In the twentieth century, Sigmund Freud, had been labeled as the father of psychoanalysis. Working with many great theorists in his lifetime, they helped him expand his thinking too create many theories of his own, one in particular, the psychoanalytic theory. Even though many theorists did not agree with his theory, because of his addiction to cocaine, many believe he was one of the greatest. Sigmund Freud was born in Moravia in May 6, 1856 into Jewish parents. In 1860 his family migrated to Vienna, where he resided for about eighty years.
He then left Vienna moving to London after the Nazis overran Austria. Since when he was young, Freud wanted to be a scientist. In 1873, Freud enters the medical school of University of Vienna, graduating eight years later. (Hall, 1970) In 1886 He married to Martha Bernays and opened his own practice. (Wollheim, 1971) After studying and working with Jean Charcot a French psychiatrist and Joseph Breuer a Viennese physician, Freud realized that Charcot’s hypnosis treatment was not impressive and Breuer’s conservative view on sexual conflict where the cause of hysteria left Freud working alone.Working alone helped Freud form the foundation of psychoanalytic theory. (Hall, 1970) Psychoanalytic theory is the belief that a dynamic struggle takes place within the human psych between unconscious forces.
That’s where the structure of personality takes place. The structure of personality is made up of three main mental entities, Id, Ego, and Superego. Id operates only in the unconscious mind containing basic animal drives as instinctual impulses, hunger, thirst, sex, and aggression.Id follows the pressure principle and demand for instant gratification. Ego represents reason and good sense. Id organizes the ways to handle the delay of gratification by coping with frustration by operating in the reality of principles, seeking to satisfy instinctual demands in way that are practical and socially acceptable. Ego attends to avoid social disapproval.
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Superego is the interval moral guardian or conscience. Develops by internalizing the moral teachings of parents or other significant others.The ego has to make the compromise between the id and superego. (Quigley, 1998) In the end, balance and interactions of these three parts is determined by our behavior and our ability to meet the life challenges we face. To understand it better in a criminology way an example of the theory would be John is at the mall and sees the diamond on a ring shine right on him and his id thinks, “I’d like to go and snatch it right off the show case. The ego then says, “Wait there’s not enough people, you’re in a plain site, let’s wait for the room to get busy. ” The superego then says, “Wait, you can’t do that, you can pay for it.
” In 1880s Sigmund Freud started experimenting with cocaine. He believed that cocaine lifted his spirit when he was at a low period in his life. Freud stated that with brilliant success he was able to observe the effects cocaine took on him when he used small doses, regularly for depression and against indigestion. Cocaine) Because of this experimenting stage many has challenge Freud psychoanalytic theory. In practically, Darwin, who critisized Freud theory because it was generated by confusions arising Freud long standing use of cocaine. (Freud, 2010) Also, Breuer, a mentor and friend, disagree with Freud when it came to talking treatment for hysteria because sexual desires lay at the bottom of all these hysterical neuroses and like stated before Breuer was conservative towards the subject. (Boeree, 1997)In 1939, Sigmund Freud died of cancer to the mouth and jaw, after battling it for almost 20 years.
Some of Freud's ideas are tied to his culture and era; other ideas are not easily testable. Some may even of Freud's own personality and experiences. But Freud was a great observer of the human condition, and enough of what he said has meaning today that he will be a part of personality textbooks for years to come. Even when theorists come up with dramatically different ideas about how we work, they compare their ideas with Freud's.
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