The Harvard referencing system It is important that you identify in your assessment when you are using the words or ideas of another author. The most accepted way of acknowledging the work of another author is to use a referencing system. It is important that you write down the details of your sources as you study. When taking notes, use a separate page for each new book, journal article, or electronic source. At the top of each page, clearly record the following information for future reference. For books, record: * The author’s or editor’s name (or names) * The year the book was published * The title of the book If it is an edition other than the first * The city the book was published in * The name of the publisher For journal articles record: * The author’s name or names * The year in which the journal was published * The title of the article * The title of the journal * The page number/s of the article in the journal * As much other information as you can find about the journal, for example the volume and issue numbers For electronic resources, try to collect the information on the left if it is available, but also record: * The date you accessed the source * The electronic address or email The type of electronic resource (email, discussion forum, WWW page, etc) Whenever you use someone else’s ideas or words, you must put in a reference. Direct quotations – this is when you copy another author’s material word-for-word. You should show the reader that it is a direct quote by placing the material in inverted commas. Traditionally, double inverted commas have been used (“) but it is now acceptable, and preferable to use single inverted commas (‘). Sometimes it is difficult to avoid the direct quotation as the author’s words may precisely describe the point you are trying to make.
An example for direct quote from a book or journal article with one author: When organising our time, Adair (1988: 51) states that ‘the centerpiece will tend to be goals and objectives’. OR When organising our time ‘the centrepiece will tend to be goals and objectives’ (Adair, 1988: 51). When you take another author’s ideas and put them into your own words. You are still copying someone else’s work, so you must reference it. You do not need to use inverted commas when you paraphrase, but you must clearly show the reader the original source of your information.
All of the sources you refer to in the main body of your assignment need to be listed at the end of the assignment in a reference list. When creating a reference list, the sources should be listed alphabetically by author’s surname, but when the author is anonymous or unknown for any one source, insert that source in the alphabetical list using the title of the source instead of the author’s name. All sources should be listed together; there should not be separate lists for books versus journal articles versus electronic sources.
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The reference list should be on a separate page from the rest of the assignment and should be simply titled ‘References’ and the title should be in the same font and size as the other headings in your assignment. When you use the Harvard System, you are only usually required to produce a reference list. It is generally important in the text of an assignment to show the reader the author’s name, date of publication and page numbers of the original source. In the reference list, it is important that the author’s name, the year of publication, relevant titles, and other access information is faithfully reproduced.
Department of Lifelong Learning: Study Skills Series http://education. exeter. ac. uk/dll/studyskills/harvard_referencing. htm Central Queensland University ESLS Unit (2001) Referencing: The Harvard referencing system, [Online], Available: http://www. cqu. edu. au/edserv/undegrad/clc/content/resources. htm [14 Aug 2001] Lewis, D. (ed. ) (1999) The written assignment, Brisbane: QUT Publications. Wells, D. (2001) Harvard referencing, [Online], Available: http://lisweb. curtin. edu. au/guides/handouts/harvard. html [14 Aug 2001].
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