Chapter 33: The Cold War and Decolonization, 1945-1975 1. Introduction a. The end of the 2nd world war exposed a world of mutual antagonism rather than one of mutual cooperation b. The business of nation building c. Cold War technology and environmental impact 2. The Cold War a. The United Nations i. The formation of the United Nations and its basic structure ii. Beliefs and efficacy of the United Nations iii. Early resolutions carried great weight, but later the Western powers came to disregard many of the issues raised by the General Assembly b.
Capitalism and Communism i. New monetary systems were developed in the West and the Soviet Union ii. Recovery from the second World War in the East iii. Europeans launched a program of cooperation iv. The Soviet approach c. West versus East in Europe and Korea i. The spread of communism and Western reaction ii. NATO and Soviet competition over Europe iii. NATO and Soviet competition over Korea d. U. S. defeat in Vietnam i. Eisenhower said no to war in Vietnam, but Kennedy said yes ii. Johnson continued the war ii. U. S. got out in 1973 and U. S. attitudes toward the war e. The race for nuclear supremacy i. Atomic weapons ushered in a new era of warfare and diplomacy ii. The Cuban Missile Crisis iii. More efficient bombs and delivery systems iv. Arms limitations v. Things calmed down in Europe vi. The space race vii. Restraint 3. Decolonization and Nation Building a. New nations in South and Southeast Asia i. India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh ii. The Japanese role in South Asia and Southeast Asia iii. Sukarno iv. Myanmar, Singapore and the Philippines . Vietnam b. The struggle for independence in Africa i. Algeria ii. Institutions and factors that made good colonies poor independent countries iii. Kwame Nkrumah iv. Jomo Kenyatta v. French Africa and de Gaulle’s promises vi. The heart versus reason vii. The Southern Temperate Zone viii. South Africa c. The quest for economic freedom in Latin America i. U. S. and Europe dominated Latin America economies ii. Mexico and Guatemala iii. U. S. domination in Cuba iv. 1959 popular rebellion v. The Castro government d. Challenges of Nation Building i.
New nations join the United Nations ii. How to organize government? iii. How to educate the populous? 4. Beyond a bipolar world a. The Third World i. Definition of the terms ‘non-aligned’ and ‘third world’ ii. Many of these countries wanted money from the superpowers iii. A balancing act b. Japan and China i. Japan made amends for the war and rebuilt their industries ii. China very involved in Cold War politics iii. The Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution iv. Normalizing United States-China relations c. The Middle East . Arab politics in the 1950s ii. British policy on Palestine iii. The United Nations partitions Palestine into two states iv. Conflict and refugees v. The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) vi. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and more conflict d. The emergence of environmental concerns i. The beginnings of environmental awareness ii. High gas prices increased awareness of the scarcity of natural resources 5. Conclusion a. The ‘postwar’ era b. U. S. and U. S. S. R. c. The end of the postwar era
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