From the modernization theory up to the present trend about sustainable development and climate change, development planning is a major issue since this dictates the direction in which development will take place. For instance, Earth summit’s Agenda 21 aims to alleviate “worsening poverty, hunger, ill health and illiteracy, and the continuing deterioration of the ecosystems on which we depend for our well-being.
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Since 51% of the population is composed of women, they must be seriously put into delicate consideration. They have long experienced struggles, and the status by which they have achieved a degree of equality and freedom from repression indicates development and will then become the starting point of several other development plans. Poverty, on the other hand, is another issue. Poverty or the statuses by which people cannot satisfy their needs should be considered in development planning because only through poverty alleviation will countries attain development.
These issues are even intensified by the issue of pollution because this dilemma leads to environmental degradation. Since most third world countries are in the tropics, they depend largely on the environment. Failure to come up with plans that will conserve and preserve the environment translates to inefficiency of development plans being imposed. These issues are heightened by the current trend known as climate change. Everything now from the social sphere to the political ecology becomes a vicious cycle that has to be addressed by long-term and holistic plans to combat even the worst case scenarios.
Water purity and availability, occupational health and safety, child welfare, and public health are also important considerations that have to be solved. If one partition of the mentioned considerations is not solved, or is not prioritized, development planning has not become true to its integrity. As many tag the Non-Government Organizations (NGOs), they are the growing force in the development arena since they carry on the interest of marginalized sectors in the society. The projects that have not been carried out by the government are compensated by the activities performed by the NGOs.
The language of everyday politics might suggest that they are part of the dynamism of politics; however, other sectors might label them as the heroes that save lives in the absence of the government arm that supposedly helps the impoverished. More so, the multilaterals are involved in development planning. They swathe every development subject, from granting “financial aid to technical assistance to pushing for democracy. ” The role of government and state institutions in development planning is truly essential because they are constitutionally tasked to provide the needs of the people in their respective territories.
The state, which is the primary instrument for development, should always be in the service of the citizenry. Many may question the credibility of these institutions, but their role is truly crucial in the developmental aspect. Development is then measured through the assessment if the state is able to provide the needs of the people and if the development considerations are prioritized. The question, furthermore, if the business community is a problem or a solution is subjective because it will only be decided depending on the roles they portray.
However, the present trend about Corporate Social Responsibility acts as the charitable arm of the government to reach out to the people who are not as affluent as the business sector. In Asia, CSR is really trending and even the capitalists hang on to this to escape criticism of them being over-profiteering. Development planning is not an easy task. To address this, stakeholder’s analyses are conducted. This will help in identifying sectoral needs and interests that vary within communities.
The conclusions that will be derived in the stakeholder’s analyses will be beneficial in formulating objectives for development planning. The five entry points for social impact analysis, based on the lecture at City University of Hong Kong, are as follows: Social diversity and gender, Institutions, rules and behaviour, Stakeholders, Participation, and Social risk. The mentioned entry points provide for the framework essential in development planning. The social analysis and project design plus the logframe analysis can also be used. Social analyses may be organic but it will help thoroughly in development planning.
Development planning in labor rights, democracy and national development are the future because these are the trends that have to be followed and assessed. If these were achieved, even the third world countries will have their own comparative advantages. REFERENCES Lecture notes in Development Planning and Analysis. (2010). City University of Hong Kong. Lecture notes in Social Equity Issues in Social Forestry. (2010). University of the Philippines Los Banos. Lecture notes in Reimagining Philippine Politics. (2007)
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