Health Education Model for Smoking Cessation
Smoking continues to be one of the largest preventable causes of death in the United States, and it is increasing among young females and adolescents.One in five will die from lung cancer, chronic obstructive lung disease, or heart disease.It should be the goal of all health care professionals to encourage smoking cessation to assist in reducing the number of smoke-related diseases and/or fatalities (Max, Hai-Yen, & Yangling, 2012).
A Model for Health Education
An excellent model for education with regards to smoking cessation is the Health Belief Model (HBM). The HBM was established in the 1950s, it is the oldest and most popular model used in nursing education and preventative health behaviors. Constructs are theories from behavior and social sciences, and the HBM is made up of six constructs; perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefit, perceived barriers, cues to action, and self-efficacy (Sharma & Romas, 2012). Perceived susceptibility is the belief a person has on the chances they will acquire a disease or illness from indulging in a certain behavior.
Perceived severity is the belief a person has on the extent of harm resulting from a certain behavior. Perceived benefit is the person belief in the advantages of the interventions suggested to reduce the changes of acquiring the illness/disease. Perceived barriers is the belief concerning the financial cost associated with following the perceived benefits. Cues to action are the forces that drive the person to make a change. Self-efficacy is the confidence a person has to change their behavior (Costello, Logel, Fong, Zanna, & McDonald, 2102). Health Behavior for Change
Smoking has long been one of the most dangerous ways for people to relieve stress, try to look cool, or smoke because others do it. More than 440,000 deaths occur annually as a result of smoking. Not only are the actual smokers affected, but studies on smoking reveals an increase in lung cancer patients among non-smokers as a result of second-hand smoke. More than 50 percent of children are exposed to cigarette smoke worldwide, which can cause respiratory problems, ear infections, and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) (American Lung Association, 2013).
Justification for Model
The Health Belief Model (HBM) is a good model to use for smoking cessation. The HBM can be used to focus the message on overcoming the barriers to quit and the overwhelming benefits. Some of the immediate benefits to quit smoking include; blood pressure returns to normal, decreased carbon monoxide levels, improved respiratory function, and circulation improvement. These benefits pertain to the actual smoker and those who inhale second hand smoke (“American cancer society,” 2006). Smokers are more likely to quit if they believe the following; they could acquire a smoking related disease, know someone who acquired a smoking related disease, believe they can quit, or believe that quitting outweighs the benefit of smoking (Costello, Logel, Fong, Zanna, & McDonald, 2102).
There are no benefits to smoking, but those who are addicted to nicotine may beg to differ. Some teens and adults use smoking as a lifestyle coping tool; to relieve stress, relax, calm nerves, look mature, or use it as a conversation centerpiece. Regardless of the reason a person smokes the outcome is still the same, addiction and damage to the body or possible death. Part of a health care professional’s responsibility is to educate people on the dangers of addictions and encourage them to quit in addition to providing the necessary resources. Over the many years, various models have been developed to help nurses target certain health behaviors and help adjust or change them.
The outcome may not always be a positive result, but the only thing one can do is use the tools already created to help alter a person’s perception of their behavior/habit. There may be some who do not try to quit, some may attempt to quit but fail, and some may not see the dangers of a habit that makes them feel good. At the end of the day it is up to the person to accept the help/education and put it to use.