sexual orientation, etc. Nowadays diversity is essential concern in business world as companies are trying to retain the best employees not considering their age, gender or ethnicity.
Workforce diversity means that organization develops practices and policies in order to include people who are considered to be different from what is considered normal. Diversity contributes social and corporate responsibility of organization as it gives an opportunity for everyone to earn living and to accomplish their dreams. Diversity also helps to turn tax users into effective tax players fostering in such a way economic development of the country. Diversity gives organizations advantage over companies which fully ignore diversity at workplace. (Damours, 134-137)
Communication is defined as a means which convey verbal meanings creating shared understanding. Communication process requires interpersonal and intrapersonal processing, speaking, observing, listening, evaluating and analyzing. Communication process is related to a workplace is people are constantly interacting with other, arguing and debating. Future success of a person mainly depends on his ability to use language and to communicate effectively.
Understanding how to communicate effectively will promote creating smoothly working project teams; responding to customers, clients, and markets; living and working in a culturally diverse world. Effective communication is playing nowadays one of the most important roles in organizations and companies, because it is the only source of mutual understanding among employees and customers, directors and suppliers, etc. Nevertheless learning how to communicate effective isn’t limited only to one organization, because, for example, learning cross-cultural communication suggests how cultural traditions and patterns are understood and how cultural values may affect the process of communication. Learning effective communication is nowadays necessity. (Managing Communication, p.2)
Business ethics is defined as a code of accepted norms, beliefs and values in business world. In other words, business ethics is a standard of human behavior that offers how to act in particular situations in professional life. Ethics incorporates norms of conventional morality to distinguish ‘wrong’ behavior from ‘right’ behavior. Generally, ethical norms suggest honesty, truthfulness, fairness, integrity, justice and respect for others. Ethical norms and values play important role in maintaining harmony and stability in social life as ethics suggests proper ways of human-human interactions.
Ethics recognizes human needs and aspirations, as well as cooperative efforts, fairness and truthfulness. Ethics contributes social stability and ensures balance in all spheres of life and business. For example, in financial sphere ethical violations are associated with stakeholder interest, insider trading, investment management and camping financing. Business ethics is related to a workplace as it sets standards of behaviour within organization. (Damours, 205-209)
Change management is defined as distinctly specifying and implementing procedures and methods to deal with changes in the organizational environment for the overall prosperity of the business. The term “change management” is mostly used to define “organizational change management or the management of change triggered in organizations or industries”. (Change Management, 2006) Change management is thus the overall process of grooming a planned approach to change in an organization.
Due to globalization processes taken place in modern society change management has to be universal requirement. Change management deals primarily with the human aspect, because humans and their psychology are the most subjected to changes. There are two types of change management: reactive and proactive. Management is considered reactive when the change comes from external source. Management is considered proactive when change comes from either internal change aimed at achieving organizational objectives and goals. Change management is related to a workplace as changes are inevitable and mainly employees resist them.
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- Damours, Stephen. (1992). Management Analysis in Public Organizations: History, Concepts and Techniques. Westport: Quorum.