Last Updated 28 Jan 2021

Notes Experimental Psych Overview

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Sociology Biology Chemistry Physics Astronomy Anthropology Psychology Others Outer circle (CO) : Art Music Literature Language Solvable and unsolvable Problems Solvable problem- one which poses a question that can be answered with the use of normal capacities (answers questions under the inner and outer circle) Unsolvable problem - raises a question that is unanswerable. This concerns supernatural phenomena (falling under Metaphysical disciplines) Science is Empirical (Observable) Solvable problems are susceptible to empirical solution by studying observable vents Science Defined 1 .

Sciences apply the scientific method to solvable problems 2. Dullness's In the CO don't use the SMS but their problems are typically solvable 3. The dullness's outside the circles neither use the SMS nor pose solvable problems C] Science is the application of the SMS to solvable problems. Psychology as a Science Psychology Is Materialistic, Objective and Deterministic If psychology Is ever to become a science, It must follow the example of the physical sciences: it must be materialistic, mechanistic, deterministic, objective. -Watson

Materialism (Same as Physicality) - observable responses, physical events Objectivity - the principle of intersecting reliability Intersecting- two or more people share the same experiences Determinism- the assumption that there is lawfulness Experimentation is the most powerful research method 0 Psychology became a science by applying the SMS to solvable problems. Psychological experimentation is an application of the SMS Stating the Problem and Hypothesis Testing the Hypothesis 1. Select participants 2. Randomly assign to groups 3. Randomly assign groups to condition/treatment . Experimental group given a novel treatment b.

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Control group given normal treatment 4. Define the IV 5. Define the DVD 6. Control relevant EVE 7. Conduct statistical tests 8. Generalize and explain the hypothesis 9. Predict new situations Terms 1 . Replication - an additional experiment is conducted but with the same process 2. Stimuli - aspects of the external environment 3. Response - aspects of behavior 4. S-R Laws - if a certain environmental characteristics is changed, behavior of a certain type also changes 5. Variable - anything that can change in amount 6. Independent variable - manipulated, treatment, investigation 7. Dependent variable - measure of any change in behavior 8.

Continuous variable - capable of changing by any amount 9. Discontinuous variable - assume only numerical values that differ by clearly defined steps without intermittent values possible 10. Hypothesis -tentative solution to problem Functions of Apparatus 1. To administer experimental treatment 2. To collect data 3. To reduce experimenter influences 4. To analyze data specifically Conducting Statistical Tests Chance difference Reliable difference Real 0 statistically reliable Accidental 0 due only to chance Significant 0 reliable (Preferable) Confirmed 0 probably true Discontinued 0 probably false it can be measured. J.

B. Watson - If psychology is ever to become a science, it must follow the example of the physical sciences: it must be materialistic, mechanistic, deterministic, and objective. Chapter 2 - The Problem Problem Scientific inquiry starts when we have already collected some knowledge but there is something we still do not know Ways Problem is Manifested 1 . When there is a noticeable gap in the results of investigations Students conducting thesis are reading related literature so their storehouse of information is filled with new knowledge 2. When the results of several inquiries disagrees The results are contradicting 3.

When a fact exists in the form of unexplained information When a new theory explains a fact, it also explains other phenomena, because theories are general that it can explain many facts Defining a Solvable Problem 1. The proposed solution is Testable 2. The proposed solution is Relevant to the problem A. What is a testable hypothesis? A. If it is possible to determine that it is either true or false B. Knowledge is expressed in the form of propositions a. The requirement that knowledge can occur only in the form of a statement is critical for the process of testability. C.

Degree of Probability Instead of True or False Kinds of Possibilities 1 . Presently attainable - the possibility is within our power at the present time 2. Potentially attainable - possibilities that may come within the powers of people at some future time Classes of Testability 1 . Presently testable - related with Presently attainable 2. Potentially testable - related to Potentially attainable Working Principle for the Experimenter . Applying the criterion of Testability a. Do all the variables contained in the hypothesis actually refer to empirically observable events? B.

Is the hypothesis formulated in such a way that it is possible to relate it to empirically observable events and render a decision on its degree of probability? Term: determine the degree of probability for them. Unsolvable Problems The Unstructured Problem Inadequately defined terms and the operational definition Solution Through Operational Definitions Operational definitions - one that indicates that a certain phenomenon exists, and sees so by specifying precisely how the phenomenon is measured Operations - adequate definitions of the variables with which a science deals are a prerequisite to advancement.

Initiated by P. W. Abridgment in 1972 Impossibility of Collecting Relevant Data Vicious circularity renders problems unsolvable Additional considerations Problems should be technologically or theoretically important Problems of the impasse variety should be avoided unless creative solutions are possible Psychological reactions to problems- we should emphasize a truth criterion and not dismiss a discovery only because it is disturbing

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