MICRO PRESENTATION TOPICS 1 Excellence is not an accomplishment, its a never ending process 39 What is meant to be, will always find a way 2 The pursuit of happiness 40 Its not the load that breaks you down. It is the way you carry it 3 The difference between a leader and boss 41 When all is said and done there is more said than done 3 The difference between a leader and boss 41 When all is said and done there is more said than done 4 Corporate social responsibility 42 Your focus determines your reality 5 Failure is an opportunity to begin again 3 Greenpeace 6 To be or not to be 44 Carbon footprints 7 Freedom and responsibility 45 Marine pollution 8 Knowledge and wisdom go hand in hand 46 Greenhouse effect 9 Democracy and India 47 What is global warming? 10 Leaders must be followers first 48 Genetic engineering 11 Inter-linking of rivers as a solution to water problems 49 You have to know the past to understand the present 12 Inter-linking of rivers - An ecological disaster 50 The key to successful leadership is influence, not authority 13 Pollution and economic development 1 Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world 14 The educated Indian and national commitment 52 Your most unhappy customers are your greatest source of learning. 15 Advertising and the consumer 53 Innovations in education 16 Intellectual bankruptcy in politics 54 We are creatures of our habits 17 Malala Yousafzai - candidate for Nobel Peace prize 55 India is a poor country with rich people. 18 India's preparedness to face terror attacks. 56 How can we contribute to saving the environment 19 Corruption - an epidemic 57 Genetic enginnering 0 India's lopsided development puts pressure on the cities 58 Marine pollution 21 State controlled economy vs liberalised economy 59 Coal mining and its impact on the environment 22 Indian states should be made smaller 60 What is soil conservation 23 Should India change its national game? 61 2013 budget 24 The corrupt efficient politician vs the inefficient honest politician 62 The problems of clinical waste 25 Funding of IIMs and IITs should be stopped 63 Economic development and its impact on the environment 26 Indians and patriotism 64 Kumbh Mela 2013 7 Higher education should be privatised 65 Land degradation 28 Oil prices in India 66 Environmental ethics 29 Success is all about human relations 67 Solutions for sustainable living 30 Are education and success co-related? 68 River contamination in India 31 Does the UN have relevance today 69 Impact of Facebook and Twiiter on youth 32 Happiness is not readymade. It comes from your own actions 70 Inflation and the Indian Economy 33 Is there hope in the darkest of days 71 Impact of decontrol of diesel on the common man 34 The purpose of life is to be happy 2 Haste makes waste 35 Age is an issue of mind over matter 73 The purpose of flashmobs 36 All things are difficult before they are easy 74 Organic farming 37 To live is the rarest thing in the world. Most people only exist. 75 Impact of Coalition governments on the progress of the nation 38 Sometimes answers are simple to complicated questions ………………………….. 1. All candidates are required to participate in the Micro Presentation (Extempore) to test their communication skill and knowledge on the given topics. 2. The Micro Presentation is for 90 seconds per candidate, 3.
Each Candidate will be asked to pick a topic on random basis at the Selection Process Venue and present orally on the Topic. 4. Candidates will have a chance to present only ONE topic listed. No second chance will be given to any candidate 5. Candidates should not possess any material related to the Topics during the Selection Process 6. Candidates will not be permitted to present any topic in Power Point (PPT) or Video 7. Cellular Phone, Satellite Phone, Pager, Scientific Calculators, Notebook, Textbooks, Printed Materials etc. , are not allowed into the Selection Process Venue. . The decision of the GD/MP Panel will be final and binding "Excellence is not an accomplishment. It is a spirit, a never ending process. " ~ What happens when you think you have reached "excellence"? Most will just stop because they think that they have reached it and there is really no need to go further. Well, have you ever wondered what was on the other side of excellence? How will we ever know unless we take a peak and strive for better? As Mr. Miller stated, it’s a never ending process. We are always looking for ways to improve our own performance so we must take the xtra step and look for ways to improve the organizations excellence. It all starts with you and one small positive action will have a domino effect into more smaller positive actions and eventually into massive positive actions to improving our excellence! Take a look around your own facility and see where you can improve. Maybe it starts with you or maybe it starts with improving something in your facility. Always remember to think like our customers. From our customers perspective, what can be done to become even more efficient at what we do and even better than we were yesterday.
Taking positive actions in the right direction is certainly one of the easiest ways to make that spirit of excellence soar into other aspects of Family and MWR. We are one big family of the most superb service providers so let's always make we do not just excellent, but beyond that! ………. The Pursuit of Happyness is a 2006 American biographical drama film based on Chris Gardner's nearly one-year struggle with homelessness. Directed by Gabriele Muccino, the film features Will Smith as Gardner, an on-and-off-homeless salesman-turned stockbroker. Smith's son Jaden Smith co-stars, making his film debut as Gardner's son Christopher Jr.
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The screenplay by Steven Conrad is based on the best-selling memoir written by Gardner with Quincy Troupe. The film was released on December 15, 2006, by Columbia Pictures. For his performance, Smith, was nominated for an Academy Award and a Golden Globe for Best Actor. The unusual spelling of the film's title comes from a sign Gardner saw when he was homeless. In the film, "happiness" is misspelled as "happyness" outside the daycare facility Gardner's son attends. ……….. My friend has a saying; Leadership cannot be demanded – only earned and deserved.
With that in mind, has anyone ever told you the difference between a boss and a leader? 1. The boss drives people; the leader coaches them. 2. The boss depends upon authority; the leader on good will. 3. The boss inspires fear; the leader inspires enthusiasm. 4. The boss says ‘I’; the leader says ‘we. ’ 5. The boss says ‘Get here on time’; the leader gets there ahead of time. 6. The boss fixes the blame for the breakdown; the leader fixes the breakdown. 7. The boss knows how it is done; the leader shows how. 8. The boss makes work a drudgery; the leader makes work a game. 9.
