Last Updated 28 Jan 2021

Lecture Notes: Overview

Category Crime, Justice, Punishment
Essay type Research
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Revenge Deterrence Get rid of them, get them of the streets Retribution Just desserts Justice, proportionate The punishment must fit the crime It must be proportionate Contravention of social order requires 'pay back' to society or volt Deterrence Threat of punishment will prevent future crime Hedonistic calculus If the pleasure out ways the pain deterrence is ineffective General Deterrence, and Specific You see a friend commit a crime and you don't want to Specific Is you Certainty, Celerity, Severity These need to be close together In order for deterrence to be affective certainty Is he most important; if you are certain you are going to get caught, you wont do it. Does deterrence work?

Sometimes it does work (they get out, and they don't want to go back) and sometimes it doesn't work (people sometimes bargain with the judge to get put into Jail longer, or they go back to crime) Incapacitation (Prison) Symbolic: denouncement of act communicated to offenders and society through use of punishment In the sense of freedom; we as people of society we value our freedom, and taking it away is tough on a lot of people Imprisonment, deprivation of liberty Remove problem elements from society Rehabilitation Address underlying causes facing the offender Focus on offender, not crime Assumes transformation potential of rehabilitation within a punitive context The problem with rehabilitation is that it believes that you can rehabilitate someone in a prison setting; where you got people in an anxious setting etc. ND it becomes a lot more challenging Justice Policies Trend in Policies There is more emphasis on incapacitation, retribution, deterrence Rehabilitation, reparation overshadowed Less focus on solving problems of crime Belief that vindictive punishment is most appropriate response to crime Trend in US ND Canada toward punitive approaches New Pensiveness From mid-sass's Claim of global trend toward harsher CA sanctions More and more punishment is increased, some states in the U. S have totally gotten rid of community sanctions and probation Increase use of prison, more crimes result in prison, increase prison lengths, mandatory minimums More and more punishment is increased, some states in the U. S have totally gotten rid of community sanctions and probation Shaming initiatives, austere prison regimes For example in Arizona they make their inmates wear pink suits Zero tolerance strategies

Zero tolerance means they have to report everything even if it's a push fight Three strikes legislation If you do two serious offences on the third serious offence you get a life sentence Use of capital punishment It does not have an effect on crime rates In Canada the death penalty did not have an impact on crime rates In states for the first two weeks it would go down and then it would go right back to where it was Harsh CSS policies are response to increasing public disorder, rising crime, deterioration of moral framework Leap backward, shift away from restraint Stretching the limits of punishment Tough Justice War on Drugs in 1971 Drug offences is what is driving the crime rates in the U. S out the roof Crack: is used by the lower class people Cocaine: is used by the middle and upper class The police are targeting the lower class that is using crack So the prisons and sanctions in the U.

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S is filled with the minority people, such as blacks and Latinist's Tough on crime policies and election platforms 1980 = 40,000, 2008 = 500,000 Simon: prison used to target race Relationship between 'Get Tough' and Crime Rates Little relationship between crime and incarceration rates There is no relationship with how tough you are on crime and the crime rate. You can e as tough as you want but it will not put a dent on the crime rate. High welfare spending = low incarceration rates Greater inequality = higher incarceration rates Inefficient - move away from pensiveness Example: Texas vs... California Texas spent a lot of money on offences, which in turn had zero effect on the crime rate, where as California spent no money, and they had the same rates as Texas who spent a lot of money Canada youth incarceration rate Canada put in place laws and barriers that stated you can't put children under the age of 12 in Jail.

Criminal Responsibility Category Age Children Under 12 None Youth 12-17 Diminished Adults 18+ Full Legal Legal Classification of Criminal Offences Offence Hearing Punishment Summary Provincial court Judge $2000 both Indictable (Felony: U. S term; both mean the same thing) Less serious: provincial court Judge Most serious: provincial superior court by federally appointed Judge All others: Judge without Jury Up to Life Hybrid Can be summary or indictable Prosecutor discretion Record, circumstances Varies Cocoas: Representations of Crime - Lecture 3 Non. 29) Epistemology - Study of knowledge What do we know about crime? How do we know what we know? How do we acquire our knowledge? What are its limitations?

Common Sources News Word of mouth Problems with Understanding Crime Hidden Subject of inquiry is deliberately Insight Criminals have little insight into the broader nature of their behavior What does one murderer know about another Cost Access in costly, time consuming and partial Scope Much crime lies beyond the scope of research Access Sociologists cannot pass effortlessly into every situation Barriers exist within social worlds Representation Social worlds are not representative Official Sources of Crime Statistics The Crime Funnel Citizens detect crime A lot of people do not report crime, for reasons being: Fear Can resolve it on your own Police might/wont do anything about it May not think it's a crime/don't define it as a crime Street youth, they don't trust the police because they are victimized If you are engaging in criminal behavior you won't report crime to the police.

Uniform Crime Reports Standardized counts of crime known to police National statistics about crime Applies standard definitions to all offences Counts used to determine crime rates The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics Limitations Mainly the crime funnel Justice system does not give an accurate portrayal of crime Unreported crime The "dark figure" of crime Self-Report Surveys Asks people about the crimes they have committed You can get peoples attitude etc Who commits the most crime: Young Adults Identifies some unreported crimes (dark figure) Measure attitudes and prevalence of offending (primary peers) Factorization Surveys Asks victims about crimes they did not report Indicate that a large number of crimes are not reported Example: Canadian Urban Factorization Survey Direct Measures Economic loss, physical injury, property damage Indirect Measures Fear of crime and its effects People don't want to be alone at night Lock the doors

Establish new expectations and measurements for police effectiveness Increase understanding and trust between police and immunity leaders Empower and strengthen community-based efforts Commitment to long-term proactive prevention strategies Decentralized operations and management Develop new skills in police Racial and Criminal Profiling Racial Criminal Any action undertaken for reasons of safety, security or public protection, that relies on stereotypes about race, color, ethnicity, ancestry, religion, or place of origin, or a combination of these, rather than on a reasonable suspicion, to single out an individual for greater scrutiny or different treatment.

Relies on actual behavior or on information about suspected activity by someone who tests the description of a specific individual. What is Racial Profiling? Based on stereotypical assumptions because of one's race, color, ethnicity, etc. Evidence of disproportionate stops When is it profiling? B, women in spousal relationship killed, airport Good police work or self-fulfilling prophecy "Intuition", "suspicion" Visibility, definition If you are a young black male with an education you are more likely to be stopped by police. ** By in large police officers in Canada are intelligent hard working people who want to serve Justice to the general public. **

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