Relevance of Sports in Youth Development
TABLE OF CONTENT Acknowledgments Abstract Dedication CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Introduction The history of sports probably extends as far back as the existence of people as purposive sportive and active beings. Sport has been a useful way for people to increase their mastery of nature and the environment.
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The history of sport can teach us a great deal about social changes and about the nature of sport itself. Sport seems to involve basic human skills being developed and exercised for their own sake, in parallel with being exercised for their usefulness.
It also shows how society has changed its beliefs and therefore there are changes in the rules. Of course, as we go further back in history the dwindling evidence makes the theories of the origins and purposes of sport difficult to support. Nonetheless, its importance in human history is undeniable. Sports that are at least two and a half thousand years old include hurling (similar to field hockey) in Ireland, harpastum (similar to rugby) in Rome, cuju (similar to association football) in China, and polo in Persia.
The Mesoamerican ballgame originated over three thousand years ago. There are artifacts and structures that suggest that the Chinese engaged in sporting activities as early as 2000 BC.  Gymnastics appears to have been a popular sport in China’s ancient past. Monuments to the Pharaohs indicate that a number of sports, including swimming and fishing, were well-developed and regulated several thousands of years ago in ancient Egypt.  Other Egyptian sports included javelin throwing, high jump, and wrestling.
Ancient Persian sports such as the traditional Iranian martial art of Zourkhaneh. Among other sports that originate in Persia are polo and jousting. This thematic profile attempts to broadly introduce some of the current themes related to physical education and sport for youth. In the literature related to physical education and sport there is much debate across the world over definitions of physical education, sport and physical activity. There is also great variance in the standard age boundaries for youth world-wide. These issues will not be explored in detail here.
Rather a number of links to further reading and resources are provided after each sub-theme to direct readers to additional information. Within schools, physical education is an essential component of quality education. Not only do physical education programmes promote physical activity, such programmes also correlate to improved academic performance under certain conditions. Sport can also, under the right conditions, provide healthy alternatives to deviant behaviour such as drug abuse, violence and crime. 1. 2 Objectives of the study
In other to achieve the aim of this research,the researcher will be writing on three specific objectives and three element of the problem statement which are as follows; a)To determine the Relevance of Sports to Youth Development b)To Determine the importanceof physical fitness to Youth Development c)To help youths develop a Healthy habits for life d)To help the youth develop confidence and identity e)To determine social benefit to the youth a)Relevance of Sports in Youth Development The benefits to children participating in organized sports are numerous.
Organized sports help teach kids about physical fitness and and the importance of taking care of their bodies throughout their lives. Sports also can help teach kids important social and interpersonal skills, as well as teach them the value of hard work and persistence. Fitness Playing organized sports helps children get the exercise they need to stay healthy, and develop habits that will stay with them throughout their lives. Sports also help kids develop and understand skills and strengths that they will need forever, such as agility, coordination, endurance, and flexibility.
Healthy Habits For Life Children who play sports have an increased awareness of their bodies, and are less likely to do things that will harm them at an early age, such as smoking cigarettes, drinking, or taking drugs. Many sports programs also strive to teach nutrition to young athletes, giving them even more awareness of the things they should and should not do to their bodies. This is a particularly important issue now more than ever, as the obesity rate in children is rising each year in almost every part of the world Confidence and Identity
Participating in sports can help a child become more confident in his skills. As children practice and work to become better at any activity, their confidence level will increase. This new-found confidence will carry over into other things besides sports, including their studies and personal lives. Group activities such as organized sports help kids identify with a particular group–their team, perhaps–which is essential to the personal and social development of a child. Children who do not feel they are accepted or belong anywhere often experience depression, anxiety and a general lack of confidence.
Hard Work and Persistence Group sports teach kids that in order to become good at something, they must work toward their goals. This is a very valuable lesson, one that they must carry with them into their adult lives. Sports also teach children that when they do not succeed–losing a game, for example–that they must deal with losing, and move on. Obviously, this is critical, because as an adult, you must move on after any kind of defeat or loss, and work to prevent those things from happening again, whether it is on the field, in your work, or in your personal life.
Social Benefits Children who participate in these types of activities learn to communicate and work better with their peers and with adults. Teamwork is a valuable skill for children. Organized sports often are made up of kids who have a variety of different social and economic backgrounds, which can help teach children about diversity, and also provide the opportunity to make new friends. 1. 3Problem Statement The spate of youth involvement in crime rate has been the motivation for this research on how sports can be used to better develop the youth for development.