The boss says ‘Go’; the leader says ‘Let’s go. ’” 10. The boss justifies or lays blame – the leader takes responsibility. ……….. Corporate social responsibility Workers in all industries – including agriculture, technology, furniture, etc. – are still at risk. Today, after years of intense focus on the apparel and footwear industries, people are beginning to realize that urgent action is needed in other sectors, too. A proverbial “light bulb” has gone off in the minds of consumers and corporate executives alike: no brand is immune to supply chain issues, and the abuse of workers will not be tolerated in any industry.
Last month Apple became the first technology company to join FLA as a Participating Company, triggering what we can only hope will be a new wave of corporate social responsibility; a wave which knows no boundaries and cascades over geographic borders and product lines. Apple’s decision to join FLA sets a new standard for the technology industry, and reinforces that supply chain issues and protecting workers’ rights are not just the responsibility of apparel and footwear brands. It’s time for another generation of brands to join the fold. ………..
Your focus determines your reality Your focus determines your reality", this famous line was spoken by Qui-Gonn Jinn of Start Wars-The Phantom Menace fame. Ok, perhaps it is really infamous and you don't remember that quote. Nonetheless, think about it for a moment. Would you agree or disagree? I'm about to show you why I emphatically agree with this certain Jedi Master and not just because it's from Star Wars... well not completely ;) No I'm going to show you how your focus relates to anything you want to be successful in and then more specifically your Christian life.
Ready? Let's Go! "Close or narrow attention; concentration" - so says Mister dictionary. com. When you are focusing on a certain aspect of anything, you generally ignore the rest of the picture. You're concentrating so hard that the rest of it at the very least becomes far less important and occupies less of your mental powers. So what happens? You get more of what you're focusing on. And less of what you're ignoring. You can be successful at what ever it is you are focusing on because you're giving it all your attention.
And everything else gets harder to become better at. Whatever is in your focus, you will start to concentrate on it and you will be better conditioned to alter certain aspects of your life which will allow the object of your focus to actually become a true part of your life. Perhaps an example is in order: [Example] Say you are on a diet. You're not allowed to eat any carbohydrates. So what should you focus on? If you're gonna focus on the fact that you can't eat donuts and ho hos, what do you think you're gonna be craving all day? That's right--ho hos and donuts!
Now instead, lets say you focus on how you can make a great tasting meal out of fresh vegetables and yummy lean meat products, how you're gonna prepare them, cook them and enrich the flavor. What do you think you're gonna be craving that night? The no-carb-lean-meaty meal of course! [end example] See how your focus determines your reality? If you're concentrating on what you shouldn't be doing, you're setting yourself up for failure... are you starting to see how this relates to your Christian walk? What do most Christians focus on? What do most preachers preach on? What you can't do! Am I right?
The only result that can come from focusing on what you can't do is you doing exactly that! Most Christians think in terms of what they can't do--the law. The Bible goes so far as to say that we would not even know about sin if it wasn't for the law: "On the contrary, I would not have come to know sin except through the Law; for I would not have known about coveting if the Law had not said, "YOU SHALL NOT COVET. But sin, taking opportunity through the commandment, produced in me coveting of every kind" Romans 7:7-8 Likewise we would not even have the desire to do what we're not supposed to do if we weren't focused on not doing it. just read it again, It'll make sense). So it is clear that by fixating our attention on what it is we are trying to avoid, we are actually setting ourselves up for failure. You can't focus on what you don't want and get what you want. But you need to focus on something! And like our diet example, the right way to focus is on what you do want! Just like the diet works if you focus on the good foods, your Christian life will work if you focus on what is good--Jesus Christ and his life that he gave you. Focusing on Christ and allowing him to express himself through you daily is the key to success in your Christian life.
Pay no heed to what you're not supposed to do, "out of sight-out of mind! ". So I guess ole Qui Gonn was right, "your focus does determine your reality"! ……. Greenpeace is a non-governmental environmental organization with offices in over forty countries and with an international coordinating body in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.  Greenpeace states its goal is to "ensure the ability of the Earth to nurture life in all its diversity" and focuses its campaigning on world wide issues such as global warming, deforestation, overfishing, commercial whaling, genetic engineering, and anti-nuclear issues.
Greenpeace uses direct action, lobbying and research to achieve its goals. The global organization does not accept funding from governments, corporations or political parties, relying on 2. 9 million individual supporters and foundation grants.  Greenpeace has a general consultative status in the United Nations Economic and Social Council and is a founding member of the INGO Accountability Charter; an international non-governmental organization that intends to foster accountability and transparency of non-governmental organizations.
Greenpeace evolved from the peace movement and anti-nuclear protests in Vancouver, British Columbia, in the late 1960s and early 1970s. On September 15, 1971, the newly founded Don't Make a Wave Committee sent a chartered ship, Phyllis Cormack, renamed Greenpeace for the protest, from Vancouver to oppose United States testing of nuclear devices in Amchitka, Alaska. The Don't Make a Wave Committee subsequently adopted the name Greenpeace.  In a few years, Greenpeace spread to several countries and started to campaign on other environmental issues such as commercial whaling and toxic waste. In the late 1970s, the ifferent regional Greenpeace groups formed Greenpeace International to oversee the goals and operations of the regional organizations globally.  Greenpeace received international attention during the 1980s when the French intelligence agency bombed the Rainbow Warrior in Auckland's Waitemata Harbour, one of the most well-known vessels operated by Greenpeace, killing one individual.  In the following years, Greenpeace evolved into one of the largest environmental organizations in the world.  Greenpeace is known for its direct actions and has been described as the most visible environmental organization in the world. 16] Greenpeace has raised environmental issues to public knowledge, and influenced both the private and the public sector.  Greenpeace has also been a source of controversy; its motives and methods have received criticism and the organization's direct actions have sparked legal actions against Greenpeace activists.  ………… "To Be, Or Not To Be" Meaning [pic] To live or not to live, that is the question. Is it better to stay, and suffer all of the ridiculous highs and lows of life? Or to leave, and avoid the trials and tribulations altogether?
