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Convention on Road Traffice

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CONVENTION ON ROAD TRAFFIC The Contracting Parties, Desiring to facilitate international road traffic and to increase road safety through the adoption of uniform traffic rules, Have agreed upon the following provisions: Chapter I GENERAL PROVISIONS ARTICLE 1 Definitions For the purpose of this Convention the following expressions shall have the meanings hereby assigned to them: (a) The “domestic legislation” of a Contracting Party means the entire body of national or local laws and regulations in force in the territory of that Contracting Party; b) A vehicle is said to be “in international traffic” in the territory of a State if: (i) (ii) (iii) It is owned by a natural or legal person normally resident outside that State; It is not registered in that State; and It is temporarily imported into that State; provided, however, that a Contracting Party may refuse to regard as being “in international traffic” a vehicle which has remained in its territory for more than one year without a substantial interruption, the duration of which may be fixed by that Contracting Party.

A combination of vehicles is said to be “in international traffic” if at least one of the vehicles in the combination conforms to the above definition; (c) “Built-up area” means an area with entries and exits signposted as such, or otherwise defined in domestic legislation; -3- specially (d) traffic; “Road” means the entire surface of any way or street open to public (e) “Carriageway” means the part of a road normally used by vehicular traffic; a road may comprise several carriageways clearly separated from one another by, for example, a dividing strip or a difference of level; (f)

On carriageways where one or more side lanes or tracks are reserved for use by certain vehicles, “edge of the carriageway” means, for other roadusers, the edge of the remainder of the carriageway; (g) “Lane” means any one of the longitudinal strips into which the carriageway is divisible, whether or not defined by longitudinal road markings, which is wide enough for one moving line of motor vehicles other than motor cycles; (h) “Intersection” means any level crossroad, junction or fork, including the open areas formed by such crossroads, junctions or forks; (i) Level-crossing” means any level intersection between a road and a railway or tramway track with its own track formation; (j) “Motorway” means a road specially designed and built for traffic, which does not serve properties bordering on it, and which: motor (i) Is provided, except at special points or temporarily, with separate carriageways for the two directions of traffic, separated from each other either by a dividing strip not intended for traffic or, exceptionally, by other means; (ii) Does not cross at level with any road, railway or tramway track, or footpath; and iii) (k) Is specially signposted as a motorway; A vehicle is said to be: (i) “Standing” if it is stationary for the time needed to pick up or set down persons or to load or unload goods; and (ii) “Parked” if it is stationary for any reason other than the need to avoid interference with another road-user or collision with an obstruction or to comply with traffic regulations, and if the period during which the vehicle is stationary is not limited to the time needed to pick up or set down persons or goods;

Nevertheless, it shall be open to Contracting Parties to regard as “standing” any vehicle which is stationary within the meaning of subparagraph (ii) above for a period not exceeding that fixed by domestic legislation, and to regard as “parked” any vehicle which is stationary within the meaning of subparagraph (i) above for a period exceeding that fixed by domestic legislation; -4- (l) “Cycle” means any vehicle which has at least two wheels and is propelled solely by the muscular energy of the persons on that vehicle, in particular by means of pedals or hand-cranks; (m) Moped” means any two-wheeled or three-wheeled vehicle which is fitted with an internal combustion engine having a cylinder capacity not exceeding 50 cc and a maximum design speed not exceeding 50 km (30 miles) per hour. Contracting Parties are free, however, not to regard as mopeds, under their domestic legislation, vehicles which do not have the characteristics of a cycle with respect to their use, in particular the characteristic that they can be propelled by pedals, or whose maximum design speed, whose mass, or certain of whose engine characteristics exceed certain limits.

Nothing in this definition shall be construed as preventing Contracting Parties from treating mopeds exactly as cycles in applying the provisions of their domestic legislation regarding road traffic; (n) “Motor cycle” means any two-wheeled vehicle, with or without a sidecar, which is equipped with a propelling engine. Contracting Parties may also treat as motor cycles in their domestic legislation three-wheeled vehicles whose unladen mass does not exceed 400 kg. The term “motor cycle” does not include mopeds, although Contracting Parties may, rovided they make a declaration to this effect in conformity with Article 54, paragraph 2, of this Convention, treat mopeds as motor cycles for the purposes of the Convention; (o) “Power-driven vehicle” means any self-propelled road vehicle, other than a moped in the territories of Contracting Parties which do not treat mopeds as motor cycles, and other than a rail-borne vehicle; (p) “Motor vehicle” means any power-driven vehicle which is normally used for carrying persons or goods by road or for drawing, on the road, vehicles used for the carriage of persons or goods.

This term embraces trolley-buses, that is to say, vehicles connected to an electric conductor and not rail-borne.

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It does not cover vehicles, such as agricultural tractors, which are only incidentally used for carrying persons or goods by road or for drawing, on the road, vehicles used for the carriage of persons or goods; (q) “Trailer” means any vehicle designed to be drawn by a power-driven vehicle and includes semi-trailers; (r) Semi-trailer” means any trailer designed to be coupled to a motor vehicle in such a way that part of it rests on the motor vehicle and that a substantial part of its mass and of the mass of its load is borne by the motor vehicle; (s) “Light trailer” means any trailer of a permissible maximum mass not exceeding 750 kg; (t) “Combination of vehicles” means coupled vehicles which travel on the road as a unit; (u) “Articulated vehicle” means a combination of vehicles comprising a motor vehicle and semi-trailer coupled to the motor vehicle; -5- (v) Driver” means any person who drives a motor vehicle or other vehicle (including a cycle), or who guides cattle, singly or in herds, or flocks, or draught, pack or saddle animals on a road; (w) “Permissible maximum mass” means the maximum mass of the laden vehicle declared permissible by the competent authority of the State in which the vehicle is registered; (x) “Unladen mass” means the mass of the vehicle without crew, passengers or load, but with a full supply of fuel and with the tools which the vehicle normally carries; (y) “Laden mass” means the actual mass of the vehicle as loaded, with the crew and passengers on board; z) “Direction of traffic” and “appropriate to the direction of traffic” mean the right-hand side if, under domestic legislation, the driver of a vehicle must allow an oncoming vehicle to pass on his left; otherwise these expressions mean the left-hand side; (aa) The requirement that a driver shall “give way” to other vehicles means that he must not continue or resume his advance or manoeuvre if by so doing he might compel the drivers of other vehicles to change the direction or speed of their vehicle abruptly. ARTICLE 2 Annexes to the Convention The Annexes to this Convention, namely,

