It was a test of faith. Never were the Kagay-anons expecting that such a violent storm which hit the City of Cagayan de Oro, would kill their loved ones, and eventually their livelihood. Typhoon Washi, popularly known as Sendong which struck the Northern part of Mindanao on the early hours of December 17,2011 not only destroyed the city physically but as well as washing away devastatingly the social, political and the economic faiths of the city.
The effects of heavy rains in the evening of 16 December until early morning of 17 December, the high tide occurrence and the debris into the river worsened the force of flash flood that impacted the catastrophe (National Disaster Risk and Management Center, 2012). People were sleeping around 2:30 a. m. when the flash flood strikes fierce fully resulting to a haunting tragedy which recorded a death toll of 674 in Cagayan de Oro according to the Final Report on the Effects and Emergency Management re Tropical Storm “SENDONG” (Washi) prepared by the National Disaster Risk and Management Center (10 February 2012).
Barangay 17, within the prior area of Cagayan de Oro City was one of the areas severely hit by the catastrophic phenomenon, and obtained the greatest share of recovery support. Sustenance and rehabilitation figures are roughly in line with the region–wide numbers. Hundreds of organizations, agencies and thousands of people from all walks of life all over the world share anything that they could give heartily, might be as in cash, in kind, service, and even in thoughtful concerns expressed through social media like Facebook or Twittter in helping to rebuild shattered communities among the 41 City barangays affected by the typhoon.
Billions, translated from different currencies to pesos were commended, making this the largest post disaster recovery and extension undertaking commenced for the last 12 years in the Philippine history due the highest number of casualties and damages (CALONZO, 18 December 2011), City government provided financial assistance ranging from Php 2,500 to 9,000 for each family reliant on the amount of damage and has a significant figure of Php6, 885, 000 as financial aid to each family.
Estimated damage of 10000 received financial assistance amounting to 2500; 20000 to 35000 received Php3500 ; Php 35000 to 6000 worth of damage received Php 4,500 ; Php7000 to 100000 cost of damage received Php 6,000 ; 120000 to 300,000 received Php 7,000 to 8000, and damage ranging Php350000 to 3,000,000 got 9,000 financial assistance. In line of President Benigno Aquino III directive for immediate aid efforts for ongoing relief undertakings, a December 28, 2011 press release from the Department of Budget and Management (28 December 2011) indicated Php336. M was added to Department of Social Welfare and Development. Government through Department of Social Welfare and Development had facilitated the delivering of food supplies and financial assistance to the affected communities.
Red Cross Organization has also demonstrated efforts on providing relief items and medical assistance. Various organizations such as churches, charitable groups as well as radio and TV station have showed goodwill and kindness amidst adversity.
In Barangay 17, nearby churches such as United Christian Church in the Philippines and Iglesia ni Kristo have offered free water and sack of rice during that time. Magnum Radio, DXCC provided clothes, canned goods and mineral water for aiding immediate needs while ABS-CBN Sagip Kapamilya along with various celebrities like Robin Padilla, Kris Aquino and GMA Center Mark Bautista handed relief goods and supplies.
Blanco (28 July 2012) on her article Krusada: Cagayan de Oro, 7 months after Sendong, cited an establishment of a total of 6000 shelters prepared by Habitat for Humanity Philippines in which 12 houses are finished daily by Non-Government Organizations, and after 6 months, 3000 quadruplex would be ready for settlement. The purpose of this research is to conduct a study to the barangays in Cagayan de Oro city affected by Sendong, with Barangay 17 being selected as our subject area of research.
It aims to determine the loss felt by the residents, either by physical or life, and most importantly to categorize the interventions/ assistance received by the victims in the aforementioned community. Based on the information gathered through the conducted in-depth interview, the researchers have found out that as to the said barangay, most of the houses were flooded with mud and dirt especially those houses built near the river, but only few were being damaged reflecting parts of the houses and roofing’s washed out unlike with what Sendong brought a great damage to areas like Macasandig and Balulang.