The method for this research was qualitative and descriptive, as i used primary and secondary methods to source and collect data on the relevance of the topic. However, in this research, i developed a theoritical framework collecting data through distribution of questionnaires and interviews of some youths with a population sample of 50 persons. 1. 4Test of Hypothesis 1. 5Defination and Explanation of Terms CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW In this chapter, we will be reviewing all other relevant works by researches to enable us determine the Relevance of Sport in Youth Development.
Works being reviewed here includes but not limited to Sport in general and youth development as a concept of its own. Firstly, the The United Nations defines youth as persons between the ages of 15 and 24, inclusive. In many cases, this definition includes people who have reached the age of majority (usually 18 years), yet still face unique issues and challenges as young adults. The UN also states that, while teenagers and early teens may be all considered ‘youth,’ the social, psychological and health challenges they face may be quite different (http://www. un. rg/esa/socdev/unyin/qanda. htm). The National Youth Council states that, while there is no ‘correct’ definition of youth, the term generally refers to people between the ages of 15 –and 29. The Council also offers a working definition of ‘youth development’ as: …a process which prepares young people to meet the challenges of adolescence and adulthood through a co-ordinated, progressive series of activities and experiences which help them to become socially, morally, emotionally, physically and cognitively competent.
Positive youth development addresses the broader developmental needs of youth, in contrast to deficit-based models which focus solely on youth problems. It is evident in the literature reviewed that this holistic definition of youth development dovetails with current research on youth and sport. The definition concludes that sport-based programs should be part of a multi-agency approach to meeting the needs of young people, and they should not be considered in isolation from the broader social and material context.
Definitions of ‘sport’ and ‘youth’ tend to vary, but, in most cases, youth sport is understood to be an organized and supervised activity that facilitates and encourages teamwork, discipline, and hard work among young people. While a great deal of evidence has been collected regarding the benefits of sport participation for children and youth, few conclusions have been drawn regarding the mechanisms by which sport positively facilitates, or contributes to, child and youth development.
Developmentally appropriate forms and levels of sport and physical activity are key to the healthy physical, mental and social growth and development of children and youth. Youth unemployment is serious and growing problem in most African countries. In fact, in many of the countries, youth unemployment is about two times the national unemployment rate; in Nigeria it is four times the national average. An equally worrying trend is the high level of unemployment among educated youth.
Two recent surveys for IFESH by NISER and Institute for Peace at the University of Ibadan revealed youth unemployment rates of over 60% among educated youth in Delta, Rivers, Kaduna, Kano and Plateau states – the focal states of the CALM project. The traditional responses to the youth unemployment problem in Africa include direct job creation, job skills training, community-based public works programs, educational reform with focus on technical education and vocational training. For instance, over 15 years ago, the Nigerian government established the National Open Apprenticeship Scheme operated by the National Directorate of Unemployment NDE). These measures have failed to alleviate the problem. The result is that youth unemployment remains a critical problem and source of insecurity in Nigeria and elsewhere in Africa. In fact, unemployed youths are known to be the main participants and “cannon fodders” in the spate of conflicts as well as the main culprits in general state of insecurity and armed robberies in many communities in Nigeria. Thus, to prevent and effectively manage conflicts and insecurity in Nigeria (and elsewhere in Africa), the army of unemployed youths must be productively engaged in activities that will keep them away from conflicts and trouble.
Sport is one activity that can provide productive engagement for the teeming youths in Nigeria. To be sure, sport along cannot solve the youth unemployment problem, but the promotion of sports will go a long way in helping to alleviate the problem in combination with other policies. (October 29, 2006, Press Article by Dr. Emmanuel Ojameruay http://www. niaausa. org/sports-promotion-as-an-instrument-for-productive-youth-engagement-a-case-study-of-ifesh%e2%80%99s-calm-project/) Coalter’s (2005) review essay captures important evidence regarding the role of sport in building and facilitating social and community inclusion and active citizenship.
This body of literature, as interpreted and reported by Coalter (2005), links sport to Putnam’s (2000) notion of ‘social capital. ’ Communities with good social capital have strong community networks, a good sense of local identity and solidarity, and high levels of trust and support among members. With this in mind, there is evidence to 17 suggest that developing sport in the community may contribute to developing communities through sport (Coalter, 2005, p. 19), but also that non-traditional approaches should be taken if such results are to be realized.
Most notably, a ‘bottom up’ approach that aligns with and supports existing community-based sporting infrastructure, and utilizes local labour and resources, has been found to have the most impact at the community level; it also has the additional advantage of avoiding local scepticism about ‘quick-fix schemes’ (Coalter, 2005). More specifically, sport has been used as a practical tool to attract young people to volunteering, engaging them at the community level. Eley & Kirk (2002, cited by Coalter, 2005) found hat such programs resulted in increased measures of altruism, community orientation, leadership and sense of self among young people. These findings align with a recent analysis of the social and cultural benefits of sport in a Canadian city. The report found that child and youth participation in sport in Calgary, not only as athletes but also as volunteers and officials, means that children and youth are experiencing and learning the values of citizenship and leadership – as they take on more responsibility for their sporting experiences and for the future administration of sport in their community (Douglas Brown Consulting, 2005).