Annex 1: Exceptions to the obligation to trailers in international traffic; Annex 2: Registration number of international traffic; motor Annex 3: Distinguishing sign of international traffic; motor Annex 4: Identification marks of international traffic; Annex 5: Technical conditions concerning motor vehicles and trailers; Annex 6: Domestic driving permit; and Annex 7: International driving permit; are integral parts of this Convention. -6- motor admit motor vehicles and vehicles and trailers in vehicles and trailers in vehicles and trailers in ARTICLE 3

Obligations of the Contracting Parties 1. (a) Contracting Parties shall take appropriate measures to ensure that the rules of the road in force in their territories conform in substance to the provisions of Chapter II of this Convention. Provided that the said rules are in no way incompatible with the said provisions: (i) The said rules need not reproduce any of the said provisions which are applicable to situations that do not arise in the territories of the Contracting Parties in question; (ii) The said rules may include provisions not contained in the said Chapter II. (b)

The provisions of this paragraph do not require Contracting Parties to provide penalties for any violation of those provisions of Chapter II which are reproduced in their rules of the road. 2. (a) Contracting Parties shall also take appropriate measures to ensure that the rules in force in their territories concerning the technical requirements to be satisfied by motor vehicles and trailers conform to the provisions of Annex 5 to this Convention; provided that they are in no way contrary to the safety principles governing the provisions of Annex 5, the said rules may contain provisions not contained in Annex 5.

Contracting Parties shall also take appropriate measures to ensure that motor vehicles and trailers registered in their territories conform to the provisions of Annex 5 to this Convention when entering international traffic. (b) The provisions of this paragraph do not impose any obligations on the Contracting Parties with respect to the rules in force in their territories concerning the technical requirements to be satisfied by power-driven vehicles which are not motor vehicles within the meaning of this Convention. 3.

Subject to the exceptions provided for in Annex 1 to this Convention, Contracting Parties shall be bound to admit to their territories in international traffic motor vehicles and trailers which fulfil the conditions laid down in Chapter III of this Convention and whose drivers fulfil the conditions laid down in Chapter IV; they shall also be bound to recognize registration certificates issued in accordance with the provisions of Chapter III as prima facie evidence that the vehicles to which they refer fulfil the conditions laid down in the said Chapter III. 4.

Measures which the Contracting Parties have taken or may take, either unilaterally or under bilateral or multilateral agreements, to admit to their territories in international traffic motor vehicles and trailers that do not satisfy all the conditions stated in Chapter III of this Convention and to recognize, in cases other than those specified in Chapter IV, the validity in their territories of driving permits issued in the territory of another Contracting Party shall be deemed to be in conformity with the object of this Convention. -7- 5. Contracting Parties shall be bound to admit to their territories in nternational traffic cycles and mopeds which fulfil the technical conditions laid down in Chapter V of this Convention and whose drivers have their normal residence in the territory of another Contracting Party. No Contracting Party shall require the drivers of cycles or mopeds in international traffic to hold a driving permit; however, Contracting Parties which have declared in conformity with Article 54, paragraph 2, of this Convention that they treat mopeds as motor cycles may require the drivers of mopeds in international traffic to hold a driving permit. bis. Contracting Parties will take the necessary measures to ensure that road safety education be provided on a systematic and continuous basis, particularly in schools at all levels. 5 ter. Whenever driving instruction for learner drivers is provided by professional driving establishments, domestic legislation shall lay down minimum requirements concerning the curriculum and the qualifications of the personnel responsible for providing such instruction. 6.

Contracting Parties undertake to communicate to any Contracting Party, which may so request, the information necessary to ascertain the identity of the person in whose name a power-driven vehicle, or a trailer coupled to such a vehicle, is registered in their territories if the request submitted shows that the vehicle has been involved in an accident or the driver of this vehicle has seriously infringed road traffic rules and is thereby liable to important penalties or disqualification from driving in the territory of the Contracting Party submitting the request. . Measures which the Contracting Parties have taken or may take either unilaterally or under bilateral or multilateral agreements to facilitate international road traffic by simplifying Customs, police, health and other similar formalities or to ensure that Customs offices and posts at a given frontier point have the same competence and are kept open during the same hours shall be deemed to be in conformity with the object of this Convention. 8.

Nothing in paragraphs 3, 5 and 7 of this Article shall affect the right of a Contracting Party to make the admission to its territory in international traffic of motor vehicles, trailers, mopeds and cycles, and of their drivers and occupants, subject to its regulations concerning the commercial carriage of passengers and goods, to its regulations concerning insurance of drivers against third-party risks, to its Customs regulations and, in general, to its regulations on matters other than road traffic. ARTICLE 4 Signs and signals

Contracting Parties to this Convention which are not Contracting Parties to the Convention on Road Signs and Signals opened for signature at Vienna on the same day as this Convention undertake that: -8- (a) All road signs, traffic light signals and road markings installed in their territory shall form a coherent system and shall be designed and placed in such a way as to be easily recognizable; (b) The number of types of sign shall be limited and signs shall be placed only at points where they are deemed useful; (c)

Danger warning signs shall be installed at a sufficient distance from obstructions to give drivers adequate warning; (d) It shall be prohibited: (i) To affix to a sign, to its support or to any other traffic control device anything not related to the purpose of such sign or device; if, however, Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof authorize a non-profit making association to install informative signs, they may permit the emblem of that association to appear on the sign or on its support provided this does not make it less easy to understand the sign; ii) To install any board, notice, marking or device which might be confused with signs or other traffic control devices, might render them less visible or effective, or might dazzle road-users or distract their attention in a way prejudicial to traffic safety; (iii) To install on pavements and verges devices or equipment which might unnecessarily obstruct the movement of pedestrians, particularly elderly or disabled persons. Chapter II RULES OF THE ROAD ARTICLE 5 Status of signs and signals 1.

Road-users shall comply with the instructions conveyed by road signs, traffic light signals and road markings even if the said instructions appear to contradict other traffic regulations. 2. Instructions conveyed by traffic light signals shall take precedence over those conveyed by road signs regulating priority. ARTICLE 6 Instructions given by authorized officials 1. When they are directing traffic, authorized officials shall be easily identifiable at a distance, at night as well as by day. -9- 2.