We cannot answer this. Even after you die you still might dream. And who knows what you'll dream? If it wasn't for that fear who would bear all the evils and humiliations of life? The injustices and oppression? The gloating of the powerful? The pain of loving someone who could care less? The lack of integrity? The abuses of the government? The rejections we all face? Why would we put up with all of this when we could just end our lives so easily? Why burden ourselves by continuing to live? It's the fear of what awaits after death.
Death is an undiscovered country, a place from which no one ever returns. The existence of death puzzles us and makes us put up with all the miseries of life. So instead of exploring something we can't we perceive in advance, we continue to put up with our lives here. Our imaginations make us cowards. And our resolutions only turn us into self-compromised human beings. Therefore, we choose to take no action. …………. A carbon footprint has historically been defined by Championne as "the total sets of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused by an organization, event, product or person.  However, calculating the total carbon footprint is impossible due to the large amount of data required and the fact that carbon dioxide can be produced by natural occurrences. It is for this reason that Wright, Kemp, and Williams, writing in the journal Carbon Management, have suggested a more practicable definition: "A measure of the total amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions of a defined population, system or activity, considering all relevant sources, sinks and storage within the spatial and temporal boundary of the population, system or activity of interest.
Calculated as carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) using the relevant 100-year global warming potential (GWP100). " Greenhouse gases can be emitted through transport, land clearance, and the production and consumption of food, fuels, manufactured goods, materials, wood, roads, buildings, and services.  For simplicity of reporting, it is often expressed in terms of the amount of carbon dioxide, or its equivalent of other GHGs, emitted. Most of the carbon footprint emissions for the average U. S. household come from "indirect" sources, i. e. uel burned to produce goods far away from the final consumer. These are distinguished from emissions which come from burning fuel directly in one's car or stove, commonly referred to as "direct" sources of the consumer's carbon footprint.  The concept name of the carbon footprint originates from ecological footprint,discussion, which was developed by Rees and Wackernagel in the 1990s which estimates the number of "earths" that would theoretically be required if everyone on the planet consumed resources at the same level as the person calculating their ecological footprint.
However, carbon footprints are much more specific than ecological footprints since they measure direct emissions of gasses that cause climate change into the atmosphere. Measuring Carbon Footprints An individual's, nation's, or organization's carbon footprint can be measured by undertaking a GHG emissions assessment or other calculative activities denoted as carbon accounting. Once the size of a carbon footprint is known, a strategy can be devised to reduce it, e. g. by technological developments, better process and product management, changed Green Public or Private Procurement (GPP), carbon capture, consumption strategies, and others.
Several free online carbon footprint calculators exist, with at least one supported by publicly available peer-reviewed data and calculations from the University of California, Berkeley's CoolClimate Network research consortium.  The mitigation of carbon footprints through the development of alternative projects, such as solar or wind energy or reforestation, represents one way of reducing a carbon footprint and is often known as Carbon offsetting. The main influences on carbon footprints include population, economic output, and energy and carbon intensity of the economy. 8] These factors are the main targets of individuals and businesses in order to decrease carbon footprints. Scholars suggest the most effective way to decrease a carbon footprint is to either decrease the amount of energy needed for production or to decrease the dependence on carbon emitting fuels.  …………… Freedom & Responsibility Freedom, from an existential perspective, cannot be separated from responsibility. With freedom comes responsibility. Yet, it is common for many people to seek freedom while trying to avoid responsibility.
While, at times, it appears that people may be able to succeed at this, there remains a psychological consequence. This consequence is often not very noticeable, but may find expression through guilt, anxiety, depression, or even anger. Existential freedom is not the same things as freedom in the political sense we often think of it in America. In fact, political freedom could be view to be a rather shallow, though not unimportant, type of freedom. A person can be existentially free despite not being politically free, and a person can avoid embracing their existential freedom despite being offered great political freedoms.
Frankl (1984), in the story of his experience in the concentration camps, provides a powerful overview of this distinction. While all his political or social freedoms were taken away, he gives credit for his survival to his psychological freedom. This psychological freedom allowed him to find and embrace meaning in the midst of what appeared to be meaningless suffering. Ways of Avoiding Responsibility There are several common examples of how people avoid responsibility in American culture. Conformity is one good example. Americans pride themselves on being autonomous individuals to the point of idealizing individualism.
However, upon closer analysis, Americans find extremely creative ways of giving up their freedom. Americans conform through blind allegiance to various organizations and institutions including political parties and religious institutions. This is not to say that being dedicated to either of these are bad. In fact, often they can lead to very positive outcomes. The problem comes with blind allegiance where a person gives up their responsibility to critically think through the beliefs, perspectives, and values of the organization.
When this happens, the individual's values are no longer authentic. When a person gives their allegiance to an external belief structure, they may go in one of several directions. First, they often will become very rigid in their allegiance to the organization or structure to which they have committed. This type of conformity can be seen through various forms of fundamentalism -- religious, political, psychological systems, etc. Second, they may present as being very committed to a belief systems or organization, but they feel very comfortable bending the rules where it does fit their desires.
It becomes easy to bend the rules because they are not really committed to the underlying values system. However, when a person is deeply committed to authentic moral or value principles, they are less willing to act in ways which contradict these principles. The principles are authentic. Another way avoid responsibility can occur through the belief that one is powerless. There can be many factors which are seen to render a person powerless. A person can perceive themselves as a victim of their environment, of various supernatural or spiritual forces, their unconscious, or a victim of their biology/genes.
While an existential approach will recognize that all of these factors may influence a person, none of them render a person powerless or completely control them. The Ability to Choose Freedom Otto Rank discusses the issue of freedom beautifully. Essentially, Rank states that the degree to which a person is unaware of those forces which influence us, they are controlled by them. Stated differently, the degree which we are unaware of how our drives, instincts, unconscious, and environment are influencing us, they control us.