Coakley (2002) and Donnelly & Coakley (2002) have also carried out broadly based reviews of research evidence regarding the potential of sport programs to contribute to child and youth development and the social inclusion of children and youth. Coakley (2002) reviewed a wide range of research regarding youth development and concluded that, in exemplary programs, participants should feel physically safe, personally valued, socially connected, morally and economically supported, personally and politically empowered, and hopeful about the future.
Donnelly & Coakley (2004) have pointed out that, where such programs are not available, youth gangs may actually meet some of these needs. With regard to the social inclusion of children and youth, Donnelly & Coakley (2002) point out the following: • Inclusion is, first and foremost, an access issue, and the first thing that is necessary to promote inclusion is to overcome the structural/systemic barriers that prevent participation; • The real benefits of sport involvement appear to derive from the potentials that are released in children and youth with ‘good,’ educated and sincere leadership. It seems that almost any type of well-intentioned program has tangible benefits with the ‘right’ people in charge” (p. 15). Thus, a great deal of effort should be expended on research regarding leadership training, and on the process of training both professionals and volunteers who are likely to be involved in the leadership of such programs; • At this time, we know a great deal more about the barriers to participation/inclusion (although we have not been able to tap the political will to overcome such barriers) than we do about the process of social inclusion.
Questions have been raised about the social inclusion potential of competitive sport programs (which are, by their very nature, organized along principles of social exclusion), and about programs organized on the principles of ‘social control. ’ In addition to overcoming barriers to 18 participation, we need a great deal more research to understand the process of social inclusion in sport. Recent research suggests that sport-based programs focused on children and youth in areas of conflict offer a means of both resolution and, in turn, reconciliation.
Richards (1997, cited by Giulianotti, 1999), for example, found that sport can facilitate positive social opportunities in post-war Africa, where violence and child-soldiering have severely restricted or foreclosed the health and welfare of children and youth. Similarly, Gasser & Levinsen (2004, p. 179) documented the success of Open Fun Football Schools in reintegrating ethnic communities in the post-war Balkans, although they caution that “football is something like frontline farmland: fertile, but likely to be mined. When war leads to limited avenues for social and personal development, the importance of physical activity for children and youth may be thought to increase, and participation opportunities become paramount, in the contributions such opportunities afford to children impacted by conflict (Richards, 1997). These results suggest that, if sport-focused projects are locally grounded, carefully thought out, and professionally managed, they can make a modest contribution to conflict resolution and peaceful coexistence in regions of violence (Sugden, 2006).
Research also suggests that sport may provide an opportunity for positive peer interaction and healthy competition for and among youth (Weiss & Stuntz, 2004, cited by Hedstrom & Gould, 2004). Recent research suggests that peer relationships are a key part of young people’s experiences in sport, and that social acceptance and affiliation are important components in determining the extent to which children and youth enjoy participating in sport (Smith, 2003). As young people mature, they increasingly rely on peers or information and feedback regarding physical competence; therefore, sport as a context of physical activity, serves as a key site of child and youth development (Smith, 2003). Young offenders are increasingly referred to programs that include sport as an integral part of the rehabilitative process. The theoretical rationale for this approach positions offending youth as inadequately socialized to community norms, and sport as a remedial lesson in social norms and community living (Andrews & Andrews, 2003). There is also a widespread belief in the therapeutic value of sport (Coalter, 2005; Seefeldt & Ewing, 2002).
Sports have also been used to enhance social development among children and youth by connecting “at risk” youth to social- and job-skills training, education programs and/or leadership opportunities. In these schemes, sports are not a “mechanism” for social development, but rather a positive means of inducing marginalized or delinquent youth towards other social programs that address underlying risk factors for crime involvement, early school leaving, homelessness and a range of other social problems in this population.
Seefeldt & Ewing (2002) suggest that sport programs that target “at risk” youth can provide a “safe alternative activity to violence and intimidation” and gang membership, because sports teams may meet the individual’s need for social inclusion, physical competency and recreation. This research argues that the usefulness of sports to mediate anti-social behaviour in young people improves when used in combination with a full range of social, educational, and job-skill training programs (Seefeldt & Ewing, 2002).
Secondly, we will not over look the relevance of Sports as a means of education to youth development. There is a significant amount of evidence to suggest that sport-based programs improve the learning performance of children and youth, facilitating educational attainment and encouraging them to stay in school, and that sport-based programs in schools aid in the social development of young people. This relationship is thought of in different ways.