Only few residents decided to be relocated to the relocation sites provided by the government such as the Calaanan Permanent Site (phase 3) and Indahag Permanent Site (phase 1) with personal reasons such as the family lived there for almost 30 years, and owning properties which are being inherited and passed on through generations. In addition, not all of the affected residents have received assistance as to what others do have.
As to the statement of Lenie Duhaylungsod, 44 years old, stated through an interview, revealed that she have not received any assistance from Red Cross, where in fact her neighbors have already obtained relief goods and medical kits from the said organization. As we interviewed Rowena Cabunilda, a 50 year old Lechonan business owner, she relates that she have suffered much as to the damage brought by Typhoon Sendong to her livelihood. A venture established and existed for almost seven years, Rowena have never thought that residing near the river would cause the loss of her long-time earned business.
With a starting capital amounting to Php10, 000, she had earned a lot for continuing the business making her a successful entrepreneur reflected through her beautiful, million peso priced house as well as her other properties including a business land (she asked us to limit the discussion only to her Lechonan business), further stating that her other properties were not devastated as these were located far from their barangay. In the aftermath of Sendong, there’s only 16 hogs left from the 56 ready to be sold s Lechon, almost 21,000 projected net loss of income for that season which is Christmas, and a loss amounting Php 50, 000 summarizing her capital resources reflected in terms of money as well as with the structure of her Lechonan house.
“Receiving relief goods from the government and financial assistance worth Php 4,000 just for one month, I don’t think if it could be able to sustain us and help us in the recovery of the Lechonan business, which I believe would definitely take two to three years,” she stated. In Barangay 17 alone, 47 are being hospitalized, and 2 were reported dead due to Leptospirosis disease” according to Honorable Heracleo W. Calinawan, Barangay Captain of Barangay 17. A total 43,507 families being affected here in Cagayan de Oro City, while those being evacuated to 19 relocation sites counts to 6,574 families or a total of 38,985 people. “Here in our barangay, only few are to be counted being relocated to relocation sites,” Brgy. Capt. Calinawan added.
Though these people are being affected by the devastation caused by the storm, but still they can’t leave their own houses and properties, especially the businesses they still have and could still be build back. Known as one of the barangays here in Cagayan de Oro sustained with Lechonan business, Barangay 17 Lechonan owners suffered the loss of livelihood , loss of income generated and yet to be generated , and the resources and capital started and produced for building the business.
While some residents affected were skilled workers and self-employed who were not exempted by the negative effects brought by the catastrophe, most of these respondents claimed of having an income of 100-150 a day less with daily expenses incurred of almost 170-200 a day, further declared that the destruction caused by Sendong put them into much upsetting and distressing life of poverty. Different nations of different forms of administration and leadership united to commit and lend a helping hand to the mourning land of Northern Mindanao.
As to a report from ABS-CBN News on December 20, 2011 Obama extended his sympathies “On behalf of the American people, I wish to express my deep condolences for the tremendous of life and devastations caused by recent flooding in the Philippines. ” while his secretary, Hillary Clinton also communicated her commiserations, further stated, “America stands ready to assist Philippine authorities as they respond to this tragedy. (Ressa, December 18, 2011) while the Spanish King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofia are in close contact in accordance to the report of Calonzon of GMA News TV (22 December 2011)
It will take a period of three to five years before the full recovery would be felt by the affected barangays of the so-called City of Golden Friendship ( including Barangay 17 to the count) , as observed by UN Special Representative for Secretary-General for Disaster Risk Reduction Margareta Wahlston. Tiangco, 29 January 2012). While the United Nations are busy forecasting the time frame to bring back Cagayan de Oro better, National Economic Development Authority (Quiros, February 23, 2012) in its Strategic Action Plan presented a significant figure of Php 43B; the Northeren Mindanao requires for it to return to its past life and to its earlier picture before the tragic event hits.