Road-users shall promptly officials directing traffic. obey all instructions given by authorized 3. It is recommended that domestic legislation should provide that directions given by authorized officials directing traffic shall include the following: (a) Arm raised upright: this gesture shall mean “attention, stop” for all road-users except drivers who are no longer able to stop with sufficient safety; further, if made at an intersection, this gesture shall not require drivers already on the intersection to stop; (b)

Arm or arms outstretched horizontally; this gesture shall constitute a stop signal for all road-users approaching from any direction which would cut across that indicated by the outstretched arm or arms; after making this gesture, the authorized official directing traffic may lower his arm or arms; this gesture shall likewise constitute a stop signal for drivers in front of or behind the official; (c) Swinging red light: this gesture shall constitute a stop signal for road-users towards whom the light is directed. 4.

The instructions given by authorized officials directing traffic shall take precedence over those conveyed by road signs, traffic light signals and road markings, and over traffic regulations. ARTICLE 7 General rules 1. Road-users shall avoid any behaviour likely to endanger or obstruct traffic, to endanger persons, or to cause damage to public or private property. 2. It is recommended that domestic legislation should provide that road-users shall not obstruct traffic or risk making it dangerous by throwing, depositing or leaving any object or substance on the road or by creating any other obstruction on the road.

If road-users have been unable to avoid creating an obstruction or danger in that way, they shall take the necessary steps to remove it as soon as possible and, if they cannot remove it immediately, to warn other road-users of its presence. 3. Drivers shall show extra care in relation to the most vulnerable road-users, such as pedestrians and cyclists and in particular children, elderly persons and the disabled. 4. Drivers shall take care that their vehicles do not inconvenience road-users or the occupants of properties bordering on the road, for example, by causing noise or raising dust or smoke where they can avoid doing so. . The wearing of safety belts is compulsory for drivers and passengers of motor vehicles, occupying seats equipped with such belts, save where exceptions are granted by domestic legislation. – 10 – ARTICLE 8 Drivers 1. Every moving vehicle or combination of vehicles shall have a driver. 2. It is recommended that domestic legislation should provide that pack, draught or saddle animals, and, except in such special areas as may be marked at the entry, cattle, singly or in herds, or flocks, shall have a driver. . Every driver shall possess the necessary physical and mental ability and be in a fit physical and mental condition to drive. 4. Every driver of a power-driven vehicle shall possess the knowledge and skill necessary for driving the vehicle; however, this requirement shall not be a bar to driving practice by learner-drivers in conformity with domestic legislation. 5. Every driver shall at all times be able to control his vehicle or to guide his animals. ARTICLE 9 Flocks and herds

It is recommended that domestic legislation should provide that, save where exceptions are granted to facilitate their mass movement, flocks and herds should be divided into sections of moderate length spaced sufficiently far apart for the convenience of traffic. ARTICLE 10 Position on the carriageway 1. The direction of traffic shall be the same on all roads in a State except, where appropriate, on the roads used solely or principally by through traffic between two other States. 2. Animals moving along the carriageway shall be kept as close as possible to the edge of the carriageway appropriate to the direction of traffic. 3.

Without prejudice to the provisions to the contrary of Article 7, paragraph 1, Article 11, paragraph 6, and to other provisions of this Convention to the contrary, every driver of a vehicle shall, to the extent permitted by circumstances, keep his vehicle near the edge of the carriageway appropriate to the direction of traffic. However, Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof may lay down more precise rules concerning the position of goods vehicles on the carriageway. 4. Where a road comprises two or three carriageways, no driver shall take the carriageway situated on the side opposite to that appropriate to the direction of traffic. 11 – 5. (a) On two-way carriageways having four or more lanes, no driver shall take the lanes situated entirely on the half of the carriageway opposite to the side appropriate to the direction of traffic. (b) On two-way carriageways having three lanes, no driver shall take the lane situated at the edge of the carriageway opposite to that appropriate to the direction of traffic. 6. Without prejudice to the provisions of Article 11 and when an additional lane is indicated by a sign, drivers of vehicles moving slowly shall use that lane. ARTICLE 11

Overtaking and movement of traffic in lines 1. (a) Drivers overtaking shall do appropriate to the direction of traffic. so on the side opposite to that (b) However drivers shall overtake on the side appropriate to the direction of traffic if the driver to be overtaken has signalled his intention to turn to the side of the carriageway opposite to that appropriate to the direction of traffic and has moved his vehicle or animals over towards that side in order to turn to that side for the purpose of taking another road, to enter a property bordering on the road, or to stop on that side. 2.

Before overtaking, every driver shall, without prejudice to the provisions of Article 7, paragraph 1, or to those of Article 14, of this Convention, make sure: (a) That no driver who is following him has begun to overtake him; (b) That the driver ahead of him in the same lane has not given warning of his intention to overtake another; (c) That he can do it without endangering or interfering with the oncoming traffic making sure in particular that the lane which he will enter is free over a sufficient distance and that the relative speed of the two vehicles allows overtaking within a sufficiently short time; and d) That, except when using a lane closed to oncoming traffic, he will be able, without inconvenience to the road-user or road-users overtaken, to resume the position prescribed in Article 10, paragraph 3, of this Convention. 3. In pursuance of the provisions of paragraph 2 of this Article, overtaking on two-way carriageways is in particular prohibited when approaching the crest of a hill and, if visibility is inadequate, on bends, unless there are at these points lanes defined by longitudinal road markings and overtaking is carried out without leaving the lanes marked as closed to oncoming traffic. 4.

When overtaking, a driver shall give the road-user or road-users overtaken a sufficiently wide berth. – 12 – 5. (a) On carriageways with at least two lanes reserved for traffic moving in the direction in which he is proceeding, a driver who should be obliged, immediately or shortly after moving back to the position prescribed by Article 10, paragraph 3, of this Convention, to overtake again may, in order to perform that manoeuvre, and provided he makes sure he can do so without undue inconvenience to the drivers of faster vehicles approaching from behind, remain in the lane he has occupied for the first overtaking manoeuvre. b) However, Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof shall be free not to apply the provisions of this paragraph to the drivers of cycles, mopeds, motor cycles and vehicles which are not motor vehicles within the meaning of this Convention, or to the drivers of motor vehicles whose permissible maximum mass exceeds 3,500 kg or whose maximum speed, by design, cannot exceed 40 km (25 miles) per hour. 6.