In the most basic way, sport participation at a young age helps children to learn physical skills that allow them to stay active later in life (Hedstrom & Gould, 2004). The educational benefits are often thought of more broadly, though. Children may learn, or become familiar with, the competitive process and learn to assess their competence in different skills through sport participation (Seefeldt & Ewing, 2002).
In addition, the Conference Board of Canada’s (2005) report on sport in society states that sport is an important tool by and through which participants, particularly young people, gain and enhance a range of skills that are transferable to important parts of adult life. A case study of the Physically Active Youth (PAY) program in Namibia found that after-school programs targeting youth and focusing on a variety of physical activities (including aerobics, dance, outdoor education and competitive sports) increased the number of students who passed the national Grade 10 examination (CABOS Report, 2006).
Since students who fail this exam, and drop out of school, tend to face a number of social barriers and engage in unhealthy behaviours (such as unemployment, drug abuse, anti-social behaviour, and an increased risk of contracting HIV/AIDS), the program is understood to make a strong contribution to the lives of Namibian youth by encouraging and facilitating their continued education (CABOS Report, 2006).
Furthermore, an assessment of an education-based sport-development intervention in South Africa concluded that a variety of perceived social spinoffs, including community, financial and personal empowerment, were attached to increasing sport opportunities in a school setting, and helped to foster improved relations between children and teachers (Burnett, 2001). The Sport in Education (SpinEd) project, under the direction of Richard Bailey, gathered evidence to influence policy development aimed at redressing the decreasing trends in physical education and school sport (PESS).
In addition, the project constructed a framework for evaluating the role of PESS in different countries and cultures, and collected best practices and evidence regarding the role of PESS in making positive contributions to school life (Bailey & Dismore, 2004). Their report concluded that PESS can make an important contribution to the education and development of children and youth, and that evidence supports the positive relationship between PESS and development in physical, lifestyle, affective, social and cognitive domains (Bailey & Dismore, 2004, p. 2). Bailey & Dismore conclude that the educational character of PESS needs to be accentuated and that PESS should be available to all children and youth as an educational entitlement, though they caution against any simple interpretation of causal benefits from PESS participation. The cognitive benefits of sport participation among children and youth remain a topic of research.
Bailey’s (2006) review article illustrates that research debunks the notion that physical education and sport participation interfere with educational goals and academic achievement and, in many cases, research supports a link between physical education and improved academic performance (see also Sallis& Owen, 1999). While the benefits of regular exercise on cognition are small, the results are reliable for reaction time, reflexivity and performance of mathematics (Thomas et al. , 1994, cited by Coalter, 2005).
However, since the quantitative data in this area are based on cognitive differences in pre- versus post-testing, it is difficult to assess or identify the mechanisms by which such improvements in cognitive performance occur. Coalter (2005) concludes that there is no definitive evidence in the literature of a causal relationship between sport participation and academic achievement. Thus, Bailey (2006) cautions that it should be considered that PESS can lead to improved cognitive development under the right conditions.
There is also evidence to support the link between sport participation and educational achievement for college and university students. University students who use recreational sports facilities persist in their studies at a higher rate than non-sport participants, since recreational and intramural sport offers an important opportunity for interaction among students and the building of student satisfaction (Belch, Gebel & Maas, 2001). Evidence supports not only the educational benefits of sport participation, but also the utility of sport programs as educational catalysts to implement interventions and teach life skills.
Papacharisis et al. (2005) provide evidence from the GOAL 25 program, a peer-to-peer, sport-based life-skills program targeted at youth who participated in sports clubs. The study supported the effectiveness of life-skills education (such as goal setting, problem solving and positive thinking) through its integration with sport programs. The results suggest that, in such interventions, athletes may improve their sports and life skills in a complementary fashion (Papacharisis et al. , 2005). Thirdly, the relevance of sports to youth development can be seen as tool of charracter-building in youths and development.
While, Donnelly (1993, p. 428) noted: “We have long held, although with little evidence, that sport participation has the capacity to transform the character of individuals. ” Of all the literature on sport and children/youth, the most difficult to quantify, yet also the most compelling in terms of social benefits, deals with the possibility that participation in sport and physical activity may positively impact the moral development of youth. Based on survey data, Canadians consider sport, after family, to have the most influence on the development of positive values in youth (CCES, 2002).
