Many philosophers with their struggle in understanding the behavior of human beings developed different means in which ethics can be approached and this leads to various conclusions. According to Palatal (2006), ethics is involve with the systematizing, defending and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior. Thus, it could be said to be the principles, norm, values which indicates what is fair or unfair, true or false. This could be argued that the right is seen to be ethical and the wrong is seen as unethical.
Hence, when it comes to being ethical doing the right thing is the best action that serves the idea of honesty, integrity, morality and good management practices (Palatal, 2006) The nature of ethics can be liken to deal with individual induct which is voluntarily carried out and not because of the circumstances in which one find themselves. Hence, there is total choice of freedom and freewill attached to any of their decision making. In any organization, ethical practices should be applicable to any organizational behaviors because there are rules which governs the activities of the organization which may be Judged.
The moral standard of any organization can be applied to the organizational policies, behavior and institutions. Milton Friedman had believed that the "primary and the only responsibility is making profit" while abiding by the law. Others argued that any company with self-interest pursuing profit will automatically benefit the whole society. Edward freeman in his argument said shareholders should not only benefit from the business but the benefit should be extended to the employees, customers and suppliers, families and also the operations of this businesses.
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Ethical businesses offers the company a competitive advantage and also makes the consumers loyal to ethical brands no matter the situation. Building customers' loyalty is one of the source to a long-term business. Thus, the reputation for an organizations' ethical behavior can help to create an image that is positive in the marketplace and can also serve as an advertisement for the company. On the other hand, bad reputation due to unethical act may hurts the company. The societies in which we live in has a big influence on moral, customs and values by passing on to next generations their culture through the process of acculturation.
Hence, this leading to a distinctive set of morals surrounded by every social group: relativism. Although it is sometimes argued that moral varies. So many times, there are question as to whether the societal morals being absolute can be Judged or not: absolutism. In trying to analyses the context of ethical relativism, ethical absolutism and ethical pluralism. Moral absolutism sees its culture to be right and the best which cannot be challenged. In other words, there is no right nor good culture at which could be preserved.
In this context following this morality could be dangerous and this could lead an organization or someone into radicalism. For example, Muslims in some part of the world who either killed or punished people who are not Muslims. Moral relativism says you believe in your culture and I believe in my culture. Here, there is no right or rang, because different has a different moral, in other words if a culture is seen as valid or invalid, this will totally depend on that time in which the culture had existed.
For example, the biblical Jesus which is seen as the son of God by the Christians and also Mohammed which is also seen by Islam as God's messenger. There is absolutely nothing wrong in this, the main issue here is, respect should be given to all culture without trying to consider if or not harm will be done to someone or not. Another example is the tradition of circumcising women in most part of Africa or the Hinduism tradition which allows women to burn themselves after the death of their husband. In moral pluralism, it is believe that every culture should be given limited room to exist.
For example people from different backgrounds no matter their ethnicity all over the world is permitted to live in Canada and also maintain their culture and languages peacefully, although Canada has its official language as French and English. Pluralism believes that we cannot be 100% right as human beings. The concept of pluralism respects and value other opinion which will lead to he enrichment of the society. However, as earlier stated, there is limits to pluralism. A harmful culture to a person is not allowed in pluralism. An example will be the circumcision of women and women burning themselves is not acceptable in Canada.
A Utilitarian Perspective:
this concept was developed by Jeremy Beneath and John Stuart Mill. Its main goal is to provide the greatest number which is guided by the value, "utility'. ( Mullahs, 2010). Here, making decisions is purely on the basis of outcomes or consequences. Utility perspective take a look at action as right if it rings happiness to the people involve. Although there are some issues involve with this view, utilitarian perspective is also concerned with the costs of a particular action.
It thus, tries to make the evaluation of ethics precise by way of accumulating every ones happiness and thereby taking away their unhappiness. As seen in the case of Swiss Bank, the credit Issue had admitted guilt and plead guilty for their action, thus, this serves as a form of moral reasoning. Utilitarian perspectives believes that the moral right of any action course in any situation should generates infinite above harm to every person affected. The management of Swiss bank did not care if the profit the bank was making was as made under lies and deceit to the general public or not.
Thus, utilitarian perspective does not consider that so long as it is beneficial to all the party involve. Using utilitarianism perspective in the case of credit Issue, Swiss Bank was acting in a way that will maximize the benefit of their customers. A practice is good or bad if it leads to the best possible balance of good consequences over bad ones (Béchamel and Bowie, 1997:22) cited in Camel Mullahs t al (2010). Many philosophers has argued about the utilitarian perspective as it involve the substantial reproduction of a better society is being maximized.