With half the total percentage of the damaged infrastructure already repaired with the aid of Negros Oriental government (Aranas, December 29, 2012 ) ; Sustainable Livelihood Assistance and Cash for Work programs leading to the provision of cash grants, rehabilitation projects and creation of livelihood strategies to assist affected residents initiated by DSWD ; Self-Employment Kaunlaran Associations(SKAs) which provide income generating opportunities such as sari-sari, farming, livestock raising, food processing, dressmaking, shell craft and fish vending ; permanent resettlement to already rebuilt houses ,and shelters provided by government and private agencies; and the numerous seminars, trainings and programs which demonstrates how the survivors would be well-settled, economically provided and recover sustainably: survivors are on their way of building back what was deemed lost.
This study sought to identify the various modes and means as to which the victims of the 2011 Sendong typhoon tragedy which struck and affect the livelihood of Kagay-anons , specifically the affected communities in Barangay 17 had recover and recuperate their livelihood few months after the storm, the different interventions and assistance they received from the government and non-government organizations, and as well as to ascertain the probable time frame as to which the Barangay 17 Sendong survivors would be fully recovered.
Being a student with a financial management degree, it would be helpful enough to provide us students the knowledge onto what kind of livelihood these people need and ought to have being survivors of the devastation, and these gathered information would be useful enough for government and non-government institutions assigned in the field of livelihood center programs to provide sustainable livelihood for the affected communities.
In the future, the end-result of this study would be useful for researchers and business people in determining the needs of the aforementioned affected communities and later would think of any kind of livelihood/job they would introduce to these communities aiding them towards livelihood recovery and sustainability. Data obtained from actual encounter with the victims turned survivors would further provide a much clearer understanding as to what was really the exact event, how did it occur, how did it affect and devastate lives, how much was the cost of damage, how long would the people be fully recovered, what are the strategies prepared and effected by government , international and non-government organizations to help, assist and ensure short to long term recovery and sustainability of the victims,etc.
Lots and infinite questions could be made available with accurate and precise answers from actual intervention compared to just being information dependent from mere broadcast and social media, and random hearsays. Nothing would prove to be the best if fact-finding has to be initiated and enacted through proper, formal and accurate procedures. For almost six months of humanitarian aiding, it had resulted to further development on the despair and agony of Barangay 17 Sendong victims. Although the recovery might be deemed relaxed and gradual, but still the affected residents of the 17th Barangay of Cagayan de Oro struck by Sendong continue to pursue the aspiration to attain full recovery and sustainability before another one bites the dust. FRAMEWORK This study is anchored on the theory of Dr.
Jacqueline Carol Badcock, the United Nations resident coordinator and humanitarian coordinator in the Philippines, “Livelihood recovery is crucial to help communities recover from the crisis and to build people’s confidence that they can move on”. Every people have its own process or way of recovery, it still depends on the capacity of individual This study is based on the capacity of the families affected by typhoon Sendong to recover and sustain financially with the available resources they have and how they used the different interventions and assistance they received from the government and non-government organizations to bring back their livelihood. Livelihood is a means of making a living.
It encompasses people’s capabilities, assets, income and activities required to secure the necessities of life. A livelihood is sustainable when it enables people to cope with and recover from shocks and stresses (such as natural disasters and economic or social upheavals) and enhance their well-being and that of future generations without undermining the natural environment or resource base (Carney, 1998,pg. 4) The core elements of the framework are the profile of the respondents in terms of civil status, educational attainment, number of children(if married), type of livelihood, years of residency in the barangay, starting capital, place of origin, monthly income generated from the livelihood and other sources of income.
Civil status is the registration of individual status due to birth or any changes in personal situation such as marriage, divorce, or death (Slim, 2010). The purpose of which is to know the current marital status of the respondents of whether the victim supports a family or not. Educational attainment refers to the highest level of schooling that a person has reached (Statistics Canada, 2011). This is necessary to identify the common level of education of each family on the specific location. Number of children refers to the number of offspring a family has. This is included to know how many children each family supports the main purpose is to know if the family income is enough to support the family.
