General Introduction The Parties have become a major player In politics In the late nineteenth century. The functioning of political regimes is deeply committed to the existence of these political parties that did not exist in the eighteenth century and were still embryonic in the early nineteenth century. In the totalitarian, one-party organizing manipulation. This explains the importance of parties in this type of regime.
The importance of parties is also true In pluralist democracies because there Is a democratic competition : intention between political parties that compete for the conquest of Institutions and power. As the parties have a monopoly of electoral offer, they effectively control all elected offices, this means that the party has a virtual monopoly on the selection of leaders. For all these reasons, if we want to understand how liberal democracies work, one must understand how a political party works. What is a political party?
A political party is an organized association that brings together citizens united by a common Ideology or philosophy, which she seeks fulfillment , with the goal of inquest and exercise of power. This Is an organization In the service of an Idea. The political environment is not the same everywhere. It may give a different country to another characteristic of a locality to another. These characteristics result in particular the diversity of political parties, but also systems of parties that are not uniform. In France, the role of political parties has been enshrined in the Constitution of 1 958 (art. 4), which since 1999 also gives their mission Is to promote equal access for women and men to electoral mandates and elective functions. Law f 11 March 1988 on the financing of political parties said they form and pursue their activities freely, they are endowed with legal personality and can take legal action. ) The French political system can often seem bewildering and difficult to follow. Compared to Britain or the ASSAI, France seems to have a plethora of political parties.
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Politicians, supposedly of the political right, may be heard defending positions more often held by political parties of the left in many other countries, and In recent French history, a good proportion of the economic liberation's that has taken place In France has been pushed through by governments of the left. '-Type of political parties In a country, political parties are not all identical. Several factors can help to distinguish the number and quality of members, voting, discipline or schools of thought.
Depending on each element, we will have several types of parties. The most common distinction In political science remains that which Is established by Maurice Diverge between Mass Party and Cadre Party. We must therefore distinguish different types of parties: A- The Cadre Party The Cadre Party was born in the nineteenth century. The Cadre Party it's a parties they are parties of notables (resulting in a first time, the bourgeoisie or aristocracy) and traditionally are right or center. Example: the Radical Party in France.
The first parties were historically Cadre Parties. It was Initially parliamentary groups together the reputation, prestige, and sometimes money. All these parties remain poorly structured. The authority is exercised within the party executive is both personal and decentralized. It normally operates at the district and national bodies cadre parties are little more than the Juxtaposition of local influences. B- The Mass Party The Mass Party was born in the early twentieth century with the development of Socialism and Communism.
Their goal is the transformation of society and the creation of a new social order. For this, they rely on a structured and hierarchical organization and a large number of members and ensuring financial autonomy and supervision of party voters ; Example: the Socialist Party in France Unlike Cadre Parties, which are created spontaneously, Mass Parties were the result of a conscious . Notable party executives are reluctant to defend extreme positions, specially if they are contrary to their interest.
These considerations explain the emergence in the late nineteenth century Mass Parties and the fact that the first of them were socialist parties. Two objectives necessitate the creation of a Mass Party: compensation by the number of low social influence of the proletariat and educational purposes. The operation of the Mass Party rigorously apply democratic principles. Members are similar to the electorate. They elect delegates to the congress who meet regularly and take the most important decisions: adoption and amendment of the statutes, election management bodies.
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