Where the provisions of subparagraph 5 (a) of this Article are applicable and the density of traffic is such that vehicles not only occupy the entire width of the carriageway reserved for traffic taking the direction in which they are moving but also are moving only at a speed which is governed by that of the vehicle preceding them in the line: (a) Without prejudice to the provisions of paragraph 9 of this Article, the movement of the vehicles in one line at a higher speed than that of those in another shall not be deemed to constitute overtaking within the meaning of this Article; b) A driver not in the lane nearest to the edge of the carriageway appropriate to the direction of traffic may change lanes only in order to prepare to turn right or left or to park; however, this requirement shall not apply to changes of lane effected by drivers in accordance with domestic legislation resulting from the application of the provisions of paragraph 5 (b) of this Article. 7. When moving in lines as described in paragraphs 5 and 6 of this Article, drivers are forbidden, if the lanes are indicated on the carriageway by longitudinal markings, to straddle these markings. 8.

Without prejudice to the provisions of paragraph 2 of this Article and to other restrictions which Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof may lay down concerning overtaking at intersections and at level-crossings, no driver of a vehicle shall overtake a vehicle other than a two-wheeled cycle, a two-wheeled moped or a two-wheeled motor cycle without side-car: (a) except: Immediately before or on an intersection other than a roundabout, (i) In the case provided for in paragraph 1 (b) of this Article; (ii) Where the road on which overtaking takes place has priority at the intersection; iii) Where traffic is directed at the intersection by an authorized official or by traffic light signals; – 13 – (b) Immediately before or on a level-crossing not equipped with gates or half-gates, provided however that Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof shall be free to permit such overtaking at a level-crossing where road traffic is regulated by traffic light signals incorporating a positive signal authorizing vehicles to proceed. 9. A vehicle shall not overtake another vehicle which is approaching a edestrian crossing marked on the carriageway or signposted as such, or which is stopped immediately before the crossing, otherwise than at a speed low enough to enable it to stop immediately if a pedestrian is on the crossing. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed as preventing Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof from prohibiting overtaking within a prescribed distance from a pedestrian crossing, or from imposing stricter requirements on a driver of a vehicle proposing to overtake another vehicle stopped immediately before such a crossing. 10.

A driver who perceives that a driver following him wishes to overtake him shall, except in the case provided for in Article 16, paragraph 1 (b) of this Convention, keep close to the edge of the carriageway appropriate to the direction of traffic and refrain from accelerating. If, owing to the narrowness, profile or condition of the carriageway, taken in conjunction with the density of oncoming traffic, a vehicle which is slow or bulky or is required to observe a speed limit cannot be easily and safely overtaken, the driver of such vehicle shall slow down and if necessary pull in to t e side as soon as possible in order to allow vehicles following him to overtake. 11. (a) Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof may, on one-way carriageways and on two-way carriageways where at least two lanes in built-up areas and three lanes outside built-up areas are reserved for traffic in the same direction and are indicated by longitudinal markings: (i) Allow vehicles in one lane to overtake on the side appropriate to the direction of traffic vehicles in another lane; and ii) Make inapplicable the provisions of Article 10, paragraph 3, of this Convention; provided that there are adequate restrictions on the possibility of changing lanes; (b) In the case referred to in subparagraph (a) of this paragraph, without prejudice to the provisions of paragraph 9 of this Article, the manner of driving provided for shall not be deemed to constitute overtaking within the meaning of this Convention.

ARTICLE 12 Passing of oncoming traffic 1. When passing oncoming traffic, a driver shall leave sufficient lateral space and, if necessary, move close to the edge of the carriageway appropriate to the direction of traffic. If in so doing he finds his progress impeded by an – 14 – obstruction or by the presence of other road-users, he shall slow down and if necessary stop to allow the oncoming road-user or road-users to pass. 2.

On mountain roads and steep roads with characteristics similar to those of mountain roads, where the passing of oncoming traffic is impossible or difficult, it is the driver of the vehicle travelling downhill who should pull in to the side of the road in order to allow any vehicle proceeding uphill to pass, except where the arrangement of lay-bys to enable vehicles to pull in to the side of the road is such that, having regard to the speed and position of the vehicles, the vehicle proceeding uphill has a lay-by ahead of it and the need for one of the vehicles to reverse could be avoided if the vehicle proceeding uphill pulled in to that layby.

Where one of the two vehicles which are about to pass is obliged to reverse in order to make passing possible, this manoeuvre shall be performed by the driver of the vehicle proceeding downhill unless it can manifestly be more easily performed by the driver of the vehicle proceeding uphill. However, Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof may prescribe for certain vehicles or certain roads or sections of roads special rules differing from those laid down in this paragraph. ARTICLE 13 Speed and distance between vehicles 1. Every driver of a vehicle shall in all circumstances have his vehicle under control so as to be able to exercise due and proper care and to be at all times in a position to perform all manoeuvres required of him.

He shall, when adjusting the speed of his vehicle, pay constant regard to the circumstances, in particular the lie of the land, the state of the road, the condition and load of his vehicle, the weather conditions and the density of traffic, so as to be able to stop his vehicle within his range of forward vision and short of any foreseeable obstruction. He shall slow down and if necessary stop whenever circumstances so require, and particularly when visibility is not good. 2. Domestic legislation shall establish maximum speed limits for all roads. Domestic legislation shall also determine special speed limits applicable to certain categories of vehicles presenting a special danger, in particular by reason of their mass or their load. They may establish similar provisions for certain categories of drivers, in particular for new drivers. 3.