Type of livelihood refers to a set of economic activities, involving self-employment and/or wage-employment by using one’s endowments (human and material) to generate adequate resources (cash and non-cash)for meeting the requirements of self and the household, usually carried out repeatedly and as such become a way of life (Mahajan et al, 2004). This is essential to know the family’s way of living, of how they earn and support their family whether it be by employment or business ventures. Years of residency refers to the time during which a person resides in a place (Livelihood, Dictionary online, 2013). This is also identified to know whether the family is new or has been living for many years already in the barangay. Place of origin refers to where something originated or was nurtured in its early existence (Farlex Inc, 2013).
This information is also essential for the researchers to know where the family originally came from. Starting capital refers to the money that is required to start a new business, whether for office space, permits, licenses, inventory, product development and manufacturing, marketing or any other expense ( Startup capital, Investopedia Online, 2013). This is to know the amount of money used by the family to start their livelihood again. Monthly income generated from the livelihood refers to the the amount of money or its equivalent received during a period of time in exchange for labor or services, from the sale of goods or property, or as profit from financial investments (Farlex Inc, 2013).
This is to know the total amount of money the family receives from their livelihood and whether the family’s income is enough to support the needs of the family as well as to know the capacity of the family to recover financially. Other source of income refers to earnings report used to represent income from activities other than normal business operations ( Webfinance Inc. , 2013). This is included to know whether the family earns money aside from their employment. These detailed personal information is required for documentation and for future analysis of this entire research. Another element used in the framework is the types of loss experienced by the victims whether physical loss or life loss. Physical loss here refers to any damage done to a property (Webfinance Inc. , 2013).
It includes properties, objects, and valuable resources lost by the victims as a result of the casualty of the flood. This deals with the properties or establishments owned by those families who has small business but now was washed out by Sendong. This could also be appliances destroyed by the typhoon such as television set, dvd player, component, computer, laptop, refrigerator, washing machine, cook wares like microwave oven, blender, electronic kettle, and small gadgets like cell phone, tablet and many more. This element is necessary to identify the common properties lost by the affected families and to what extent the flood caused damage to the victims.
Life loss here refers to the number of family members who survived, how many have died and whether they were able to recover the dead body, how many were missing and what are their experiences during and after the calamity and on how they survived from their everyday living. Interventions or assistance received by the victims is another element used in the framework for the purpose of which is to know the specific intervention and assistance each family received from the disaster and for the researchers to know which specific organization whether it be from the local(municipal), provincial, national government, the non-government organizations who provided the victims with the assistance. The interventions/assistance received by the respondents are divided into two: private interventions and public interventions.
To be included in the private interventions are the private sectors, industries, entities, non- government organizations both local and international, and people which and who provided interventions/assistance to the survivors of typhoon Sendong. To be included in the public interventions/assistance on the other hand, would be the public agencies, government departments and politicians which and who provided interventions/assistance to the survivors. The type of interventions/assistance received by them would also be collected and recorded as additional information. RESEARCH FLOW OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The study aimed to know how and how long the Sendong survivors in the areas of Barangay 17 in the City of Cagayan de Oro have recovered the loss of livelihood they encountered after being devastated by the striking of typhoon Sendong.
These were as follows 1) To describe the profile of the respondents in terms of: civil status, number of children, type/s of livelihood, years of residency in the barangay, starting capital, monthly income generated from livelihood and other sources of income; 2) to determine the types of loss experienced by the respondents in terms of physical and life aspects; and to find out the interventions/ assistance received by the respondents. SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The study focused on the coping and recovery measures undertaken by the chosen occupants in Barangay 17, Cagayan de Oro City. There were 15 randomly selected residents which are being interviewed in accordance with the predetermined objectives.
It includes obtaining information asked through personal inquiries in terms of vital personal information, determination of the types of livelihood and how it was adversely affected by Sendong which is regarded to be one of the best target question for the study, and finding out the interventions/assistance received by the respondents which purposely attempts to determine the variety of support, relief assistance and funding, donations and pledges the Barangay 17 community had already received, have been receiving and would be receiving. SCOPE AND LIMITATION The study was limited to the people of the respondents in terms of educational attainment, civil status, number of children if married, type of livelihood, years of residency in the barangay, place of origin, starting capital, monthly income generated from the livelihood, and the other sources of income. It determined the types of loss experienced by the respondents in terms of physical and life aspects. It is limited in finding out the interventions assistance received by the respondents. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY National Government.
