Livelihood system among koyas

Last Updated: 27 Feb 2023
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In the phase of globalization, the question of livelihood has captured all the points of discussion. Various people have defined livelihood differently. Chambers and Conway define "A livelihood comprises the abilities, assets (stores, resources, claims, and access) and activities required for a means of living: a livelihood is sustainable which can cope with and recover from stress and shocks, maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets, and provide sustainable livelihood opportunities to the next generation; and contribute net benefits to other livelihoods at the local and global bevels In the long and In the short term. In present days the Issue of livelihood has become a topic of concern In the context of tribal communities. For centuries the tribal communities have been living in and around the forests, practicing hunting and gathering activities, fishing and shifting cultivation have faced difficulties in their survival. Traditionally they depend on forest resources for their livelihoods. Their dependence on forests was not merely for livelihood but also for their cultural requirement.

For these people, forests are an important source of livelihood and means f survival. Though farming was there It was not much prominent. Their economy was subsistence in nature. Moreover, a number of small tribal groups are completely dependent on the forest for their livelihood. Fernando argues or that the destruction of forests over the past few decades has deprived tribes of their livelihood, particularly the source of food. It has also resulted in their impoverishment, indebtedness, and in many cases land alienation and even bondage.

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The concept of livelihoods and livelihood analysis emerged In the mild-inlets-loosely associated with poverty reduction strategies. The livelihood of the poor can never be understood in any track logic be it economic, social, technical, cultural, or political. The livelihood systems are made up of very diverse elements which taken together constitute the physical, economic, social, and cultural wherein families live. The lifestyle and tradition of each indigenous community are unique and is related to the utilization of particular natural resource and a particular type of work.

They have been collecting resources from forests without causing any damage to Them. The forest provides them with food and livelihood security. Since tribal communities live in close proximity to biodiversity-rich landscapes, they have evolved local specific and novel livelihood strategies based on their indigenous knowledge. This knowledge was passed on through generations and it played an important role in the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. By and large, they were depending on nature for their survival.

Social and cultural diversity, coupled with environmental complexity, have generated diverse approaches and technologies In the management and use of different natural resources. It is important to note that, traditionally villagers, specifically the tribal, managed their affairs and resources on a sustainable basis. Their village councils ensured strict observance of institutionalized rules and cultural practices for the sustainable use and management of natural resources.

They also regulated the use of natural resources more carefully. Studies have shown that most tribal communities have effective methods to conserve them. Indigenous peoples' knowledge, conservation beliefs and values, environmentally adaptive and sensitive land use, resource management practices, and determined defense of territory and natural resources have enabled many of them to inhabit natural habitats for centuries without destroying their ecosystems and biodiversity.

The interaction between human beings and nature has always been reciprocal. In tribal communities where there always exist a symbiotic relationship between their livelihood pursuits and the surrounding natural resources ease like the forest, land, water bodies, mineral resource, and other flora and fauna. For tribal people, the land is an important source of livelihood. Around 90% of tribe's populations in India are depending on land directly or indirectly for their survival. Their economy is primarily agro-based. The land is the only tangible asset for them.

Apart from the land forest is the second source of their livelihood. They used to collect various minor forest products from the forest for their survival. Their economy was subsistence in nature. In Kumara, the village selected for the present study, the people's traditional activities are mostly dependent on forest and agriculture. During traditional society the size of the population was small, the availability of land per person was sufficient for sustaining and the forest was near to their villages and able to fulfill villagers' needs.

They emphasize on equality and collectively while using natural resources. Their custom and tradition were not against the natural law. They have sufficient indigenous knowledge on how to use plants or herbs as medicine. Significance of the study: Kayos were nomadic people in the past but got changed due to modernized technology. Their society became heterogeneous society because of the adoption of Hinduism, its rituals, festivals, practices, modern education, lifestyle etc. Their culture is being rapidly changed by the influence of mainstream society.

Objectives of the study:

1) To understand the major livelihoods among Kayos of Wrangle.

2) To give information about the connection between livelihoods and resources

3) To comprehend changing patterns of livelihoods and their coping mechanism.

4) To assess the government interventions in livelihood Data collection in the study area:

The study area of KUMARA VILLAGE is under Davit Gram Penchant of Triangular Amanda, Wrangle District of Andorra Pradesh, Which is at a distance of 190 SMS from Hydrated.

The fieldwork was carried out for 25 days as part of the study.

Village census:

In the first week, the census data of the entire village was obtained. All men and women in the village were mostly farmers or agriculture laborers, so to collect the census data we had to go in the morning before they leave for their fields. The interviews were conducted at the convenience of the person after their consent was obtained.

Group interviews:

About how they organize different activities and informally asked them how they used to do the same activities in the past. The conversations revealed how they organized work in their respective fields and how obligatory it is to go and work when someone calls. We observed the nature of sharing labor in the village. In the village we can find villagers taking turns grazing animals on the lands, this kind of turn shows the unity of the tribal people.

Key informants:

Key informants are important in the collection of data regarding understanding the ways of hunting, and ritual processes, and also for understanding the making of Sara's (illegal) cheap liquor which they sell to earn money.

Students of the village who are studying in colleges in Pasta and Hammond were very helpful in gathering information. Edema, Swaths, and saran lath were very informative about how they celebrate festivals and how they are collecting minor forest products from forests. They took us to their fields and showed us their fields and gave us information. Savanna who is working as a forest officer in Pasta gave information about marriage celebrations, family relations, etc.

Limitation of the study:

As the period of stay was very short and as the first weekdays were spent in rapport building the time left for actual data collection was very short. Hence sufficient information regarding some aspects could not be collected. Due to time constraints, the fieldwork was carried out only for 23 days. If I could had spent more time in the field it could have been better to get more information. Therefore a detailed study is required to understand how tribes depend on natural resources and or use the resources to make a happy living.

Also, the study requires an understanding of how and from where they are getting their livelihood income. Apart from that what other resources are available to them? I have observed their traditional practices to find out the connection (if any) between the availability of resources and how these resources are used in generating their livelihood. They have various resources like land, water, and forest. They depend on these resources doing their subsistence to make their life or for leading their life happily.

Cite this Page

Livelihood system among koyas. (2018, Sep 12). Retrieved from

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