The provisions set out in the first sentence of paragraph 2 may not apply to drivers of priority vehicles referred to in article 34, paragraph 2, or vehicles treated as such in domestic legislation. 4. No driver shall impede the normal progress of other vehicles by travelling abnormally slowly without proper cause. 5. The driver of a vehicle moving behind another vehicle shall keep at a sufficient distance from that other vehicle to avoid collision if the vehicle in front should suddenly slow down or stop. 6. Outside built-up areas, in order to facilitate overtaking, drivers of vehicles or combinations of vehicles of more than 3,500 kg permissible maximum mass, or of more than 10 m overall length, shall, except when they are overtaking – 15 – r preparing to overtake, keep at such distance from power-driven vehicles ahead of them that other vehicles overtaking them can without danger move into the space in front of the overtaken vehicle. However, this provision shall not apply in very dense traffic or in circumstances where overtaking is prohibited. In addition: (a) The competent authorities may exempt certain conveys of vehicles from this provision, or may similarly make it inapplicable on roads where two lanes are allotted to traffic in the direction concerned; (b) Contracting Parties and subdivisions thereof may prescribe different figures from those given in this paragraph with respect to the vehicle characteristics concerned. ARTICLE 14 General requirements governing manoeuvres 1.

Any driver wishing to perform a manoeuvre such as pulling out of or into a line of parked vehicles, moving over to the right or to the left on the carriageway, or turning left or right into another road or into a property bordering on the road, shall first make sure that he can do so without risk of endangering other road-users travelling behind or ahead of him or about to pass him, having regard to their position, direction and speed. 2. Any driver wishing to make a U-turn or to reverse shall first make sure that he can do so without endangering or impeding other road-users. 3. Before turning or before a manoeuvre which involves moving laterally, the driver shall give clear and sufficient warning of his intention by means of the direction-indicator or direction-indicators on his vehicle, or, failing this, by giving if possible an appropriate signal with his arm. The warning given by the direction-indicator or direction-indicators shall continue to be given throughout the manoeuvre and shall cease as soon as the manoeuvre is completed. ARTICLE 15

Special regulations relating to regular public-transport service vehicles It is recommended that domestic legislation should provide that in built-up areas, in order to facilitate the movement of regular public-transport service vehicles, the drivers of other vehicles shall, subject to the provisions of Article 17, paragraph 1, of this Convention, slow down and if necessary stop in order to allow the public-transport vehicles to perform the manoeuvre required for moving off from stops marked as such. The provisions thus laid down by Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof shall in no way affect the duty incumbent on drivers of public-transport vehicles to take, after having given warning by means of their direction-indicators of their intention to move off, the precautions necessary to avoid any risk of accident. – 16 – ARTICLE 16 Change of direction 1. Before turning right or left for the purpose of entering another road or entering a property bordering on the road, a driver shall, without prejudice to the provisions of Article 7, paragraph 1, and of Article 14, of this Convention: (a)

If he wishes to turn off on the side appropriate to the direction of traffic, keep as close as possible to the edge of the carriageway appropriate to that direction and make as tight a turn as possible; (b) If he wishes to turn off on the other side, and subject to such other provisions as Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof may enact for cycles and mopeds, move as close as possible to the centreline of the carriageway if it is a two-way carriageway or to the edge opposite to the side appropriate to the direction of traffic if it is a one-way carriageway and, if he wishes to enter another two-way road, make his turn so as to enter the carriageway of such other road on the side appropriate to the direction of traffic. 2.

While changing direction, the driver shall, without prejudice to the provisions of Article 21 of this Convention regarding pedestrians, allow oncoming vehicles on the carriageway he is preparing to leave, and cycles and mopeds moving on cycle tracks crossing the carriageway he is about to enter, to pass. ARTICLE 17 Slowing down 1. No driver of a vehicle shall brake abruptly unless it is necessary to do so for safety reasons. 2. Every driver intending to slow down to an appreciable extent shall, except where his slowing down is in response to an imminent danger, first make sure that he can do so without danger or undue inconvenience to other drivers.

He shall also, unless he has made sure that there is no vehicle following him or that any following vehicle is a long way behind, give clear and timely warning of his intention by making an appropriate signal with his arm. However, this provision shall not apply if warning of slowing down in given by the vehicle’s stop lights, referred to in Annex 5, paragraph 31, of this Convention. ARTICLE 18 Intersections and obligation to give way 1. Every driver approaching an intersection shall exercise such extra care as may be appropriate to local conditions. Drivers of vehicles shall, in particular, drive at such a speed as to be able to stop to allow vehicles having the right of way to pass. – 17 – 2. Every driver emerging from a path or an earth-track (dirt road) on to a road other than a path or an earth-track shall give way to vehicles travelling on that road.

For the purposes of this Article the terms “path” and “earth-track” (dirt road) may be defined in domestic legislation. 3. Every driver emerging on to a road from a property bordering thereon shall give way to vehicles travelling on that road. 4. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 7 of this Article: (a) In States where traffic keeps to the right the driver of a vehicle shall give way, at intersections other than those specified in paragraph 2 of this Article and in Article 25, paragraphs 2 and 4 of this Convention, to vehicles approaching from his right; (b) Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof in whose territories traffic keeps to the left shall be free to regulate the right of way at intersections as they see fit. 5.

Even if traffic light signals authorize him to do so, a driver shall not enter an intersection if the density of traffic is such that he will probably be obliged to stop on the intersection, thereby obstructing or preventing the passage of cross traffic. 6. A driver who has entered an intersection where traffic is regulated by traffic light signals may clear the intersection without waiting for the way to be opened in the direction in which he wishes to proceed, provided that this does not impede the progress of other road-users moving in the open direction. 7. Drivers of vehicles not moving on rails shall give way to rail-borne vehicles. ARTICLE 19 Level-crossings Road-users shall exercise extra care in approaching and traversing levelcrossings. In particular: (a)

Every driver of a vehicle shall drive at a moderate speed; (b) Without prejudice to the obligation to obey an instruction to stop given by a light signal or a sound signal, no road-user shall enter a levelcrossing at which the gates or half-gates are across the road or in process of being placed across the road, or at which the half-gates are in process of being raised; (c) If a level-crossing is not equipped with gates, half-gates or light signals, no road-user shall enter it without making sure that no rail-borne vehicle is approaching; (d) No driver shall enter a level-crossing without first ascertaining that he may not be obliged to stop on it; – 18 – (e) vehicle is and, if he drivers of

No road-user shall linger while traversing a level crossing; if a compelled to stop, its driver shall endeavour to move it off the track, is unable to do so, immediately do everything he can to ensure that the rail-borne vehicles are warned of the danger in time. ARTICLE 20 Rules applicable to pedestrians 1. Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof shall be free not to enforce the provisions of this Article except in cases where pedestrian traffic o the n carriageway would be dangerous or would obstruct vehicular traffic. 2. If, at the side of the carriageway, there are pavements (sidewalks) or suitable verges for pedestrians, pedestrians shall use them. Nevertheless, if they take the necessary precautions: (a)

Pedestrians pushing or carrying bulky objects may use the carriageway if they would seriously inconvenience other pedestrians by walking on the pavement (sidewalk) or verge; (b) Groups of pedestrians led by procession may walk on the carriageway. a person in charge or forming a 3. If it is not possible to use pavements (sidewalks) or verges, or if none is provided, pedestrians may walk on the carriageway; where there is a cycle track and the density of traffic so permits, they may walk on the cycle track, but shall not obstruct cycle and moped traffic in doing so. 4. Pedestrians walking on the carriageway in accordance with paragraphs 2 and 3 of this Article shall keep as close as possible to the edge of the carriageway. 5.