The outcome of this study would provide them detailed information and knowledge as to what proper governance and administration should be directed when any event same as this one would occur in the future. Through in-depth interview, which for most of the time proven accurate, would aid them in further assessing the exact and truthful undertakings, related stories of area survivors and especially the numerical facts of interventions and assistance obtained by the community victims. National Disaster Risk and Management Center. Aid them in further verification of the Final Report on Sendong they have already published and make appropriate changes, if needed. The data obtained through this study would also enable them to understand the tasks and duties entrusted to them being an organ for national management on disaster.
Local Government Units. The result of the study will aid them in determining what are the other needs of the victims in their respective areas and be able to make appropriate measures to resolve them. The end-result would also help them understand and identify what are the corresponding duties entrust to them when such events occur again. Community. By giving them an in depth knowledge of what duties and responsibilities are relied on them when such occurrences take place. The study would provide these communities the following information and as well as the measures to cope and recover livelihood if such event would occur. Future Researchers.
This study will prompt future researchers to deal with other factors and measures significant for quick and immediate recovery of loss livelihood of devastated societies, not only in the local regions but most importantly for the national as whole, providing prompt and immediate action for livelihood recovery and sustainability. Serve as a catalyst for further research on the grounds of good governance in terms of community safety keeping and public trust building. Victims of Typhoon Sendong. This would aid them on deciding what type of means they are going to prefer and undertake for them to be able to support and sustain their needs after the loss encountered during the devastation of Sendong. City Social Welfare and Development Office.
The study will be considered as deemed relevant for creating awareness, and for these offices to establish prompt measures and means to recover loss livelihood of devastated residents of the affected community. Academe. This research will aid the learners and would serve as a review for related study in another research setting. LITERATURE REVIEW A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets (including both material and social resources) and activities required for a means of living. A livelihood is sustainable when it can cope with and recover from stress and shocks and maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets both now and in the future, while not undermining the natural resource base. (Chambers & Conway, 1991). As a means of sustenance. (New lexicon Webster Dictionary, 2001).
A method need not only played by a sole individual but by various sectors of society, where the coordination of one to many towards the performance of its activities is deemed significant for the realization and attainment of one and everyone’s goal. The hidden complexity behind the term livelihood comes to light when governments, civil society, and external organizations attempt to assist people whose means of making a living is threatened, damaged, or destroyed. As the strength of a given livelihood is not only measured by its productive outcomes, but equally by its resilience to shocks, seasonal changes and trends and these shocks might include natural disasters (International Recovery Platform and United Nations Development Programme –India, 2005)..
This study aims to conduct a review and an analysis of how typhoons affects communities and eventually livelihood causing an economic breakdown, and to be able to present through extensive research of how livelihood as strategies, developed to make a living, means created for sustenance and survival is as fragile, breakable and vulnerable as it seems. IRP and UNDP-India. (2005 Cambodia is largely dependent on its natural resource base where agriculture is their primary source of livelihood. Rice production is the key economic activity in some province such as Siem Reap (United Nations Development Programme-Cambodia 2012) although the province also exhibits some of the income from other forms of means such as livestock farming and fishing. But how could the Cambodians be able to sustain a food for living and be able to maintain a good harvest if the country is frequently visited by destructive typhoons resulting to flooded farmlands along with washed livelihood for rural communities?
Recommended livelihood recovery interventions include: the provision of capital (e. g. recovery fund) into existing savings and self-help groups; vocational trainings’ and programs to become a skilled worker and eventually learn an alternative livelihood; and borrowings /financial grants for small and micro businesses (United Nations Development Programme-Cambodia, 2012). Taiwan, known as the main island of Republic of China, is not exempted from calamities such as typhoons and flashfloods due to its subtropical monsoon type climate (Grolier Encyclopedia of Knowledge, 2004), as a result, this industrialized and modernized republic fueled by agriculture, labor and export industries were flooded and flashed away.