In fact, in data collected in this survey, the role that sport plays in promoting and developing moral character was considered to be an essential component of the very definition of sport for children and youth, although not surprisingly, these ideas of the positive impact of sports on the development of character tend to come from those coaches, parents, volunteers and participants who are actively involved in children’s and youth sport (CCES, 2002). According to Coakley & Donnelly (2004, p. 3) this “character logic” is often used to encourage and defend children’s participation in sport; it is also used to justify the funding of sport programs, the building of facilities and the sponsorship of events. While the causal linkages and mechanistic connections between sport participation and character-building are difficult to create and sustain, theories have been put forth (supported in some cases by evidence-based research) to support the notion that participation in sport and physical activity builds character in children and youth. In a review essay, Ewing et al. (2002, p. 6) argued that sport offers a “dynamic domain” for moral and character development and expression among youth, particularly in terms of positive values such as hard work, fair play and an orientation to succeed, and behaviour and social relations. However, the same authors argue that sport does not, in and of itself, lead to the development of character or morals in youth, and, in fact, holds the possibility to undermine the creation of what would generally be considered positive traits of personal behaviour (Ewing et al. , 2002). Such interpretations are borne out in the literature.
Hansen et al. ’s (2003) recent analysis of youth activities found that such activities provide a context for a wide range of developmental experiences; but, development of self-knowledge, emotional regulation and physical skills were particularly high within sport participation when compared to academic- and leadership-type activities. At the same time, sport activities were also the only context in this study in which youth also reported higher rates of negative experiences, particularly in relation to peer interaction and inappropriate adult behaviour (Hansen et al. 2003, p. 47). Thus, when cataloguing sport within an array of youth activities, the pattern of experiences was mixed and sport could be understood as both character building and challenging (Hansen et al. , 2003, p. 50). Hedstrom & Gould’s (2004, p. 5) review essay also concludes that research has demonstrated that character in children and youth can be enhanced in sport and physical education settings “when fair play, sportsmanship and moral development information is systematically and consistently taught. In other words, given that sport is a powerful social experience in the lives of children and youth, positive character development may occur under the right circumstances (PCPFS, 2006). Given that moral behaviour is learned through social interaction, the ways in which relations with others are constructed and facilitated impacts the ethical and moral behaviour learned through sport. In other words, there is a level of transfer between the values and ethics promoted in the sport and the moral character instilled in children and youth who participate.
Ewing et al. (2002) reviewed evidence suggesting that a focus on reflection and meditation led to lower levels of anxiety for youth studying martial arts, and that athletes who focused on personal improvement, as opposed to greater ability, considered the sport to be a pedagogical tool for co-operation and citizenship as opposed to dominance and ends focused orientations (Ewing et al. , 2002, p. 37). Evidence also suggests that coaches play a key role in developing the moral and ethical parameters that impact youth involved in sport.
This research indicates that the moral values and behaviour learned by children in sport come directly from instruction and their own engagement, and indirectly from observing coaches’ responses (Ewing et al. , 2002, p. 37). The analysis of youth sport participation and character development has been broken down into component parts: perspective-taking and empathy, moral reasoning and motivational orientation (PCPFS, 2006). The concept of character is often understood in relation to the ability to consider the views and positions of others.
Perspective-taking is the cognitive ability to understand multiple points of view, while empathy is the affective skill of understanding the experiences of another person or group (PCPFS, 2006). In combination, perspective-taking and empathy underpin moral development and can be learned through game strategy and consideration of multiple perspectives within the sporting context – although this relationship is primarily a theoretical one, yet to be corroborated through evidence-based research (PCPFS, 2006).
What has been documented through research, however, is that physical activity outside of sport may, in fact, be better suited to promoting empathy among youth, and that moral reasoning may be developed through sport if actively promoted in dialogue with a coach (PCPFS, 2006). For example, Trulson (1986, cited by Coakley & Donnelly, 2004, p. 171) found that the type of sport experience was key to reducing ‘delinquent’ behaviour in that martial arts taught with a philosophy of respect, patience, responsibility and honour were related to decreased delinquency, while those based on free sparring and self-defence were related to higher evels of delinquency. Research examining moral reasoning, or the ability to think about moral issues, among athletes has actually found that participation in sport is associated with lower levels of moral reasoning maturity; however, there is also evidence that coaches or physical educators may successfully promote the development of moral reasoning if they actively seek to do so (PCPFS, 2006).
In relation to the third component of character, motivational orientation or the cognitive rationales for behaviour, research suggests that motivation may be improved through the type of positive team environment that sport participation can provide for children and youth (PCPFS, 2006).
In effect, the potential does exist to effectively promote moral development through sport because the social interactions associated with sport participation may impact certain psychological traits that underlie moral decision-making (Seefeldt & Ewing, 2002). Leadership is also an issue that has been examined in research on children/youth and sport participation. Dobosz & Beaty’s (1999) analysis found that high-school athletes scored higher on a leadership ability measure than their non-athlete counterparts.