It is recommended that domestic legislation should provide as follows: pedestrians walking on the carriageway shall keep to the side opposite to that appropriate to the direction of traffic except where to do so places them in danger. However, persons pushing a cycle, a moped or a motor cycle, and groups of pedestrians led by a person in charge or forming a procession shall in all cases keep to the side of the carriageway appropriate to the direction of traffic. Unless they form a procession, pedestrians walking on the carriageway shall, by night or when visibility is poor and, by day, if the density of vehicular traffic so requires, walk in single file wherever possible. 6. (a) Pedestrians wishing to cross a carriageway shall not step on to it without exercising care; they shall use a pedestrian crossing whenever there is one nearby. (b)

In order to cross the carriageway at a pedestrian crossing signposted as such or indicated by markings on the carriageway: (i) If the crossing is equipped with light signals for pedestrians, the latter shall obey the instructions given by such lights; – 19 – (ii) If the crossing is not equipped with such lights, but vehicular traffic is regulated by traffic light signals or by an authorized official, pedestrians shall not step onto the carriageway while the traffic light signal or the signal given by the authorized official indicates that vehicles may proceed along it; (iii) At other pedestrian crossings, pedestrians shall not step on to the carriageway without taking the distance and speed of approaching vehicles into account. (c)

In order to cross the carriageway elsewhere than at a pedestrian crossing signposted as such or indicated by markings on the carriageway, pedestrians shall not step on to the carriageway without first making sure that they can do so without impeding vehicular traffic. (d) Once they have started to cross a carriageway, pedestrians shall not take an unnecessarily long route, and shall not linger or stop on the carriageway unnecessarily. 7. However, Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof may impose stricter requirements on pedestrians crossing the carriageway. ARTICLE 21 Behaviour of drivers towards pedestrians 1. Every driver shall avoid behaviour likely to endanger pedestrians. 2.

Without prejudice to the provisions of Article 7, paragraph 1, Article 11, paragraph 9, and Article 13, paragraph 1, of this Convention, where there is on the carriageway a pedestrian crossing signposted as such or indicated by markings on the carriageway: (a) If vehicular traffic is regulated at that crossing by traffic light signals or by an authorized official, drivers forbidden to proceed shall stop short of the crossing or the transverse markings preceding it and, when they are permitted to proceed, shall not prevent or obstruct the passage of pedestrians who have stepped on to it; drivers turning into another road at the entrance to which there is a pedestrian crossing shall do so slowly and give way, if necessary stopping for this purpose, to pedestrians already using, or about to use, the crossing; (b)

If vehicular traffic is not regulated at that crossing by traffic light signals or by an authorized official, drivers shall approach the crossing only at a speed low enough not to endanger pedestrians using, or about to use, it; if necessary, they shall stop to allow such pedestrians to cross. 3. No provision of this Article shall be construed as preventing Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof from: – 20 – Requiring drivers of vehicles to stop in all cases when pedestrians are using, or about to use, a pedestrian crossing signposted as such or indicated by markings on the carriageway in the conditions laid down in Article 20 of this Convention, or

Prohibiting them from preventing or obstructing the passage of pedestrians who are crossing the carriageway at or very near an intersection even if there is at that point no pedestrian crossing signposted as such or indicated by markings on the carriageway. 4. Drivers intending to overtake, on the side appropriate to the direction of traffic, a public transport vehicle at a stop marked as such shall slow down and if necessary stop to allow passengers to board or alight from that vehicle. ARTICLE 22 Islands on the carriageway Without prejudice to the provisions of Article 10 of this Convention, a driver may pass to the left or to the right of islands, posts and other devices set up on the carriageway on which he is travelling, except in the following cases: (a)

Where the side on which the island, post or device shall be passed is indicated by a sign; (b) Where the island, post or device is on the centre-line of a two-way carriageway; in this case the driver shall keep to the side of the island, post or device corresponding to the direction of traffic. ARTICLE 23 Standing and parking 1. Outside built-up areas, standing or parked vehicles and halted animals shall so far as possible be stationed elsewhere than on the carriageway. In and outside built-up areas they shall not be stationed on cycle tracks, on pavements or on verges specially provided for pedestrian traffic, save where applicable domestic legislation so permits. 2. (a)

Animals halted and vehicles standing or parked on the carriageway shall be kept as close as possible to the edge of the carriageway. A driver shall not stand or park his vehicle on a carriageway save on the side appropriate, for him, to the direction of traffic; nevertheless, standing or parking on the other side shall be permitted where standing or parking on the side appropriate to the direction of traffic is prevented by the presence of rail tracks. Moreover, Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof may: (i) Refrain from prohibiting standing and parking on one side or the other in certain conditions, for instance where standing on the side appropriate to the direction of traffic is prohibited by road signs; – 21 – (ii)

On one-way carriageways, authorize standing and parking on the other side as well as or instead of on the side appropriate to the direction of traffic; (iii) Authorize standing and parking in the middle of the carriageway at places specially marked; (b) Save where domestic legislation provides otherwise, vehicles other than two-wheeled cycles, two-wheeled mopeds and two-wheeled motor cycles without side-car shall not stand or be parked two abreast on the carriageway. Standing or parked vehicles shall, unless the layout of the area permits otherwise, be placed parallel to the edge of the carriageway. 3. (a) The standing or parking of a vehicle on the carriageway shall be prohibited: (i)

