The purpose of this finding is to understand the relations between gender and self- esteem using the method of convenience sample survey Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. This survey included 6 male and 21 female college students, total n=27 to predict self-esteem levels of each gender.
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Keywords: self-esteem, gender role, Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, predictor variable (PV), operational definition (OD), criterion variable (CV) Introduction Past researches have shown that self-esteem plays an important role in etermining the academic achievement and health levels of both genders. Researchers predicted that there is a relation between gender role and self-esteem. Therefore, many studies have been done to predict the possible outcome of the above hypothesis.
When we try to find out if gender really does play an important role in one's academic achievement and levels of health, we can try to develop new ways to improve these conditions for both genders. Self-esteem creates huge impacts in each individual living standards and performance, for learning to compare self-esteem level in both genders will help researchers to acquire knowledge about ach gender behavior. Researchers could then apply alternative ways to analyze these behaviors and conduct further psychological studies which will benefit the learning of people's behaviors in general.
In The Relationship between Gender Type of Sport, Body Dissatisfaction Self- esteem and Disordered Eating behaviors in Division I Athletes (Milligan & Pritchard, 2006), it is shown that women with eating disorders behaviors have body dissatisfaction, and low self-esteem where as men with disorders eating behaviors only have body dissatisfaction. This shows gender is a factor that proves women do not have strong coping skills as men.
Next, the article Linking self-differentiation and mental health in lower grade college students with different genders: Moderating role ot selt-esteem (Yao & explores the association between the selt- differentiation and mental health in both genders, and the results indicate that male students have higher levels of self-esteem than female students. Female students are at higher risk to not seek help for their mental health problems. However, one source disconfirmed these researchers' earlier hypothesis.
From the Gender differences in domain- specific self-esteem: A meta-analysis (Gentile et, al. 2009) hich examines gender differences in ten specific- domain of self-esteem across one hundred and fifteen studies, there was no relationship in gender differences in academic, social acceptance, family and affect self-esteem. These results rejected our current hypothesis in terms that gender is not a factor in determining individual's self-esteem levels which cause better achievement in academic and in health. To conclude, gender role has no relationship with self-esteem.
Discussion Our group research finding hypothesis was not supported because we predicted that there is a relation between gender role and self-esteem. After we calculated our onvenience survey Coppersmith Self-esteem Inventory results taken from twenty seven students, both male and females college students at the age of eighteen to thirty five, here are our results: gender, OD = self-report and demographic, CV= self-esteem, OD = CSEI score on survey. Our r value is . 054, df is 25. The critical value for r at a significance level of . 05 (middle column, two-tailed on page 411) is . 3809.
Our r value of . 054 is less than the above r value of . 3809. Our r value is not significant and is very close to zero. This means that there was no relation between our variables, for our results were not significant. Therefore, we found no relation between gender and self-esteem; we cannot predict participants' self-esteem based on their gender roles. The only source that would support our result finding was the last article in Gender differences in domain- specific self-esteem: A meta- analysis (Gentile et, al. 2009), which we thought it would disconfirm with our earlier hypothesis.
As a result, our prediction was incorrect, for this article supported our current finding. This article indicates gender is not valid predictor variable that can be used to manipulate/calculate the criterion variable, which in this case is a tudent's self-esteem level. Therefore, gender differences have no impacts on students' academic, social acceptance, family relationship and affect self-esteem. Since we had a small sample of participants, it was hard to generalize our finding because there was not much to analyze and we also thought this factor affected our results.
Besides, participants' agreement with the CSEI questionnaires did not guarantee their truthful emotions at the time they were taking the inventory because they had a handful of surveys to complete. The likelihood for participants to have responsive bias in this survey is high. For future studies, we would definitely try to get larger and equal number of participants whom would actually be a representative sample that represent both gender populations. This will help us to obtain stronger validity for the study and rule out sampling bias.
In sum, we feel that understanding self-esteem levels in each individual is very important because it will help us to develop better ways to improve our conditions and adopt new ways to cope with our obstacles. As we learn how self-esteem affects our behaviors, we will have more awareness and perception of our own selves and between both genders
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