They conclude, therefore, that athletics offers youth an opportunity and platform to develop and improve leadership skills and abilities. In conclusion, whereas sport has the possibility to provide an environment for the development of moral character, evidence also supports the idea that sport provides an opportunity to suspend moral obligation or support unethical behaviour in pursuit of winning. Coakley & Donnelly (2004, p. 4) point out that much of the research addressing sport and character over the past 50 years suffers from three problematic assumptions: that every kind of organized, competitive sport impacts the moral development of every athlete in the same ways; that the character-building experience of sport is unique to the extent that those who do not play are at a disadvantage in developing moral character; and that the notion of what constitutes positive moral characteristics is generally accepted. In this sense, Shields & Bredemeier (1995, cited by Ewing et al. 2002) caution that it is not the physicality of sport, or the learning and performance of sporting skills, that is either ethical or unethical or related to character development; more accurately, it is that social interactions within the sport experience potentially impact the development of moral character. Research suggests that sport programs among children and youth may contribute to social inclusion, both at the community level and in post-conflict areas, as well as in social psychological relations such as peer groups.
Criminology literature has found evidence that sport-based programs may make a positive contribution to reducing youth crime as diversionary, rehabilitation and gateway programs. Youth sport participation has been linked to educational benefits if physical education is included as part of broad-based educational programs, although causal links between sport participation and educational achievement are difficult to establish.
Evidence suggests that character-building, including moral behaviour, empathy, reasoning and leadership, may be promoted and facilitated through sport, although such processes are highly dependent on the context of the sporting program and the values promoted therein. From the literature reviewed, it is clear that sports participation among children and youth can encourage positive social, emotional, educational, community and moral development; however, these benefits are not automatic.
Sports programs positively impact youth when: (a) they are conducted with a person-centred approach that is flexible enough to respond to the needs, motivations and rights of the child/youth, and (b) they de-emphasize rules, rivalry and winning, and emphasize choice for participants, effort and positive feedback (Sport England, 2002). This review of research also indicates that the operation and outcomes of sport programs are affected by, and, in turn, affect, a myriad of social factors/forces, and cannot be implemented or evaluated in isolation from these conditions.
In terms of positive child and youth development, a multi-faceted approach is needed to target the multiple social conditions that contribute to positive outcomes (Coalter, 2005). In particular, positive attitudes, values and character traits must be actively promoted and taught in any child-/youth-focused sports program. This is most effectively accomplished with the positive, enthusiastic and skillful engagement of a coach, teacher or leader (Seefeldt & Ewing, 2002).
Coakley’s list of the characteristics of exemplary sport programs for child and youth development indicates that participants should feel: physically safe; personally valued; socially connected; morally and economically supported; personally and politically empowered; and hopeful about the future. Sport programs have a positive impact on children and youth when they are person-centred, as opposed to outcome oriented, and emphasize choice and autonomy over rules and a focus on winning.
In general, there is a lack of evidence from which to make strong claims about sports participation and social inclusion for and among children and youth (Bailey, 2005). Although there is an increasing awareness of the potential of sport to aid in the social and educational development of children and youth, there is also consensus that the specific contributions of sport (regarding education, socialization and social integration) need to be identified, and that a solid knowledge base can help to create a new political agenda and to ensure its implementation (Doll-Tepper, 2006, p. 1). The future success of sport and child/youth initiatives rely, to an extent, on co-operation between a variety of networks and stakeholders, such as community, sports clubs and schools, and between researchers and practitioners (Doll-Tepper, 2006, p. 71). There is also a need for more research to focus on the specific mechanisms by, and conditions under, which sport can and does make a positive contribution to child and youth development.
Similarly, there is a need to better understand issues such as social inclusion and leadership/leadership training. Without careful attention paid to the conditions (social, psychological, material) that frame the lives of children and youth and their sporting experiences, the impact of sport-based interventions in relation to child/youth development are speculative at best. There is significant evidence to support the utility of sport in facilitating and supporting the development of children and youth.
Sport participation and sport-based initiatives targeted at children and youth have been shown to decrease social exclusion and contribute to community-building and inclusion in a host of social contexts, such as areas of post-conflict and areas of poverty in LMICs. Research also suggests that sport offers an important resource for reducing delinquency and crime among youth and promoting community safety. Sport is also associated with facilitating educational commitment and attainment among children and youth, and as a vehicle for promoting character-building and moral development.
The central conclusion of this literature review, however, is that these positive results of child/youth sport participation and child- and youth-based initiatives are not automatic or linear. Research indicates that sport programs should be part of a multi-agency approach to child and youth development, and that committed facilitators (coaches, administrators, volunteers) are needed to ensure that appropriate values (fair play as opposed to winning) are encouraged through sport programs. References J. Andrews & G.