On pedestrian crossings, on crossings for cyclists, and on level-crossings; (ii) On tramway or railway tracks on a road or so close to such tracks that the movement of trams or trains might be impeded, and also, subject to the possibility for Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof to provide otherwise, on pavements and cycle tracks; (b) The standing or parking of a vehicle at any point where it would constitute a danger shall be prohibited, more particularly: (i) (ii) On the carriageway, close to the crests of hills, and on bends where visibility is not sufficient for the vehicle to be overtaken in complete safety, having regard to the speed of ehicles on the section of the road in question; (iii) On a carriageway beside a longitudinal road marking, where subparagraph (b) (ii) of this paragraph does not apply but the width of the carriageway between the marking and the vehicle is less than 3 m and the marking is such that vehicles approaching it on the same side are forbidden to cross it; (iv) At any place where the vehicle would conceal road signs or traffic light signals from the view of road-users; (v) (c) Save in such spaces as may be specially marked, under flyovers and in tunnels; On an additional lane indicated by a sign for slowly moving vehicles; The parking of a vehicle on the carriageway shall be prohibited: (i)

On approaches to level-crossings, to intersections and to bus, trolley-bus or rail-vehicle stops; within the distances prescribed by domestic legislation; – 22 – (ii) In front of vehicle entries to properties; (iii) At any point where the parked vehicle would prevent access to another vehicle properly parked or prevent such other vehicle from moving out; (iv) On the central carriageway of three-carriageway roads and, outside built-up areas, on the carriageways of roads marked as priority roads by appropriate signs. 4. A driver shall not leave his vehicle or his animals without having taken all suitable precautions to avoid any accident and, in the case of a motor vehicle, to prevent its unauthorized use. 5.

It is recommended that domestic legislation should provide as follows: every power-driven vehicle other than a two-wheeled moped or a two-wheeled motor cycle without side-car, and every trailer coupled or uncoupled shall when stationary on the carriageway outside a built-up area be signalled to approaching drivers at a sufficient distance by means of at least one appropriate device placed at the most suitable point to give them adequate advance warning: (a) If the vehicle is stationary at night on the carriageway in circumstances such that approaching drivers cannot be aware of the obstacle which the vehicle constitutes; (b) If the driver, in other cases, has been compelled to halt his vehicle at a place where standing is prohibited. 6. Nothing in this Article shall be construed as preventing Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof from introducing other prohibitions on parking and standing. ARTICLE 24 Opening of doors

It shall be prohibited to open the door of a vehicle, to leave it open, or to alight from the vehicle without having made sure that to do so cannot endanger other road-users. ARTICLE 25 Motorways and similar roads 1. On motorways and, if so provided in domestic legislation, on special approach roads to and exit roads from motorways: (a) The use of the road shall be prohibited to pedestrians, animals, cycles, mopeds unless they are treated as motor cycles, and all vehicles other than motor vehicles and their trailers, and to motor vehicles or motor-vehicle trailers which are incapable, by virtue of their design, of attaining on a flat road a speed specified by domestic legislation; – 23 – (b) Drivers shall be forbidden: (i) (ii) 2. it. To have their vehicles standing or parked elsewhere than at arked parking sites; if a vehicle is compelled to stop, its driver shall endeavour to move it off the carriageway and also off the flush verge and, if he is unable to do so, immediately signal the presence of the vehicle at a distance so as to warn approaching drivers in time; To make U-turns, to travel in reverse, and to drive on to the central dividing strip, including the crossovers linking the two carriageways. Drivers emerging on to a motorway shall give way to vehicles travelling on If there is an acceleration lane, they shall use it. 3. A driver leaving a motorway shall move into the traffic lane appropriate to the motorway exit in good time and enter the deceleration lane, if there is one, as soon as he can. 4.

For the purpose of the application of paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 of this Article, other roads reserved for motor vehicle traffic, duly signposted as such and not affording access to or from properties alongside, shall be treated as motorways. ARTICLE 25 bis Special regulations for tunnels indicated by special road signs In tunnels indicated by the special road signs, the following rules shall apply: 1. All drivers are forbidden: (a) to reverse; (b) to make a U-turn; (c) purpose. to stop or to park a vehicle except at the places indicated for that 2. Even if the tunnel is lit, all drivers must switch on the driving or passing lamps. 3. In case of a prolonged stoppage the driver must switch off the engine. ARTICLE 26

Special rules applicable to processions and handicapped persons 1. It shall be prohibited for road-users to cut across troop columns, files of school-children accompanied by a person in charge, and other processions. – 24 – 2. Handicapped persons travelling in invalid chairs propelled by themselves or moving at a walking pace may use pavements (sidewalks) and suitable verges. ARTICLE 27 Special rules applicable to cyclists, moped drivers and motor cyclists 1. Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 10, paragraph 3, of this Convention, Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof shall be free not to prohibit cyclists from travelling two or more abreast. 2.

It shall be prohibited for cyclists to ride without holding the handlebars with at least one hand, to allow themselves to be towed by another vehicle, or to carry, tow or push objects which hamper their cycling or endanger other roadusers. The same provisions shall apply to moped drivers and motor cyclists; in addition, however, moped drivers and motor cyclists shall hold the handlebars with both hands except when signalling the manoeuvre described in Article 14, paragraph 3, of this Convention. 3. It shall be prohibited for cyclists and moped drivers to carry passengers on their vehicle; however, Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof may authorize exceptions to this provision and, in particular, authorize the transport of passengers on such additional saddle or saddles as may be fitted on the vehicle.

Motor cyclists shall not be permitted to carry passengers except in the side-car, if there is one, and on the additional saddle (pillion), if any, fitted behind the driver. 4. Where cycle tracks exist, Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof may forbid cyclists to use the rest of the carriageway. In the same circumstances they may authorize moped drivers to use the cycle track and, if they consider it advisable, prohibit them from using the rest of the carriageway. ARTICLE 28 Audible and luminous warnings 1. Audible warning devices may be used only: (a) To give due warning with a view to avoiding an accident; (b) Outside built-up areas when it is desirable to warn a driver that he is about to be overtaken. The sounds emitted by audible warning devices shall not be prolonged more than necessary. 2.