However, if a person chooses not to be aware of these influences, even if done so passively or unconsciously, a choice has still been made. Self-awareness, in Rank's conceptualization, is a commitment people make which can enhance their freedom. Yet, most people choose to live a life of being unaware. It can be frightening to deeply know who we are and the realities of our existence. Yet, it can be even more rewarding. The movie the Matrix provides a parallel to this understanding of freedom and awareness.
While many choose to avoid living in the realities of life, a few choose to live more fully in awareness. The existential question then becomes do you choose the blue pill? Or will you take the red one? Self-Awareness and the Ethical Life If we accept Ranks views on freedom, the unconscious, and the will, then to live a responsible life is to live a life committed to self-awareness. If the choice made is to merely be a product of our biology, our unconscious, and our environment; then the choice has been made to live an inauthentic and irresponsible life.
This commitment is not always an easy one, but, again, the rewards can be great. The inauthentic and unaware life limits a person in so many ways. First, it limits a person's ability to live an ethical life. Second, it limits the potential for authenticity. A third loss, which is necessarily connected to the second loss, is that we are limited in our ability for intimacy and relational satisfaction. It is only through knowing ourselves that we can be authentically in relationship with others. However, the ironic paradox remains that the only way we can come to now ourselves is through relationship with others. In returning to the discussion of ethics, it can be seen that this is profoundly different approach to ethics than the one typically embraced by American society. A close look at America's value system reveals that it typically is based on a) conformity to rules and ethics codes, b) what benefits the individual or their family the most, or c) what is more financially beneficial for the individual. I would maintain that an existential approach to ethics must be counterculture in American society.
As existential thought tends to be anti-structural, it will focus on broader principles instead of rules. These principles may be derived from a religious or spiritual system, but not necessarily so. They would embrace a respect for human existence, but also the broader environmental and natural systems (nature) of which human existence is a part. Love, compassion, and a commitment to social justice (not in the punitive or avenging sense, but rather in seeking to change the evils of society) are the principles which are foundational to existential theory.
While many individual principles may also be a part of different peoples' values system, I would maintain that these principles are essential to an existential ethics. Self awareness is needed to live in accordance with these principles. However, the lack of self awareness is not an acceptable excuse for a person's behavior. Freedom & Responsibility in Therapy The process of change cannot begin until a person accepts responsibility. This is one of the difficult challenges of growth. In order to grow, a person must accept responsibility for what they have done to contribute to where they are at in life.
If they have no responsibility, then they have little ability to change. When applied to therapy, this could be taken to mean that the therapist must break through the walls of defense in order to help the client take responsibility. This is generally not consistent with the existential approach. Bugental (1987) provides some of the best illustrations of this. With his profound respect for the client, Bugental also shows a respect for the client's defenses. Instead of forcing through defenses, they can be used as a guide to help the therapist know when the client is ready to go deeper into an issue.
When the defenses are strong, the therapist respects the need for the defense and does not push on that issue at that time. However, when the defenses are lowered the therapist then can recognize that it is a good time to move deeper. This is not to suggest there is never a time to confront or challenge a client's defenses. Rather it recognizes that before this is done the therapist must recognize the value of the defense. It also suggests that defenses can be challenged or confronted in a softer manner. I like to use the metaphor of the invitation here.
The job of the therapist is to continuously invite the client to examine the defenses and the issues which the defenses are protecting, yet always respect the client's desire to not accept the invitation. …. Marine pollution occurs when harmful, or potentially harmful, effects result from the entry into the ocean of chemicals, particles, industrial, agricultural and residential waste, noise, or the spread of invasive organisms. Most sources of marine pollution are land based. The pollution often comes from nonpoint sources such as agricultural runoff and wind blown debris and dust.
Many potentially toxic chemicals adhere to tiny particles which are then taken up by plankton and benthos animals, most of which are either deposit or filter feeders. In this way, the toxins are concentrated upward within ocean food chains. Many particles combine chemically in a manner highly depletive of oxygen, causing estuaries to become anoxic. When pesticides are incorporated into the marine ecosystem, they quickly become absorbed into marine food webs. Once in the food webs, these pesticides can cause mutations, as well as diseases, which can be harmful to humans as well as the entire food web.
Toxic metals can also be introduced into marine food webs. These can cause a change to tissue matter, biochemistry, behaviour, reproduction, and suppress growth in marine life. Also, many animal feeds have a high fish meal or fish hydrolysate content. In this way, marine toxins can be transferred to land animals, and appear later in meat and dairy products ……… Knowledge and wisdom go hand in hand Best Answer - Chosen by Asker My thought on knowledge is that people learn while as a child through their parents and teachers. Its that learned knowledge that has been passed down rom one generation to the next from one person to the next and then passed on to another. Its the Transfer of Knowledge from person to person. Wisdom is the knowledge a person has gained as they have grown and experienced while living life. Its the knowledge that people acquire separate from their parents because they have not been able to for one reason or another inform, educate or teach. Its the knowledge one can only learn from doing and experiencing. Intellectuality comes from high intelligence, coupled with interest in the world around you.
If you're curious about things and want to know things, you'll study. It's irrelevant where you study. You can simply read up on your own without getting a tertiary education. Life experience will aid wisdom. But being intellectual doesn't necessarily mean you're wise. Wisdom is the sum of your life experience. It's emotional and experience that you apply to your life. Intellectuality is more abstract. You apply it to problems and questions that don't necessarily have anything to do with life and living. You can be wise without being intellectual, and vise versa. Or you can be both. Or... sometimes... either. :p …… The greenhouse effect is a process by which thermal radiation from a planetary surface is absorbed by atmospheric greenhouse gases, and is re-radiated in all directions. Since part of this re-radiation is back towards the surface and the lower atmosphere, it results in an elevation of the average surface temperature above what it would be in the absence of the gases.  Solar radiation at the frequencies of visible light largely passes through the atmosphere to warm the planetary surface, which then emits this energy at the lower frequencies of infrared thermal radiation.
