Last Updated 22 Jun 2020

Fundamentals of Latin American Business

Category Latin America
Essay type Research
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Describe how these groups worked. He also issued a Five-Year economic plan and a powerful new foreign read institute, the API, was given a state of monopoly over the export of Argentina's key agricultural goods. In other words, because of Person's economic policies, Argentina's political structure became more state-directed. Yes, this should be Included In the description of what corporatism Is and how It works. Person also promised the people of Argentina justice and public welfare. He made the urban workers (industrialists and military force) his closest allies.

In addition, he supported worker strikes, and approved large wage increases which led to an average increase of 25% in wages between 1946 and 1950. Argentina's who did not benefit from Person were the landowners because the government trade monopoly (API) bought most of the export products at a low fixed price because they did not have any competitors. At first, Persons organized political structure worked well because the country's GAP grew by an average of 8. 78% during the first three years of his presidency (1946-1948) (pig. 259).

A huge part of this success was Argentina's exports which produced great trade surpluses, as well as the gain of economic independence from the industrialized countries. Person also reduced Argentina's foreign dependency almost completely. He nationalized British-owned railways, the leading U. S. Controlled telephone company, and the French-owned dock facilities. In these cases, Argentina compensated the owners at a price that was later thought to be too high. By 1947, Person had paid off Argentina's entire foreign debt and announced the country's "Declaration of Economic Independence" (pig. 260).

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However, Person's sudden growth has its tolls. In 1949 Argentina suffered its first foreign state deficit since the war, and a tremendous Jump of 31% In Inflation. Also, a severe drought made the production of key export agricultural goods Impossible. World prices for Argentina's exports were dropping, while import prices were increasing. The main problem was Person's trading monopoly, API, who demanded very low prices of goods to encourage low prices, but this had the adverse effect of discouraging production all together and therefore hurting the export sector immensely. Argentina's economy.

He reversed some of his nationalist and redistribution policies. However, this brought up increased class conflict amongst Argentina's because workers could only gain at the direct expense of the middle and upper class. Thus, Person implemented a more radical political strategy. He focused on creating a strong military on his side, a supportive labor force, and eliminated religious influence. These strategies marked his downfall. First, he focused to earn control over the army by training certain cadets and making them more Valuable' by providing flashier uniforms, and at the same time he suppressed his rivals within the army.

Person Yes, at last!! Also put effort into creating strong labor union, which led to a supportive labor class. And later, he took down' his last threat, the church. He equalized divorce and all schools were under strict government control. The disagreement of the government with the church led to many bloody protests, where famous cathedrals in Buenos Aries were burned. Several students have said this. Churches were burned, but not cathedrals. How many cathedrals do most countries have? Not many. A cathedral is the seat of the Bishop of a diocese, and most countries do not have many dioceses.

The country became divided and 'out of control'. This presented the perfect opportunity for his military rivals to give Person he opportunity to resign or face a civil war. He chose to flee Argentina. You have understood the basic ideas, except you have not defined the political structure. See the notes on Corporatism at the end of the paper. 2) 92 When organizing the political structure of Chile, Pinochle main goal was to restore the text says 'revamp', which means 'to change' the long-standing relationships between state and society.

He planned to accomplish this by unifying the military and by indirectly repressing the civilian society. Repressing civil society does not constitute restoring the long-standing relationships between state and society, rather he opposite. First, he established a bureaucratic-authoritarian regime. He achieved this by dissolving the congress, suspending the constitution, and repressing all forms of perceived opposition. These are not acts that restore the relationship between state and society. What he did was break Chile's parliamentary tradition established in the early sass's.

His military power quickly became very personalized because he was the only one in power and in charge of making all the decisions. He also aimed to destroy the previous Socialist political and economic system. His economy views were " lazes laissez-fairer" based on the theories of the modern inalienable professor at Chicago University's school of economics, Milton Friedman, and the new government would make it possible for Chile to enter the international market competition. By liberalizing trade. This system reasoned that what restricted Chile's growth was the government's intervention in the economy.

To make the roles of supply and demand work, they reduced the role of the state in the economy and cut back inflation. Pinochle's goal was "to make Chile not a nation of proletariat's, but a nation of entrepreneurs" (302). Inflation had dramatically reduced from around 500% at the time of the coup, to about 27% in 1987. The overall economy also grew by 7%. However this was achieved by the very low high social cost of a reduction in labor tariff protections were reduced, as well as government subsidies and the size of the public sector You confuse cause and effect. Tariff barriers were eliminated, which allowed free trade.

