Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software http://www. foxitsoftware. com For evaluation only. 14/07/2010 MPK1023: Management and Administration of TVE CONCEPTS vs. PRINCIPLES vs. THEORY PM Dr WILFREDO H. LIBUNAO IMPORTANCE OF IMPORTANCE THEORIES Theories are constructed to give an explanation of phenomena (Stam, 2000). According to Denzin (1970), there are three functions of a theory: 1. Permitting organization of descriptions, 2. leading to explanation, and 3. furnishing the basis for prediction of future events. Importance of Theories…cont’d: In a nutshell, theories: - Tell us what we are doing Tell us why we do things - Not how to do things - It help us better understand the process - Will enable us to predict what is going to happen in the future 1 Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software http://www. foxitsoftware. com For evaluation only. 14/07/2010 Importance of Theories…cont’d: Elements of Theory: • Concepts • Generalizations • Assumptions Purposes of Theory: • Provide an explanation of how things generally work • Guide research • Guide practice Importance of Theories…cont’d: Hypotheses: • Conjectural statements that explain relationships. • Use to test theories. • Guide research Scientific Knowledge: Propositions supported by systematic research. Purpose of Science: To test theory and to provide reliable explanation. Theoretical System Concepts Generalizations Assumptions Concepts Variables Hypotheses Variables Empirical Testing Principles © Hoy, 2008, © Hoy 2003 2 Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software http://www. foxitsoftware. com For evaluation only. 14/07/2010 IMPORTANCE OF CONCEPTS • What is a concept? • Why is it important? • How is it different from principles and theories? • Is concept important in management? The Elephant Six blind sages were shown an elephant and met to discuss their experience. It's wonderful,” said the first, “an elephant is like a rope: slender and flexible. ” “No, no, not at all,” said the second, “an elephant is like a tree, sturdily planted on the ground. ” “Nonsense,” said the third, “an elephant is like a wall. ” “Incredible,” said the fourth, “an elephant is a tube filled with water. ” “What a strange and piecemeal beast this is,” said the fifth. “Strange indeed,” said the sixth, “but there must be some underlying harmony. Let us investigate the matter further. ” Adapted from a traditional Hindu fable IMPORTANCE OF CONCEPT IMPORTANCE • A concept is a mental abstraction which allows eneralization and the extension of knowledge from some known objects to others unknown. • A concept is formed by taking a number of similar entities and deciding what makes them similar in an important way. • Concepts are bearers of meaning, as opposed to agents of meaning. A single concept can be expressed by any number of languages. 3 Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software http://www. foxitsoftware. com For evaluation only. 14/07/2010 Importance of concept…cont’d • In other words concepts are essentially hypotheses that will become invalid, should they fail to fit in some critical way the empirical reality t is claimed they represent. • The word ‘concept’ refers to a class of acts, thoughts, activities, processes, or structures. • In science its concepts drive research, steering inquiry according to the meaning of each. Importance of concept…cont’d • Concepts lead to new directions and new ideas through disturbances or provocations in usual thinking processes. • Concepts are keys to change and improvement. IMPORTANCE OF PRINCIPLE PRINCIPLE – is considered as a law, a doctrine, a policy, or a deep-seated beliefs which governs the deepconduct of various types of human activities. In the field of administration and supervision,
PRINCIPLE is accepted as a fundamental truth. ---- for the administrator and supervisor, it is very important to have good principles, because these will serve as his guide in his reflective thinking and in his choice of program of activities. 4 Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software http://www. foxitsoftware. com For evaluation only. 14/07/2010 IMPORTANT USES OF PRINCIPLES IN SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION 1. Principles are means by which the administrator and supervisor proceed from one situation to another. ---- it means that in the operation or in administering/ supervising functions, there is an rganized step-by-step schedule or program of step-byactivities to be followed. 2. Principles are instrumental in improving teachingteachinglearning process. ---- since every administrator or supervisor as well as teachers want the best learning outcomes on the part of the learner, these principles will be of great help for the improvement of instruction and all other learning activities. Uses of principles in school administration [cont’d] 3. Principles make for enormous economy of time and effort in choosing techniques to be used. ----- meaning principle directs us on what is the appropriate techniques/strategies to be sed effectively in the operation of administrative and supervisory functions. 4. Principles eliminate much of the trial and error practices. ----- through it, we can avoid waste of time on what to do, but instead they give us direction or point of destination. Uses of principles in school administration [cont’d] 5. Principles greatly aid in the discovery of new techniques. ----- they are the hypotheses that direct the search for new techniques in school administration and supervision. 6. Principles are needed to guide the choice and sequence of the techniques at hand. 5 Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software http://www. oxitsoftware. com For evaluation only. 14/07/2010 Uses of principles in school administration [cont’d] 7. Principles aid in the evaluation of techniques, for they furnish a broader basis by which to judge the techniques used in the school administration and supervision. ----- it is not only used to determine on what appropriate techniques to be used, but it can also serve as measurement / basis as to how effective is the technique or procedures. 8. Principles define the items, which must be scrutinized in evaluating the results. ----- this implies the better understanding of the fundamental principles and functions of school dministration and supervision Uses of principles in school administration [cont’d] 9. Principles are used to evaluate the success of administrative and supervisory programs. ------ administration and supervision are also directed and evaluated in terms of principles. 10. Principles lead the administrators and supervisors to further activities for they are dynamic and not static. ------ being a teacher, we are also an administrator and supervisors in the real classroom situation, we must see to it that our principles and techniques used are open for any changes and improvement. The Triadic Relations of
Theory, Practice, and Research Theory, research, and practice are in a dynamic relationship. Each set of relationships is relationship. reciprocal: theory guides practice, but practice reciprocal: reinforces, refines, or disconfirms theory; theory theory; guides research, but research creates and refines theory; and research guides practice, but practice theory; directs research. research. T R P © Hoy, 2008, © Hoy 2003 6 Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software http://www. foxitsoftware. com For evaluation only. 14/07/2010 END OF SESSION MPK1023: M anagement and Management Administration of TVE A dministration 7
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