Infrared radiation is absorbed by greenhouse gases, which in turn re-radiate much of the energy to the surface and lower atmosphere. The mechanism is named after the effect of solar radiation passing through glass and warming a greenhouse, but the way it retains heat is fundamentally different as a greenhouse works by reducing airflow, isolating the warm air inside the structure so that heat is not lost by convection.  If an ideal thermally conductive blackbody was the same distance from the Sun as the Earth is, it would have a temperature of about 5. °C. However, since the Earth reflects about 30%  of the incoming sunlight, this idealized planet's effective temperature (the temperature of a blackbody that would emit the same amount of radiation) would be about ? 18 °C.  The surface temperature of this hypothetical planet is 33 °C below Earth's actual surface temperature of approximately 14 °C.  The mechanism that produces this difference between the actual surface temperature and the effective temperature is due to the atmosphere and is known as the greenhouse effect. 10] Earth’s natural greenhouse effect makes life as we know it possible. However, human activities, primarily the burning of fossil fuels and clearing of forests, have intensified the natural greenhouse effect, causing global warming.  ………… Democracy and India India is the seventh largest (by area) and the second most populous country in the world, with roughly one-sixth of its population, of about a billion and a quarter. It is the world's largest democracy. It is one of the world's oldest civilizations yet, a very young nation. Elections to its Parliament are held once every 5 years.
Currently, Prime minister Dr. Manmohan Singh is the head of the government, enjoying a majority in the Parliament, while President Pranab Mukherjee, is the head of state. India is a constitutional republic governed under the world's longest written constitution, federally consisting of 28 states and seven centrally administered union territories, with New Delhi as the nation's capital. The country has four main national parties: the Indian National Congress (INC), Bhartiya Janta Party (BJP), Communist Party of India and the Communist Party of India (Marxist).
The Indian National Congress has governed the country for 3/4th's of the time since independence from Britain in 1947, under the de facto one party system and now, under the Dominant-party system. At the level of its states, many regional parties stand for elections to state legislatures, every five years. ……… Global warming is the rise in the average temperature of Earth's atmosphere and oceans since the late 19th century and its projected continuation. Since the early 20th century, Earth's mean surface temperature has increased by about 0. 8 °C (1. °F), with about two-thirds of the increase occurring since 1980.  Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and scientists are more than 90% certain that it is primarily caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation.  These findings are recognized by the national science academies of all major industrialized nations. [A] Climate model projections were summarized in the 2007 Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
They indicated that during the 21st century the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 1. 1 to 2. 9 °C (2 to 5. 2 °F) for their lowest emissions scenario and 2. 4 to 6. 4 °C (4. 3 to 11. 5 °F) for their highest.  The ranges of these estimates arise from the use of models with differing sensitivity to greenhouse gas concentrations.  Future warming and related changes will vary from region to region around the globe.  The effects of an increase in global temperature include a rise in sea levels and a change in the amount and pattern of precipitation, as well a probable expansion of subtropical deserts. 12] Warming is expected to be strongest in the Arctic and would be associated with the continuing retreat of glaciers, permafrost and sea ice. Other likely effects of the warming include a more frequent occurrence of extreme-weather events including heat waves, droughts and heavy rainfall, ocean acidification and species extinctions due to shifting temperature regimes. Effects significant to humans include the threat to food security from decreasing crop yields and the loss of habitat from inundation. 13] Proposed policy responses to global warming include mitigation by emissions reduction, adaptation to its effects, and possible future geoengineering. Most countries are parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), whose ultimate objective is to prevent dangerous anthropogenic (i. e. , human-induced) climate change.  Parties to the UNFCCC have adopted a range of policies designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions:10:9 and to assist in adaptation to global warming. 17]:13:10 Parties to the UNFCCC have agreed that deep cuts in emissions are required, and that future global warming should be limited to below 2. 0 °C (3. 6 °F) relative to the pre-industrial level. [B] Reports published in 2011 by the United Nations Environment Programme and the International Energy Agency suggest that efforts as of the early 21st century to reduce emissions may be inadequate to meet the UNFCCC's 2 °C target. …… Followers First, Leaders Second. March 15, 2009 | by Randy Willis | Leave a Comment!
One morning last week, during my time with God, I was praying for my (and Joleen’s) ministry/leadership, and said … Make us the followers you want us to be so that we can be the leaders you call us to be! I have always believed that leaders must first be followers. Christ-following leaders must first be followers of God; indeed, their leadership flows out of following God! But leaders must also be good followers of others (e. g. , those in authority, other leaders, etc. ). In other words, followership is a prerequisite of leadership.
One of the challenges leaders face is knowing when to follow and when to lead. Certainly, leaders must always follow God. At times, leaders need to know when to follow others as well, particularly, those to whom they delegate responsibility and/or share ministry. Leaders carry the ultimate responsibility of leadership, of course, but there are times when they need to follow, to let others lead. We are followers first (that’s one of the reasons why I like and prefer the term “Christ-followers”), then leaders.
So, are you a good leader? And, just as important for leaders, are you a good follower? …….. Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genome using biotechnology. New DNA may be inserted in the host genome by first isolating and copying the genetic material of interest using molecular cloning methods to generate a DNA sequence, or by synthesizing the DNA, and then inserting this construct into the host organism. Genes may be removed, or "knocked out", using a nuclease.
Gene targeting is a different technique that uses homologous recombination to change an endogenous gene, and can be used to delete a gene, remove exons, add a gene, or introduce point mutations. An organism that is generated through genetic engineering is considered to be a genetically modified organism (GMO). The first GMOs were bacteria in 1973; GM mice were generated in 1974. Insulin-producing bacteria were commercialized in 1982 and genetically modified food has been sold since 1994. Genetic engineering techniques have been applied in numerous fields including research, agriculture, industrial biotechnology, and medicine.
