Last Updated 28 Jan 2021

Federal Policy

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Federal Policy requiring equal opportunities for boys and girls in activities, facilities, equipment, curriculum, testing and grading, requirements, and behavior and dress code How do objectives help in physical education and sport? Short-term statements of specific outcomes that build cumulatively to reach a goal. Describe the behavior that an individual will exhibit when the desired outcomes are achieved.

What is the pathway of energy in the cells? That's animal respiration: Oxygen in burn fuel molecules make ATP carbon dioxide out. Use of ATP as energy to perform muscular activity. Two ways to produce ATP: Anaerobic system Without oxygen High energy expenditure, short time (6-60 seconds) Aerobic system With oxygen Lower rate of energy expenditure, longer period of time (more than 3 minutes) What years marked reform in the schools?

Bill Clinton (2000) Educate America Act *readiness to learn, improve graduation rates, Competency in core subjects, world leadership in math and science, adult literacy, positive safe environment, professional development of teachers, parental involvement George W. Bush (2001) No Child Left Behind *use of standards, assessment, accountability, flexibility, and parental choice to mprove quality of education for all What did the colonial period bring to physical education? Physical education was not part of the school curriculum in colonial times. What are hypokinetic diseases?

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Diseases cause by insufficient physical activity often with in appropriate dietary practices I-coronary heart disease 2- hypertension 3- osteoporosis 4- non- insulin diabetes 5- chronic back pain 6- obesity 7- colon cancer 8- breast cancer 9- early death IO- adverse lipid profile List the benefits of corporate fitness programs. Reduce absenteeism. Reduce presenteeism losses Achieve higher employee productivity. Reduce workers' compensation and disability-related costs. Reduce injuries. Improve employee morale and loyalty. What are the classes of levers? orce (teeter totter) Second Class- weight is between the fulcrum and the force (wheel barrow)

Third Class - the forc is bwtween the fulcrum and the weight (arm, shovel, boat paddle)pg198 Describe the domains/skills of physical education Cognitive- Development of intellectual skills -acquisition and application of knowledge -understanding relationship between body, physical activity and health - application of movement concepts to learning and development of motor skills - nowledge of technique, rules, strategies, and safety involved in physical activity Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Affective- values, social skills, and emotional development Values Ethics Appreciations Attitudes Character development Cooperation Self-responsibility Self-concept and self-esteem Decision-making skills Self-management and control Receiving Responding Valuing Organizing Characterizing by a value or complex Psychomotor- Motor skills, fitness Motor skill development Presented in a sequential manner from fundamental movements to complex, pecialized sports skills Physical fitness development Development of the psychomotor domain is physical education's unique contribution to the education of children and youth!

Reflex movements Basic fundamental movements Perceptual abilities Physical abilities Skilled movements Communication through nonverbal expressions Which physical education leader promoted natural gymnastics? Thomas Dennison What are the recommendations for aerobic activity according to the ACSM? Adults should get at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise per week. Exercise recommendations can be met through 30-60 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise five days per week) or 20-60 minutes of vigorous-intensity exercise (three days per week). One continuous session and multiple shorter sessions (of at least 10 minutes) are both acceptable to accumulate desired amount of daily exercise.

Gradual progression of exercise time, frequency and intensity is recommended for best adherence and least injury risk. People unable to meet these minimums can still benefit from some activity. What are the steps in the information processing model? I-lnput 2-Decision Making 3-0utput 4- Feedback How did the ancient Romans view physical education? Exercise for health and military purposes. Rome did not believe in the "body beautiful" Preferred to be spectators rather than participants Preferred professionalism to amateurism. What is the portion of Americans living below poverty? Who led the playground initiative in NY city? Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg What are the influences on physical activity (age, education, ect... )?

High levels of education are associated with good health. Income is also related to health; people who are affluent tend to have better health status than those who are less affluent. Education is often a predictor of income. Many racial and ethnic minorities are educationally disadvantaged. Those in poverty are more likely to have difficulty reading. Gender gap is slowly closing. Females read and write better than males, although males perform better in math and science. 2000 Concensus There is an inverse and generally linear relationship for rates of all-cause mortality, total CVD, and CHD incidence and mortality and for the incidence of type 2 diabetes.

