According to all the team members Caroline is a much better leader then the previous and new project leader. The pattern of communication amongst the project leader Caroline and the other team members is much more effective as Caroline works both internally and externally within the organisation. Communication is something that is essential in any organisation. An organisation cannot really accomplish its objectives efficiently without communication. Individuals need to communicate their ideas and evaluate both their own contribution and those of others effectively to inform group members of their thoughts; views or motives.
As well as operating in democratic leadership style the team emerge toward "All-Channel communication net", decentralised network which involved full decisions and participations" (Bavelas and Barrett, 1951). It is used within the team as there are signs of interactions and frequent communications which makes Caroline the leader of both the task and the social system. This determines that there is high level of satisfaction within the group with the presence Caroline, whereas the new project leader had taken over the communication level become more centralised around the political goals.
This outlines the difference between effective leaderships between Caroline and Stuart in the team members' point of views. "To manage is to forecast and plan, to organise, to command, to coordinate and to control" (Fayol, 1916, pp. 515-516). Therefore a manager's job must consist of planning, organizing, directing, and controlling the resources of the organisation. These resources include people, jobs, technology, information, and money and etc. Managers work in an active environment and must foresee and adapt to challenges.
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This latter part will evaluate as well as discuss whether Caroline was an effective manager within the team using well known theorists to support the claims. To be an effective manager, an individual must perform the functions of management, therefore being in needing to possess managerial skills. Katz (1974) identified three managerial skills that are essential to successful management: Technical, Human, and Conceptual. Technical skill involves procedures or techniques, knowledge and expertise. Managers thus use these processes, techniques and tools on a specific area.
Human skill involves managers' ability to interact effectively and cooperate with people, i. e. employees. Conceptual skill involves the formulation of ideas. Managers understand abstract relationships, and solve problems creatively. Katz (1974). Caroline shows that she possesses technical skills, an individual of authority with requisite skill, knowledge and expertise to manage her area of specialty. She also possessed human and conceptual skill identified by Katz (1974) as, the team described her, "easy person to work with, good tempered when you make silly mistakes...
doesn't leave you with the manual, takes time to help you". She also maintained contacts with other group individuals, to name a few are administration, higher management and computer service, reflecting her ability to interact and communicate with others successfully. As for the conceptual skills she is a "Trouble-shooter", the designer of the systems, in which ideas are needed, and "working with individual members on solution of problems". To be an effective manager an individual must create and maintain an internal environment, so that others can work efficiently in it.
The job of every manager involves what is known as the management activities by the classical theorist Fayol (1916), these activities are: planning, organising, monitoring, and controlling. These functions are goal-directed, interrelated and interdependent. The activity of planning, involves devising a systematic process for attaining the goals of the organization, e. g. preparing for the future. (Buchanan and Huczynski) Furthermore, organising involves arranging the necessary resources to carry out plans.
Thus being the process of creating structure, establishing relationships, and allocating resources to accomplish organisation goals. Motivating has been defined as "influencing others towards the accomplishment of organisational goals". (Buchanan and Huczynski) This involves guiding, leading, and overseeing of employees to achieve organisational goals. This can be achieved through memos, meetings and personal contacts. Lastly, controlling involves verifying that performance actually matches the plan.
With respect to the limitations of time and budget that was imposed. If performance results do not match the plan, corrective action is taken. Using the 'POMC Approach' to distinguishes whether Caroline coalesces the management activities listed by Fayol (1916) to perceive her effectiveness as a manager within the team, it illustrates that she carries out some of the activities such as the ability to motivate which impacted on the level of the teams performance, it was said, "she makes you stay and work when normally you would have gone home".
She also controlled the team, as she was the one who imposed few controls with regard to either work or general behaviour. In addition, she was the one to organise and bring together a hard-working and effective team that enjoyed working with each other, which showed good output, overall highlighted by customers comments received "I still don't want to let her down" but due to the planning activity it worked out as management given the brief and budget to her and letting her make the decisions and the allocation of resources on her own initiative.
According to Mintzberg's (1973) research he concluded that managers performs a great deal of work at an unrelenting pace and importantly suggested in carrying out their work, managers were performing different roles arising from their authority and status which he (1977) distinguished ten roles under three main headings: interpersonal, informational, and decisional, (See 'Appendix'). The three interpersonal roles are primarily concerned with interpersonal relationships.
In the figurehead role, Caroline is the one in charge, the problem solver represents the organization in all matters of formality. Higher management seem to represent the organisation in formality, legal and social to those outside the organisation. Caroline acted as the leader of the team, which reflects her relationship with management and team members giving a similarity as manager and employees. In the liaison role, she interacts with peers and people internally and externally due to her diverse contacts. The informational roles concerned information aspects of managerial work.
Monitor role, she received from higher management information. The role disseminator, Caroline transmits and informed team about developments. She represented the group as the spokesperson. Mintzberg (1977) expressed an effective manager required for an individual to posses some leadership qualities. However Kotter (1990) stated that manager establishes plans and budgets, designs and staffs the organisation, monitors and performance and delivers order and predictability, hence these correspond with the activities done by Caroline.
Caroline leadership has democratic (consultative) style that was based on team-members involved throughout decision-making but can take a lot of time to comprise. There were hardly any rules and standards that had been imposed on Caroline by senior management and this gives her the power and freedom to make her own decisions without any interference of superiors. The effectiveness of Caroline as a manager, according to the theorists, it is palpable she possesses numerous managerial skills, performs managerial activities.
And the group is effective with similar orientation she has. Consequently her replacement was a great disappointment with loss of capital, moneymaking ideas, stress (Time is Money! ). The peaceful environment and atmosphere, trust, morale, loyalty and motivation of the group exploited. They are together as a team for a purpose and it makes is easier for them to complete their tasks as they all find their work interesting and fulfilling trust while working together.
According to Fiedler's Co-Worker questionnaire, all members are highly task-orientated. With Caroline gone it illustrated her effectiveness of managing and controlling the team and how bad the team is doing without her. Even though she lacked some managerial skills it would have been better for the company to invest training on her rather than replace her. Since the replacement, the morale is low and people are uninspired, extremely difficult for the entire team to progress towards achieving their objective.
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