The utilitarianism assumption centers on when difficult choice is being face, the right thing to do is trying to ensure that the possible best outcome is affected by bulk people so long as it is not resulting to being suffered by the minority. In the case study given, the entire organization takes blame for the act by resulting to pay fine given. In business world today, and the frequent operation of utility today, the odder neo-classical economists tend to refer to expected utility as the key mechanism that drives individual choice. Mullahs, 2010). Organizational choices should be that each of its decision should help in the minimization of the organizational utility. Human resource managers view consumers as utility and the become self-centered. The case of credit Issue, their basic aim was to maximize their utility whether as citizens, consumers, shareholders or organization in competition in the marketplace.
The Right Perspective:
this perspective hold that individual has certain basic entitlement. (Mullahs, 2010). This perspective has to do with the language of rights.
They are right to freedom of association, free speech, and employees' rights and so on. The USA independence declaration emphasized that every man is given unalienable rights (Velasquez, 2014). According to Velasquez, (2014), moral right are Justified by moral standards in which most people acknowledge, but which are not necessarily codified in law. Thus this standards are being interpreted differently by different people. To some the idea to rely on right as a guide to ethical action could not be match. Right in other words can be negative, Hereford pacing more emphasize on moral right rather than legal rights.
In Cant's philosophy, morals together with notion rights gives a theoretical foundation in which human resources in other to evaluate and reformulate ethical practices. According to Karma and Seed (2012), what a person deserves or is entitle to can be evaluated using rules or law that is related to the principles of equality, fairness and retribution, and non-discrimination. It has been argued that, many do not have the fundamental freedom to exercise their right which means that there is need for some right to be limited. As in the case of Swiss bank.
The Virtue Perspective:
virtue perspective is also use in resolving issues in workplace.
According to Karma and Seed (2012), virtue ethics is concern with the actor rather than the action. The word virtue could not be mention without linking to the Greek philosopher Aristotle. It is believe that every human being has potential virtue in them. This approach, ethically tried to over rid the criticism of people knowing what to do but choose not to as in the case study. Human resource managers sometimes trying to use this framework may face difficult choice to make. In relation to the case study, the managers has the right to protect customer's asset and wealth, and also being loyal to is one of the bankers/ customers right. The virtue perspective, once its in the organization, it will enable the workers to compete favorably without thinking of unethical practices.
The Care Perspectives:
this approach is distinct from the moral philosophy of Kant together with others. This framework is used as an alternative approach to solve problems and it recognizes, response to the well-being of other's needs. In analyzing the Swiss case, there is equal treatment for all the customers. The customers and the employers were treated in the same way. There was no discrimination among the customer as the case did not mention.
The Swiss bank, plead guilty and was charge with a fine and did not disclose the information of the customers involve. This is like the example of the case of the one eye mother who gave her one eye to the son and the child grew up hating her because she has Just an eye.
A Non-Essentialist Perspective:
there is need for ethical operations in workplaces. Although sometimes organization which operates under ethics can be associated with less profit and still ill like to stay in the competition whereas large organization has large profit which will enhance their reputations.
Still there is needs for ethical behavior and also understanding the culture different is paramount in the society. Swiss bank helping their customer might be ethical in some part of the society an unethical in other part. As managers views for moral being different in the organization the find themselves so is their decision making policies different. Ethical practices should be more focus, once this is achieve, there will be positive returns. What goes around comes around (Brattiest , T. Lass lectures.
Business ethics as earlier discuss are said to be issues which are said to be identifying problems or identifying situation or opportunity and looking for means actions which could be used in solving them. This is also seen as set values norms and responsibility in which members of the same organization recognizes and share same. This also relate to the way business owners conduct their business in order to make profit. A business is said to be ethical when it gives positive contribution to the society without causing any damage to its environment or in any case exploiting it Rockford.
In the corporate business world, culture and tradition and strong value are being taken under condition. Corporate business organizations are part of the society, so there are certain expectations in which people are willing to see. There are corporate ethics trend in the world today, business which are socially liable respond quick to public demand in order to improve efficiency.
As an international human resource manager there is need for the organization to adopt ethical code of conduct which will help the organizational development.
The ethical code of the organization will help the organization to obtain the organizational core values and meet it objectives. This will bring about transparency and a true and fair value. Thus giving the organization respect in the society. Leaders in organization should also understand the different in culture, language, trade union of the environment in which the business operate. There is need to improve motivation in order to achieve goals and objective of the organization.
In international resource management, different culture sees and perceive thing fervently, so there is need for organization to always try to improve their brand and image in other to attract new and retain old customers. International managers has different views when it comes to moral principle, also hiring of good manager is advice. This principle should be inculcate into the workforce and strive ethically for increase and put more focus on the organizational corporate level strategies. The organization should be able to fish out bad eggs in workplaces, it is normally said a journey of hundred miles begins with a step.
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