Accumulation of at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity PA on most days of the week is associated with a significant 20%-30% reduction in all-cause mortality. Additional benefits can be derived from increasing the amount and/or intensity of physial activity. What is the average body fat percentage for men and women? Linear Motion Movement in a straight line and from one point to another. Rotary motion Movement of a body around a center of rotation called an axis. Movement is affected by what factors? Gravity Natural force that pulls all objects toward the center of the earth Center of gravity Friction Force that occurs when surfaces come in contact and results from the sliding of one surface on the other What does a biomechanist study?

Studies movement patterns and how they change across the lifep and varying disabilities. What was President Bush's contribution to education What are the modifiable causes of death? Tobacco use, poor diet, physical inactivity What are the leading causes of death? Heart disease and Cancer Kinesiology is the sub-discipline of... biomechanics What are sport related components? 1. Agility 2. Balance 3. Coordination 4. Power 5. Reaction Time 6. Speed What are fitness related components? 1 . Cardiovascular fitness 2. Muscular strength 3. Muscular endurance 4. Flexibility 5. Body composition edit. Learning is focused on what elements? What are the different kind of stretching techniques?

Ballistic Stretching- The dynamic method uses the momentum generated from epeated bouncing movements to stretch the muscle (not recommended) Static Stretching - involves gently and slowly moving into the stretch position and holding it Activity levels tend to decrease with age What is the age range for the greatest increase in health club memberships? 18-34 increase 33% 33-54 increase 34% What are the latest findings from the latest Surgeon General's Report? The focus seems to be on the prevention of suicide What president established the President's Council of Youth Fitness? Dwight D. Eisenhower Anthropometric Concerned with the measurement of the human body. Length, width, diameter, circumference, and surface area Galloping Similar to sliding but performed in a forward direction. One foot leads in the forward direction. After the lead foot steps the rear foot follows quickly.

The stepping leg is always the lead leg. Skipping Combination of a step and a hop alternating feet after each step-hop. Hopping Involves forcefully pushing off the ground from one foot, a brief suspension in the air, and landing on the same foot. Leaping Similar to the run, long step forward to cover distance or to go over an obstacle. Exaggerated running step. Biomechanics The study of the action of external and internal forces on the living body, especially on the skeletal system. Goals The result or achievement toward which effort is directed; aim; end Mission Statements An official document that sets out the goals, purpose, and work of an organization.

Objectives Something that one's efforts or actions are intended to attain or accomplish; purpose; goal; target Threshold of Training Minimum level of exercise needed to achieve desired benefits. ACSM American College of Sports Medicine 1954 group of 11 physicians founded the Federation of Sports Medicine later became the ACSM Acceleration Increase of speed or velocity Principle of Conservation of Movement An object in motion stays in motion Exercise Science deals with the study of immediate and long term effects of physical activity on the human body. The how and why the human body responds to physical activity is also a focus. Exercise Physiology The scientific study of the acute and chronic metabolic responses of the human body to exercise, including biochemical and physiologic changes in the heart and skeletal muscles.

Quantitative Analysis The testing of a substance or mixture to determine the amounts and proportions of its chemical constituents. Ergogenic Aids are any external influences that can be determined to enhance performance in high- pharmacological aids, physiological aids, nutritional aids (sports supplements), and psychological aids. Aerobic (of an organism or tissue) requiring the presence of air or free oxygen for life. Work Exertion or effort directed to produce or accomplish something; labor; toil Static Equalibrium the ability of an individual to adjust to displacements of his or her center of gravity while maintaining a constant base of support.

Motor Learning Is the study of the acquisition of motor skills as a result of practice and experience. Leve rs A mechanical device used to produce a turning motion about a fixed point or axis. Lever consists of a fulcrum, a force arm, and a weight or resistance arm. Wellness The quality or state of being healthy in body and mind, especially as the result of deliberate effort. Scheme Theory 1975 Schmidt's theory that proposed the idea of generalized motor program. The idea that movement patterns such a kicking or throwing could be generalized to a variety of sports and settings.

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