Typhoon Morakot which struck Taiwan on 8 August 2009 regarded as the deadliest typhoon to hit the island, taking 639 lives evaluated by the World Vision ,form the following assessments that the storm not only affects communities but as well as flooding farmlands, wiping out businesses, livelihood and infrastructure amounting to a net loss of $3. 3B total damage (World Vision, July 2010). Long term livelihood recovery programs comprises establishment of production and marketing unit in Kaohsiung county, employment of farmers to a mango plant corporation, livelihood trainings on how to commenced a handicraft business, and peach cultivation (World Vision, July 2010).
Hit and devastated by Typhoon Ketsana on 2009, Vietnam of homogenous societies in Southeast Asia (Grolier Encyclopedia of Knowledge, 2004) had slowly but gradually facing its recovery. In coordination with United Nation Programme Coordination Groups, the People’s Aid Coordinating Committee (PACCOM) and international non-governmental organizations, World Vision again set its foot to another ground spoiled by a storm. World Vision facilitates agricultural recovery through the provision of rice and vegetable seedlings which supplied food for 51,303 people during Winter/Spring crop and another 55,191 people during Summer/Autumn crop, allocating fish breed for fish raising and over 1,240 families received a piglet.
Agriculture training sessions and technical support services on livelihoods recovery were also conducted as of World Vision (2010) report. Plagued by flood every three years, Bangladesh coping strategies according to Rashid et al. (2006). in his study states them in three broad categories: i) current adjustment strategies of reducing household food consumption, shifting to less preferred foods with lower cash cost, and reallocating household labor to increase current income, ii) unsecured borrowing which refers to borrowing that is not secured by providing household assets as collateral and, iii) secured borrowing denotes borrowing against assets owned by the household.
Northern and Central parts of the Lao PDR were struck by Typhoon Haima on June 24-25, 2011 which disturbed the local people’s livelihoods, assets and properties. The Long Term Development Needs (24-60 months) requires the strengthening of farmers groups and developing their capability on livelihood diversification, association with banks, opening herd and flock health programs and coordinating with government for required technical livelihood (Government of the Lao PDR, 29 August 2011). Typhoons (also identified as hurricanes) were typically trailed with flashfloods, mudslides, landslides and even loss, which can be either life or livelihood, or worse, it can be both.
The story about Sendong relates to numerous other countries for which livelihood and economic faiths were unfortunately washed off by the unrelenting strong winds and heavy rains. Livelihood recovery is considered as one of the much disturbed factor of the society after calamity. Most of the moderate to severe affected countries caused by typhoons tends to recover two to seven years. This review of the literature shows the dependence of affected communities to government, private and no-government organizations in order to recuperate what was deemed lost, further reflecting the lack of indigenous knowledge, education and systems to make the coping as effective and successful one. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The research design used in this study is qualitative method which emphasizes descriptions and explanations of human experience and practices in an attempt to understand how the research participants experience and explain their lives in reality. This research focused on investigation of the livelihood recovery activities and interventions received by each family within a given location. Personal interviewing is what we use to better understand and get more specific details about the victims’ experiences which are relevant in this study. Guide questions, informal discussions will be used as methods in this research to collect data from the respondents which will result to the revelations of vital.
Before interviewing the respondents, the researchers prepared a letter addressed to the Barangay Captain asking permission to conduct an interview with the victims of Sendong. Set of guide questions has been prepared in English based on the objectives of the study and later be translated into the vernacular language. Purposive sampling will be employed from at least 15 self-employed respondents. Before starting the interview, the researchers will explain the purpose and goals of this research to the respondent. The interview will take place in the respondents’ homestead during their free time. An audio recorder will be used with respondents’ permission to record the entire interview along with detailed notes on each interview. The results then were collected, tallied, analyzed and interpreted.