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World Bank, Data and Statistics: Country Classification. http://web. worldbank. org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/DATASTATISTICS/0,,contentMD:20420458~menuPK:64133156~pagePK:64133150~piPK:64133175~theSitePK:239419,00. html Chapter Three 3. 0Research Methodology This chapter deals with how data was collected systematically so as to obtain useful information on the relevance of sport in youth development. The researcher is cognisant that this can be done in various ways and have given considerations to different approaches before settling for the ones which seems more suitable in finding answer to the research question.
Both quantitative and qualitative instruments which were deemed more appropriate were used to enable the researcher gather necessary information about the relevance of sports to youth development. Below are methods that were considered; 3. 1RESEARCH DESIGN A research setting is seen as a framework for gathering the relevant data for a study. Thus Bryman and Bell (2007) suggests that a research design is a systematic technique or procedure for solving a specified research problem. Therefore the research design adopted for this study was a survey. This enabled the researcher to look into the research topic under study. . 2SOURCES OF DATA In order to carry out this research effectively, data were gathered from two major sources. They include primary and secondary data. 3. 2. 1 Primary Data The primary method of gathering data is also considered as survey method. According to Bryman and Bell (2007: 56) a ”survey research comprises a cross sectional design in relation to which data are collected predominantly by questionnaire or by structured interview in other to collect a body of data in connection with two or more variables”. The purpose is to gather extensive and authoritative information about a study.
Thus the researcher considered this technique best suitable for the study because unlike the secondary or historical data, the survey approach draws data from the present. As suggested by Jankowicz (2005), the survey method is used to determine the views of a sample based on what they feel, value and believe. Therefore it is obvious that this study intends to seek the perceptions of teachers, students, parents, sports men and women. Furthermore this method is used when the same question is used to seek the views and opinions of a relatively large sample size.
Thus the tools used in the survey were structured questionnaire and interview. 3. 2. 2Questionnaire Questionnaires can take many forms depending on what is being measured. Designing questionnaires can be problematic because they involve a creative process of writing and a design process for devising a structure which is rational in terms of its objectives and intended subject. However Riley et al (2005) posits that the questionnaire has an advantage of collecting information on facts and opinions from a large number of people.
Thus to carry out this research, the researcher administered questionnaires to teachers, students, parents, sportsmen and women. The questionnaire comprised of direct questions to teachers and coaches over the relevance of sport to youth development. The questionnaire consisted of fifteen structured questions with five options each to a question in a simple dichotomy of strongly agree, moderately agree, strongly disagree, disagree and undecided. A cover letter accompanied the questionnaire. It explained the purpose of the research, the aim of the questionnaire and the procedure for completing the questionnaire.
The questionnaires were sent to the sample size by hand. The completed questionnaires were returned to the researcher on scheduled date of collection. 3. 2. 3Interview The researcher also conducted an interview with 4 sports adminstrators to gather data. The aim was to obtain relevant information from the perspective of those responsible for the adoption and implementation of Youth policies and sports in general about the relevance of sports to youth development. The interview was conducted through word to mouth conversation spending approximately 15 to 20 miniutes of the interviews 3. 0Secondary Data
This involves a systematic collection of data relating to past occurrences. It is very useful in tracing the development of an issue from existing archival records. Though Jankowicz (2005) stated that this method is commonly utilised in business and management research, it was not the best suitable for this study. However this method was employed in chapter two in examining past scholarly work relating to incentives pay and commitment and performance. By this the researcher gathered information from already written works both published and unpublished that had relevance to the topic under study.
They include text books, journals, articles and past research work form students. All these were consulted from institutional libraries and internet in London 4. 3 POPULATION OF THE STUDY It is the target of the study for collection of data. Olakunori (2000) opined that population is the entire number of people, objects, events and things that all have one or more characteristics of interest to a study. Similarly Castillo (2009) suggests that a research population is a well defined collection of individuals or objects known to have similar characteristics.
It can also be referred to as the group where inferences are made. Thus for this study, the population consisted of teachers, students, coaches, sports men and women, These were drawn from three school in FCT, Abuja, Sports ministry, Medical Sports Department of the Sports Commission of Nigeria. However due to the large size of the school population, the researcher could not test every student and teachers, population because doing so will be time consuming and expensive. Therefore the target population was 130 4. 4 DETERMINATION OF SAMPLE SIZE Castillo (2009) explains that a sample is a subset of the population.
It is imperative to mention that samples are used in a study that involves a large population. The reasons for using samples include the desire of the researcher to adequately manipulate the enormous population so as to avoid errors in calculating large numbers, and the desire to reduce the cost of producing the copies of questionnaire that would cover the entire population. Furthermore the aim was to allow the researcher to conduct the study to individuals from the population so that the results of the study can be used to draw conclusion that will apply to the entire population.