The high reduction on tariffs led to local firms loosing out to multinational corporations because they could provide the same goods for a cheaper price in the domestic market. However, Chile was attempting to create a free-market economy with assistance largely from international organizations and other governments, instead of domestic companies and private banks. This created long term negative results because Chile's economy was too dependent on the foreign market. On the other hand, the Pinochle regime used repression at any hint of labor unrest or civilian protest against the regime.

This negatively affected the people of Chile because the regime used tactics of oppression and persistent violations of human rights (303). This resulted on several protests and deaths, and Chile lost the purport of the United States. This negatively affected the county because its dependency on the foreign market could no longer be met. Now, the people of Chile were oppressed with lower wages, no freedom, an unsupported government, and with an incapable economy. 4) 94 In order to bring Chile into the world market place, Pinochle focused on implementing established a free economy with reduced government regulations and controls.

This was established by allowing 'entrepreneurs' to freely start a business and by reducing trade barriers to almost minimal. The reduction on trade barriers dad it possible for Chile to import goods for a lower cost, and have therefore cheaper prices in the market. This reduced inflation drastically from 500% to about 30% in less than a decade. However, this also brought up many negative results. Local companies and producers could not keep up with the low cost and volume of the imports and went out of business, increasing unemployment.

To increase the level of employment in the county, wages were kept at very minimum and poverty slowly started taking over the middle working class. The Chilean market was also borrowing a lot of money from other governments, instead of private banks. This resulted negatively because the domestic market became too dependent on foreign currency inflation. This was rather strange because the government had almost eliminated all subsidies to the private sector, and the private sectors were looking for complete foreign investment.

It resulted on foreign dependency and a rapid downfall. Grade: 277/3=92% A- CORPORATISM The fascist economic theory of corporatism favored organizing each of the major competing sectors of industry and business, the professions, industrial and other workers, and the agricultural sector (sometimes including the peasantry) into state- enthroned trade unions, associations, or "corporations", each of which would negotiate labor contracts and working conditions and represent the general interests of their professions in a larger corporatist assembly.

Corporatist institutions would replace all independent organizations of workers and employers, and the corporatist assembly would replace, or sometimes exist alongside traditional elected representative and legislative bodies which were kept to maintain the appearance of government. As the state is the arbiter of any dispute among the groups with the structure, it has the final power of decision.

Which is why it was the preferred form of government among all of 20th-century Rupee's greatest dictators: Bonito Mussolini (head of the National Fascist Party of Italy, 1925-1943), Portugal under Antonio Oliver Salary (1932-1968), Germany under Adolph Hitler and National Socialism (1933-1945), and General Francisco Franco in Spain (1936-1975).

Three countries in Latin America adopted this model, in variant forms: Mexico, under President Plutarch Scales (1924-1928 and under the PRI party from 1928 to 2000); Brazil under President Getјolio Versa (1930-1945; 1950-1954); and in Argentina under resident Juan Domingo per¶n, 1946-1955, 1973-1974. Fascism. Fascism is an authoritarian political movement that developed in Italy and several other European countries after 1919 as a reaction against the profound political and social changes brought about by World War I and the spread of Socialism and Communism.

Its name is derived from the faces, an ancient Roman symbol of authority consisting of a bundle of rods and an ax. Italian fascism was founded in Milan on March 23, 1919, by Bonito Mussolini, a former revolutionary socialist leader. His followers, mostly war veterans, were organized along paramilitary lines and wore lack shirts as uniforms. The early Fascist program was a mixture of left- and right- wing ideas that emphasized intense nationalism, productivity, anti-Socialism, elitism, and strong leadership.

Fascist ideology emphasized the subordination of the individual to a "totalitarian" state that was to control all aspects of national life. Violence as a creative force was an important characteristic of the Fascist philosophy. A special feature of Italian Fascism was the attempt to eliminate the class struggle from history through nationalism and the corporate state. Mussolini organized the economy and all "producers" - from peasants and factory workers to intellectuals and industrialists - into 22 corporations as a means of improving productivity and avoiding industrial disputes.

Contrary to the regime's propaganda claims, the system ran poorly. Mussolini was forced into compromise with big business and the Roman Catholic Church. The corporate state was never fully implemented. Fascism, both in Italy under Mussolini and in Germany under Hitler, apart from its nationalistic elements, was tainted by strong racist views that held the white race to be superior.

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