People Who Changed the World
Nelson Mandela was born July 18, 1918 in Mutate, Transfer, South Africa to the chief of Moved, and after his father’s death when he was only nine years old, he was raised by the powerful ruler of the Themes Tribe, Contacting Delineated (Book, 2009). His thoughts were organized and disciplined by his father and guardian, who groomed him to someday be chief. It was not by mere chance that Nelson Mandela became the president of South Africa (Book, 2009).
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Mandela was wise for his years, he dreamed of democracy for his people. He was educated earning a BAA degree in 1942 at University of South Africa.
At the University of Watersides he worked on his law degree. Mandela and colleague, Oliver Tomb started South Africans first Black law firm (Book, 2009). Mandela fought tirelessly for the liberation of South Africa. In 1948 Apartheid became the official law of the land in South Africa. Each nationality in South Africa had to live in a separate geographic location, interracial marriage was not allowed, and South Africans had to be registered according to their race (Book, 2009). Mandela arranged a campaign to alleviate the dishonest laws.
Charges of treason led him to prison and confinement on several occasions (Book, 2009). The Arriving Trial of 1964 became known all around the world. Mandela again charged with treason but, this time sentenced to life in prison with no chance of parole. Appeals for clemency came to South Africa from abroad and the New York Times editorialist the trial charging the government as the guilty party (Book, 2009). However, for the next eighteen years Mandela was restricted to a maximum security prison on Robber Island off the coast of South Africa.
Prison was a mere hindrance for Mandela. His conviction to bring about change grew stronger. He led political study groups and put together Judicial appeals or other inmates while he himself was serving a life sentence (Book, 2009). The violence in South Africa was overwhelming and rampant throughout, killing many innocent women and children. In 1980, with strong suggestion from the NC, a campaign was set in motion by the Johannesburg newspaper to free Mandela (Book, 2009). A petition was drafted which thousands of people willingly signed to demand Mandela’s freedom.
Mandela was held in high regard, the brave representative of Black South African’ fight for freedom (Book, 2009). In 1982 Poolrooms Maximum Security Prison became Mandela’s next house of horror. The youth of black South Africans gained recognition and compassion from abroad and the government’s rising international criticism of its laws had to be addressed (Book, 2009). In 1985 President Booth’s attitude changed, Mandela was involved in secret government meetings. Meetings with the minister of Justice, Kebob Cosset were important and beneficial and led to a more promising future for Mandela and South Africa.
February 1 1, 1990 Mandela was released from prison (Book, 2009). Months later Mandela set out on a world tour throughout North America and Europe. He was welcomed as a hero and world leader. In Great Britain he met with Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. In the US he had discussions with President George H. W. Bush (Book, 2009). In 1991 Apartheid was no more, South Africa became a truly democratic, nonracial government. In 1993, Mandela and F. W. Clerk were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for the peaceful termination of the Apartheid regime (Book, 2009).
Also in 1993 another milestone was reached all South Africans were allowed to vote April 24, 1994. Mandela was elected first Black President in South Africa, he served from 1994 to 1999. Mandela and the government of national unity developed a program that testified blacks and attracted investments from abroad. In 1996 Mandela signed a new South African Constitution into law. The document made the government stronger, guaranteed expressions of freedom and minority rights. The lifelong dream of President Mandela was realized (Book, 2009).
Mandela continued to serve South Africa after he was no longer president (Book, 2009). He died in his home in Johannesburg December 5, 2013. Dry. Martin Luther King, Jar was an American Pastor, activist, humanitarian, and leader in the African- American Civil Rights movement. He was born January, 1929 in Atlanta, Georgia. Unlike Nelson Mandela, he was nonviolent in his pursuit for civil rights. He fought for civil rights until his assassination April 4, 1968 (Martin Luther King, 2011) He was born Michael King, Jar. To a Baptist minister in rural Georgia.
Michael King, Sir. Adopted the name in honor of the German Protestant religious leader Martin Luther, which he later followed suit (Martin Luther King, 2011). Martin Luther King had a religious upbringing. His father and grandfather were both Baptist ministers. By the time he was 25 years of age he was the pastor at Dexter Avenue Baptist Church and had completed his Ph. D. In 1955 Martin Luther King, 2011). In 1955 The Montgomery Bus Boycott of 1955 spearheaded by Dry. King was a demonstration that led to change in the civil rights of black people.
Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a white man, she was removed from the bus and Jailed. Rosa Parks and 5 other women appeared as ordered, represented by a lawyer, sued the court for segregation on buses (Martin Luther King, 2011). The Montgomery federal court ruled that segregation on buses violated the 14th amendment. The bus boycott came to an end December 1956 and the Supreme Court prohibited segregation on buses (Martin Luther King, 2011). Black people were no longer required to sit on the back of the bus.
Also this courageous boycott aided in the dissolution of the Jim Crow Laws. In 1963, Martin Luther King, Jar. And his constituents assembled the famous March on Washington that congregated more than 200,000 people to the Lincoln Memorial. King made his most renowned, “l Have a Dream,” speech (Martin Luther King, 2011). In effect the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was constructed. The federal government has declared desegregation of public facilities illegal (Martin Luther King, 2011). While it did not resolve all problems of coordination, the law lessened racial restrictions.