Thus for the purpose of achieving success in this study, the researcher in order to make an effective prediction of the population tried to find an optimal sample from which copies of questionnaire would be distributed. This was necessary since it was not possible to get the opinion of the entire population. Also an optimal sample size would make valid prediction of the population, minimise the cost and time of reaching the entire population. Barrow (1996) enumerates three ways of determining a sample size and they include; a. Conducting a small preliminary pilot survey b. Guessing . Using the results of existing surveys if available In light of the above the researcher adopted the first approach and conducted a pilot survey. The preliminary survey was carried out at Goverment Secondary Schools at Garki, and Wuse bothin Abuja, to know the reaction of the respondents to the questions and subsequently arrive at a sample size. As a result 130 copies of questionnaire were distributed to the respondents and 100 copies were properly completed and returned, while 30 were not returned. This represented 90 Percent success rate and 20 percent failure rate respectively.
Based on the result of the pilot survey, the sample was calculated using Freud and Williams’ (1970) model. The formula is stated thus; n= Z2 Pq e2 where n= sample size Z= Critical value corresponding to the chosen level of significance= 1. 96 (given) P= percentage of Success =80% or 0. 8 q= percentage of failure=20% or 0. 1 e=tolerance margin of error=5% or 0. 05 Also based on the result of the pilot survey, the researcher assumed a 95 percent degree of confidence and 5 percent margin of error. Thus substituting the above formulae we obtain, n= (1. 98)2 (0. 80) (0. 20) (0. 05)2 = 0. 614656 0. 0025 = 245. 8624= 246 Thus the sample size was 246; however the researcher administered 240 copies of questionnaires to the respondents. 4. 5 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS It should be recalled that this study dealt with ‘’The Impact of Incentives Pay on Employee commitment and performance: A case study of Union Bank Nigeria Plc’’. To ensure that the research work is understandable, the researcher made the simplified the analysis of data collected. To this end, all data collected were through the administered questionnaires and interview was presented and analysed using tables, charts and simple percentages. . 6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY A research of this nature cannot be successfully completed without some limitations or constraints. A major limitation to the research was the unfriendly attitude of some of the respondents of Union bank concerning the completion of the questionnaire administered to them. Some of the respondents revealed discreetly to the researcher that supplying any information to an outsider would cause problems for the organisation, not withstanding the efforts made by the researcher in explaining to them that the research was purely for academic purpose.
APPENDIX 3 COVER LETTER FOR QUESTIONNAIRE Ugba Vivien Anna C/o Business School University of Hertfordshire Hatfield United Kingdom The impact of incentives Pay on Employee Commitment and Performance Dear Respondents, I am studying for a masters degree in Human Resource Management and Employment Relations and as part of the requirement for the award of the degree, am carrying out a research work on the above topic. I would appreciate if you can some time out of your tight schedule to complete this questionnaire by providing answers to the listed questions.
I promise that information provided will be used for research work only and will also be treated in high confidentiality. Thanks for your anticipated cooperation Yours Sincerely Ugba Vivien Anna APPENDIX 4 QUESTIONNAIRE Procedure for completing the questionnaire Please I would like you to complete the questionnaire by providing answers to the questions below. Please tick the most appropriate answer/options to each of the questions using the options given which describe the extent to which you either agree or disagree with the question. Sex
Male [ ] Female [ ] Age 20-30 [ ] 31-40 [ ] 41-50 [ ] 51 above [ ] SECTION A: EMPLOYEE COMMITMENT OPINION SURVEY Adapted from Porter and Smith (1970) Organisational commitment Questionnaire S/N Questions Strongly Agree Moderately Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree 1 I am willing to put in a great deal of effort beyond that normally expected in order to help this organization be successful 2 I talk up this organization to my friends as a great organization to work for 3 I feel very little loyalty to this organization. I would accept almost any type of job assignment in order to keep working for this organization 5 I find that my values and the organization’s values are very similar 6 I am proud to tell others that I am part of this organization 7 I could just as well be working for a different organization as long as the type of work were similar 8 This organization really inspires the very best in me in the way of job performance 9 It would take very little change in my present circumstances to cause me to leave this organization. 0 I am extremely glad that I chose this organization to work for, over others I was considering at the time I joined 11 There’s not too much to be gained by sticking with this organization indefinitely 12 Often, I find it difficult to agree with this organization’s policies on important matters relating to its employees 13 I really care about the fate of this organization 14 For me this is the best of all possible organizations for which to work. 15 Deciding to work for this organization was a definite mistake on my part