Enzymes used in laundry detergent and medicines such as insulin and human growth hormone are now manufactured in GM cells, experimental GM cell lines and GM animals such as mice or zebrafish are being used for research purposes, and genetically modified crops have been commercialized. …….. Inter-linking of rivers as a solution to water problems The Indian Rivers Inter-link is a proposed large-scale civil engineering project that aims to join the majority of India's rivers by canals and so reduce persistent water shortages in parts of India.  History
In 1972 the then Minister for Irrigation K. L. Rao proposed a 2640 kilometer long link between the Ganges and Kaveri rivers. In 1974 plans were proposed for the 'Garland canal'. In 1982 the National Water Development Agency was set up to carry out surveys of the links and prepare feasibility studies. The Garland Canal was proposed by Dinshaw J. Dastur, a consultant Engineer  The Project The Inter-link would consist of two parts, a northern Himalayan River Development component and a southern Peninsular River Development component.  Himalayan development
The northern component would consist of a series of dams built along the Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers in India, Nepal and Bhutan for the purposes of storage. Canals would be built to transfer surplus water from the eastern tributaries of the Ganga to the west. The Brahmaputra and its tributaries would be linked with the Ganga and the Ganga with the Mahanadi river. This part of the project would provide additional irrigation for about 220,000 square kilometres and generate about 30 gigawatts of electricity. In theory it would provide extra flood control in the Ganga and Brahmaputra river basins.
It could also provide excess water for the controversial Farakka Barrage which could be used to flush out the silt at the port of Kolkata.  Peninsular development The main part of the project would send water from the eastern part of India to the south and west. The southern development project would consist of four main parts. First, the Mahanadi, Godavari. Krishna and Kaveri rivers would all be linked by canals. Extra water storage dams would be built along the course of these rivers. The purpose of this would be to transfer surplus water from the Mahanadi and Godavari rivers to the south of India.
Second, those rivers that flow west to the north of Mumbai and the south of Tapi would be linked. Due to the irregular fluctuations in water levels in the region, as much storage capacity would be built as possible. The water would be used by the urban areas of Bombay and also to provide irrigation in the coastal areas of Maharashtra. Third the Ken and Chambal rivers would be linked in order to provide better water facilities for Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. Finally a number of west-flowing rivers along the Western Ghats simply discharge into the Arabian Sea. As many of these as possible would be diverted for irrigation purposes.
The Peninsular part of the project would provide additional irrigation to 130,000 square kilometres and generation an additional 4 gigawatts of power.  Criticism • Critics also point to the enormous costs conservatively estimated at some US$ 140b which India cannot afford to spend. • The change in elevation (a minimum of 100 m, generally increases towards the south) from the plains of northern India to the Vindhya and Satpura ranges and the Deccan Plateau beyond them, pose a major challenge to the project; as the water would have to travel upwards in order to reach Maharashtra and southern India. ………… Inter-linking of rivers - An ecological disaster Less than a month after Rahul Gandhi warned against "playing with nature", Union Minister for Environment and Forests Jairam Ramesh said the idea of interlinking India's rivers was a "disaster", putting a question mark on the future of the ambitious project. "The interlinking of rivers will be a human-ecological-economic disaster. It is easy to do interlinking on paper. Interlinking of rivers has limited basin value, but largescale interlinking would be a disaster," Ramesh said at a press briefing today.
In Chennai last month, Rahul had expressed concern over the environmental fallout of interlinking. "We should not play with nature on such a massive scale," he was quoted as saying. The remark drew flak from UPA ally DMK, which reminded Rahul that it was Indira Gandhi who set up the National Water Development Agency in 1982 to study the possibility of water transfers from surplus basins to deficit areas. DMK chief M Karunanidhi pointed out that UPA-I's 2004 National Common Minimum Programme had promised "a comprehensive assessment of the feasibility of linking of rivers... tarting with south-bound rivers". Asked about the party's stand on the issue, the Congress remained non-committal. "It is a larger issue. It is not a magic wand. There is an awesome scale of interlinking. It is a super long term solution, and not a medium or short-term solution," spokesman Abhishek Manu Singhvi said. "I don't think anybody is rejecting or accepting it. After 25 years of considerable expenditure, you may still have the same problem. Unless you are sure, you can't embark on it. It is a project with extremely multifarious aspects and the jury is out," Singhvi said. ………… The key to successful leadership is influence, not authority Managing in a business environment would also entail making the most effective use of that thing or resource whether it is money, machines, material, supply chains, accounting, engineering, people or whatever. Very few managers are unaware of the fact that if we only used the machine and never properly cared for it, the machine's capacity would degrade rather steadily over time and eventually suffer a casualty which would render it useless. To be successful at maintaining machinery or a function like ccounting, one must thoroughly understand that machine or function, how it works and what it needs. Direction, integrity, consistency, and connection create the leadership relationship. That's a first step in building an organization, but it doesn't address the issue of how leaders make their organizations successful. Leaders can choose to lead in a good direction or a bad one. Actually, a full spectrum exists from exceptionally bad to exceptionally good. Every manager will by his/her actions will lead in some direction within this spectrum.
This direction may not be understood or chosen by the manager, but that is irrelevant. This is always the leadera€™s choice, whether or not the leader realizes it. Leadership is not a process any manager can change. It happens inexorably every minute of every day because most people follow more or less. The only choice available to a manager is the standard that employees will follow. Because of these characteristics, "followership" turns out to be a major force in managing people. Those managers who take advantage of it can become extremely effective at managing their human capital.