Motor-vehicle drivers may give the luminous warnings specified in Article 32, paragraph 3, of this Convention, instead of audible warnings, between nightfall and dawn. They may also do so in daylight hours for the purpose indicated in paragraph 1(b) of this Article, if to do so is more appropriate in the prevailing circumstances. – 25 – 3. Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof may authorize the use of luminous warnings in built-up areas also for the purpose referred to in paragraph 1(b) of this Article. ARTICLE 29 Rail-borne vehicles 1. Where a railway uses a carriageway, every road-user shall, on the approach of a tram or other rail-borne vehicle clear the track as soon as possible to allow the rail-borne vehicle to pass. 2.

Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof may adopt special rules, differing from those laid down in this Chapter, for the movement of rail-borne vehicles on the road and for passing or overtaking such vehicles. However, Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof may not adopt provisions which conflict with those of Article 18, paragraph 7, of this Convention. ARTICLE 30 Loading of vehicles 1. If a permissible maximum mass is laid down for a vehicle, the laden mass of the vehicle shall never exceed the permissible maximum mass. 2. Every load on a vehicle shall be so arranged and, if necessary, stowed as to prevent it from: (a) Endangering persons or causing damage to public or private property, more particularly by trailing on or falling on to the road; (b)

Obstructing the driver’s view or impairing the stability or driving of the vehicle; (c) Causing noise, raising dust, or creating any other nuisance which can be avoided; (d) Masking lights, including stop lights and direction-indicators, reflex reflectors, registration numbers and the distinguishing sign of the State of registration with which, under this Convention or under domestic legislation, the vehicle is required to be equipped, or masking signals given by arm in accordance with Article 14, paragraph 3, or Article 17, paragraph 2, of this Convention. 3. All accessories, such as cables, chains and sheets, used to secure or protect the load shall be drawn tight around the load and be firmly fastened.

All accessories used to protect the load shall satisfy the requirements laid down for the load in paragraph 2 of this Article. 4. Loads projecting beyond the front, rear or sides of the vehicle shall be clearly marked in all cases where their projection might not be noticed by the drivers of other vehicles; at night, a white light and a white reflecting device shall be used for such marking at the front and a red light and a red reflecting device at the rear. More particularly, on power-driven vehicles: – 26 – (a) Loads projecting more than 1 m beyond the front or rear of the vehicle shall always be marked; (b) Loads projecting laterally beyond the outer edge of the vehicle in such a way that their lateral outer edge is more than 0. 40 m from the outer edge of the ehicle’s front position (side) light shall be marked at the front at night, and loads projecting in such a way that their lateral outer edge is more than 0. 40 m from the outer edge of the vehicle’s red rear position (side) light shall be similarly marked at the rear at night. 5. Nothing in paragraph 4 of this Article shall be construed as preventing Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof from prohibiting, restricting, or subjecting to special authorization, load projections as referred to in t he aforesaid paragraph 4. ARTICLE 30 bis Carriage of passengers Passengers shall not be carried in such numbers or in such a way as to interfere with driving or obstruct the driver’s view. ARTICLE 31 Behaviour in case of accident 1.

Without prejudice to the provisions of domestic legislation concerning the obligation to assist the injured, every driver or other road-user involved in a traffic accident shall: (a) traffic; Stop as soon as he can do so without causing an additional danger to (b) Endeavour to ensure traffic safety at the site of the accident and, if a person has been killed or seriously injured in the accident, to prevent, in so far as such action does not affect traffic safety, any change in conditions at the site, including the disappearance of traces which might be useful for determining responsibilities; (c) If so requested by other persons involved in the accident, identify himself to them; (d)

If a person has been injured or killed in the accident, notify the police and remain on the scene of the accident or return to it and wait there until the arrival of the police, unless he has been authorized by the police to leave or has to assist the injured or to receive attention himself. 2. Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof may, under their domestic legislation, refrain from imposing the provision of paragraph 1 (d) of this Article in cases where no serious injury has been caused and none of the persons involved requests that the police should be notified. – 27 – ARTICLE 32 Rules of the use of lamps 1. Between nightfall and dawn and in any other circumstances when visibility is inadequate on account, for example, of fog, snowfall or heavy rain, the following lamps shall be lit on a moving vehicle: (a)

On power-driven vehicles and mopeds the driving lamp(s) or passing lamp(s) and the rear position lamp(s), according to the equipment prescribed by the present Convention for the vehicle of each category; (b) On trailers, front position lamps, if such lamps are required according to Annex 5, paragraph 30, of this Convention, and not less than two rear position lamps. 2. Driving lamps shall be switched off and replaced by passing lamps: (a) In built-up areas where the road is adequately lighted and outside built-up areas where the carriageway is continuously lighted and the lighting is sufficient to enable the driver to see clearly for an adequate distance and to enable other road-users to see the vehicle far enough away; (b)

When a driver is about to pass another vehicle, so as to prevent dazzle far enough away to enable the driver of the other vehicle to proceed easily and without danger; (c) In any other circumstances in which it is necessary to avoid dazzling other road-users or the users of a waterway or railway running alongside the road. 3. When, however, a vehicle is following closely behind another vehicle, driving lamps may be used to give a luminous warning as referred to in Article 28, paragraph 2, of the intention to overtake. 4. Fog lamps may be lit only in thick fog, falling snow, heavy rain or similar conditions and, as regards front fog maps, as a substitute for passing lamps.

Domestic legislation may authorize the simultaneous use of front fog lamps and passing lamps and the use of front fog lamps on narrow, winding roads. 5. On vehicles equipped with front position lamps, such lamps shall be used together with the driving lamps, the passing lamps or the front fog lamps. 6. During the day, a motor cycle moving on the road shall display at least one passing lamp to the front and a red lamp to the rear. Domestic legislation may permit the use of daytime running lamps instead of passing lamps. 7. Domestic legislation may make it compulsory for drivers of motor vehicles to use during the day either passing lamps or daytime running lamps. Rear position lamps shall in this case be used together with the front lamps. – 28 – 8.

Between nightfall and dawn and in any other circumstances when visibility is inadequate, the presence of power-driven vehicles and their trailers standing or parked on a road shall be indicated by front and rear position lamps. In thick fog, falling snow, heavy rain or similar conditions passing lamps or front fog lamps may be used. Rear fog lamps may in these conditions be used as a supplement to the rear position lamps. 9. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 8 of this Article, within a built-up area the front and rear position lamps may be replaced by parking lamps, provided that: (a) The vehi

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