You cannot build trust without treating people with respect and dignity. It is now all too common to have layoffs in which those let go are immediately escorted off the premises. This process deprives them and those left behind of the opportunity to say good-bye and, more fundamentally, signals distrust and disrespect. Consider instead the New Zealand Post, which, since becoming a state-owned enterprise expected to operate like a private company in 1987, has accomplished amazing things. People laid off were offered generous severance, given parties on their leaving, and recognized for their contributions to the company.
Indeed, the Post even let the staff help decide who would go and who would stay -- for it turned out that some people the organization intended to keep wanted to leave or retire and others wanted to stay. Clear expectations are critical to building trust. The more clear you are about what others expect from you and what you expect from others, the easier you will find it to build trust. When your supervisor and your employees know that you really care about their personal and professional success, and your actions demonstrate this case, they will find you easier to trust.
Building trust is not difficult, but it takes time. There may be instant pudding and instant tea; there is no such thing as instant trust. But, if you do what you say youa€™re going to do; do even more than is expected; openly communicate often; practice the concept of a€? no surprises;a€? be honest, even when it costs you something to be honest; and really care about an individuala€™s personal and professional success, you will find it easier to build relationships based on trust.
You can get people to do what they are paid to do by using all sorts of manipulative tactics. You could easily tell employees that if they do not get a task done, you will give them a negative performance appraisal, and that, in turn, will make them ineligible for the next round of raises. That may work. Or you may have employees who do a€? exactly what you tell them to do. a€? What you will not have is a workforce that is motivated to do whatever it takes to get the job done. Because you do not care about them.
Their level of care for you as an individual, or your success as a manager, is lacking because of their limited relationship with you. True leaders understand that success does not depend on their titles, but on the values they uphold and the choices they make on a daily basis. They know that leadership is not achieved through technical expertise, but rather is based on a relationship with their followers. It is our hope that the following insights will help you with the a€? relationship savvya€? ou need to be a great supervisor, and an outstanding leader. ….. Pollution and economic development There are many environmental issues in India. Air pollution, water pollution, garbage, and pollution of the natural environment are all challenges for India. The situation was worse between 1947 through 1995. According to data collection and environment assessment studies of World Bank experts, between 1995 through 2010, India has made one of the fastest progress in the world, in addressing its environmental issues and improving its environmental quality. 1] Still, India has a long way to go to reach environmental quality similar to those enjoyed in developed economies. Pollution remains a major challenge and opportunity for India. Some believe economic development is causing the environmental issues. Others believe economic development is key to improving India's environmental management and preventing pollution in India. It is also suggested that India's growing population is the primary cause of India's environmental degradation. Systematic studies challenge this theory.
Empirical evidence from countries such as Japan, England and Singapore, each with population density similar or higher than India, yet each enjoying environmental quality vastly superior than India, suggests population density may not be the only factor affecting India's issues.  Major environmental issues are forest and agricultural degradation of land, resource depletion (water, mineral, forest, sand, rocks etc. ), environmental degradation, public health, loss of biodiversity, loss of resilience in ecosystems, livelihood security for the poor. 4] The major sources of pollution in India include the rampant burning of fuelwood and biomass such as dried waste from livestock as the primary source of energy, lack of organized garbage and waste removal services, lack of sewage treatment operations, lack of flood control and monsoon water drainage system, diversion of consumer waste into rivers, cremation practices near major rivers, government mandated protection of highly polluting old public transport, and continued operation by Indian government of government owned, high emission plants built between 1950 to 1980. 6] India's water supply and sanitation issues are related to many environmental issues. Environmental issues are one of the primary causes of disease, health issues and long term livelihood impact for India. ……… Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world Nelson Mandela once said that education is the most powerful weapon which can be used to change the world. But when Christo van der Rheede and his team facilitated a leadership and management course for teachers, education as a weapon seemed impossible when it was found that teachers themselves aren’t equipped to enforce this notion.
While these teachers have all the commitment and enthusiasm necessary, how is it possible that most of our schools are struggling to deliver quality education Comments By Anonymous Wed 4 Aug, 2010 - 16:58 it is good • reply “Education is the most powerful weapon, which you can use to change the world. ” These are the wise words of former president Nelson Mandela who celebrates his 91st birthday this month. Indeed prophetic words calling on all South Africans to account for the way in which education is used to ensure the success of South Africa’s nation-building project.
Education forms the cornerstone of this project, as it entails the transfer of knowledge, skills and values. If education fails, all the effort up to now will be in vain. Already, a very disconcerting picture is painted by researchers investigating an education system which fails to produce skilled citizens. We, at the Stigting vir Bemagtiging deur Afrikaans (SBA), share the concern over the state of affairs in education. For this reason, SBA recently facilitated a three-day leadership and management course to approximately fifty teachers, under the auspices of the Enkwenkwezi Trust.
What struck me was the commitment and enthusiasm of the teachers who sacrificed their winter holidays working through the modules from 9am - 4pm. They clearly thirsted for the knowledge we shared with them. This experience has compelled me to critically question not only the nature and extent of support given to teachers but also the role which office-based education officials, specifically appointed for the task, can be expected to play in this regard.
If the majority of the teaching personnel at ground level are prepared to perform their daily tasks with such commitment and enthusiasm, how is it possible that most of our schools are struggling to deliver quality education? My observation during all our training sessions is that many of the teachers do not have an adequate grasp of the new curriculum. It was expected of an entire generation of teachers trained during the previous dispensation to undergo a change in mindset from the ‘old’ to the ‘new’ in a matter of weeks.
To them it was and still is an uphill battle, as a few weeks’ training in the new curriculum is simply not sufficient and often leaves them more confused and despondent. In contrast, the generation of teachers now being trained has a better understanding of the new curriculum after four years of training. It is no wonder, therefore, that they are considered a ray of light by many principals and their senior management. However, making a change of mindset from the ‘old’ to the ‘new’ is possible. With proper guidance and sensible management of these changes teachers will be able to make headway.
Unfortunately, we have a chronic shortage of experienced and in some instances indifferent office-based education officials to give teachers step-by-step guidance and top-class support. In some provinces, especially in urban areas, this expertise is readily available. These schools also have access to the internet and resource centres where teachers can get the necessary assistance. There are, however, education district offices in the former homelands, rural as well as urban areas that lack expertise to give teachers the necessary guidance and support.
To make matters worse, those schools do not even have access to the internet or to well-equipped resource centres. No wonder most of the schools in our country are struggling to provide quality education to our children. The entire curriculum delivery process is compromised due to a lack of support and this I wish to motivate by means of the following diagram: ……….. Your most unhappy customers are your greatest source of learning. A customer who complains to you should be valued – many of your dissatisfied customers will take their business elsewhere and not even give you an opportunity to respond.
Bill Gates has stated that: “Your most unhappy customers are your greatest source of learning”. If you want to build long and loving relationships with your customers then: • Always be open to discussing problems with your customers • Listen and empathize – consider the reasons behind the dissatisfaction and hurt • Be personal and caring - don’t brush them aside with automated, standard responses • Say sorry and acknowledge the problem – even if you believe you are not in the wrong • Show your affection when you’re in the wrong – but don’t overdo it! Give customers and complaint handlers access to someone who can come in to mediate when a solution cannot be found but a continued relationship is still required • Take time to think about your actions and look at ways to improve the way you do things in future …………. Advertising and the consumer Why is it so difficult to introspect on advertising and how it influences us? Because we look for major effects, that’s why! Too often, we look for the ability of an ad to persuade us. We look for a major effect rather than more subtle, minor effects.
Big and immediate effects of advertising do occur when the advertiser has something new to say. Then it is easy for us to introspect on its effect. But most effects of advertising fall well short of persuasion. These minor effects are not obvious but they are more characteristic of the way advertising works. To understand advertising we have to understand and measure these effects. When our kids are growing up we don’t notice their physical growth each day but from time to time we become aware that they have grown.
Determining how much a child has grown in the last 24 hours is like evaluating the effect of being exposed to a single commercial. In both cases, the changes are too small for us to notice. But even small effects of advertising can influence which brand we choose especially when all other factors are equal and when alternative brands are much the same. Advertising is paid, nonpersonal communication that is designed to communicate in a creative manner, through the use of mass or information-directed media, the nature of products, services, and ideas.
It is a form of persuasive communication that offers information about products, ideas, and services that serves the objectives determined by the advertiser. Advertising may influence consumers in many different ways, but the primary goal of advertising is to increase the probability that consumers exposed to an advertisement will behave or believe as the advertiser wishes. Thus, the ultimate objective of advertising is to sell things persuasively and creatively.
Advertising is used by commercial firms trying to sell products and services; by politicians and political interest groups to sell ideas or persuade voters; by not-for-profit organizations to raise funds, solicit volunteers, or influence the actions of viewers; and by governments seeking to encourage or discourage particular activities, such a wearing seatbelts, participating in the census, or ceasing to smoke. The forms that advertising takes and the media in which advertisements appear are as varied as the advertisers themselves and the messages that they wish to deliver. …………….. Innovation in Education
Introduction Education is the crucible in which Innovations are forged. Promoting creativity and incentivizing innovations through our educational institutions is a first step towards broadening and deepening the impact of innovations in our society and economy. In large scale education systems such as ours, catering to a vast population with relatively limited resources, this is a major challenge. At the same time, with rapid advances in new technologies, changing needs of the economy, and the very presence of the challenges identified above, the sector itself presents a fertile ground for pioneering innovations.
Recognising the fundamental role of education in nurturing and fostering an ecosystem of innovation the National Innovation Council is engaged in a series of initiatives to encourage innovations in existing educational institutions – universities, colleges and schools, as well as promoting new educational models and innovative platforms for knowledge creation, dissemination and application. Some of the key proposals of the NInc in this domain include: ........ Intellectual bankruptcy in politics
Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi launched a fresh attack on the Center on December 27, saying the country was in the grip of pessimism because of “policy paralysis, intellectual bankruptcy and lack of leadership. ” He said the Center’s policies “lack urgency or seriousness” in tackling economic crises and thus the “sense of pessimism” in the 12th Plan. “There is a policy paralysis, intellectual bankruptcy and lack of leadership in the country because of which the country was experiencing stagnancy. We are going on the path of negative growth,” Modi told reporters at the 57th National Development Council (NDC) meeting here.
In his speech at the meeting, Modi said, “It seems that there is no urgency or seriousness in tackling economic crises facing the country. There has been a virtual lack of direction in the macro-economic management of the country. ” Modi also called for setting up a National Resources Commission on the lines of the Finance Commission, which discusses the allocation of grants to states every five years. He said the country is facing a demographic opportunity as 65 percent of the population is young and pitched for a youth-centric growth, which focused on skill development. It is unfortunate that the central government has been bereft of any vision or strategy in this regard. This feeling of helplessness in making effective policy interventions has resulted in job creation suffering and the youth of the country becoming disillusioned,” he said in his speech. .... We are creatures of our habits This blog will be about habits. I do research on habits and self-change and I've blogged on these topics for almost two years now. Here at Psychology Today, I have a bigger and better platform, and I am ever so grateful. But, what to say first?
How to set the tone? Perhaps I should begin with the title of my blog, Creatures of Habit. The title says so much about my approach to human psychology in general, and to habits in particular. First off, we are creatures. We are animals. We're very sophisticated and good-looking and all that, but let's never forget that we're made of flesh and blood. In particular, our brains are incredibly complex evolved machines. Our brains govern basic processes such as breathing and food intake, and also enable us to appreciate the finer points of John Cleese's performances in Fawlty Towers.
Bottom of Form As creatures, we have needs. We need to eat, and so we eat. As rather intelligent and social creatures, we like to chat with one another, and so we do. We take turns and finish our conversations gracefully. And there
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