Albert Einstein Learning Objectives After studying this week's content you should be able to: 2. 3. 4. 5. Define knowledge management, intellectual capital, and organizational learning. Identify specific ways that organizations acquire and share knowledge. Describe the knowledge creation process. Explain the role of trust in knowledge sharing. Identify organizational features which facilitate organizational learning.
Lecture Overview What Is knowledge management? Knowledge creation process Tacit and explicit knowledge Knowledge sharing Definitions, history, and benefits Ability and willingness Organizational learning Data - Information - Knowledge Data Information Knowledge a set of discrete, objective facts about events Conceptualized Categorized Calculated Corrected Condensed data endowed with relevance and purpose Comparison Consequences Connections Conversation a fluid mix of framed experience, values, contextual information and expert insight.
Source: Davenport & Prussia, 1998. Justified true beliefs (Monika, 1994, p. 1 5) the individual's ability to draw distinctions within a elective domain of action, based on an appreciation of context or theory, or both (Bell, 1999, p. Lexis) information that is relevant, actionable and at least partially based on experience (Leonard & Sniper, 1998, p. 13) a fluid mix of framed experience, values, contextual information and expert insight (Davenport & Prussia, 1998, p. 9) Knowledge Management "is the management of information, knowledge and experiences available to an organization in order that organizational activities build on what is already known and extend it further" (Mayo, 1998) Increased productivity: Greater utilization of organizational knowledge base Reduction of redundancy & time searching for info.
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Increased organizational cohesion & cooperation Greater organizational learning KM Proposed Benefits Reduction of duplication and time searching for information Wider application of organizational knowledge base Reduction of pressure to do more with limited resources through building on others' learning curves Increased morale through greater cooperation Improved organizational communication and participation Where did KM come from? Three Social and Economic Trends 1. Globalization - complexity, volume, speed puts pressure on What do we know, who knows it, what onto we know that we should know. . Ubiquitous computing - premium value on knowledge that cannot be digitized, codified or easily distributed. 3 Knowledge-Centric View of the Firm capability is knowledge (especially knowledge that is specific or tacit') (Prussia, 2001) Intellectual Capital Knowledge residing in the organization”sum of its: Human Capital Knowledge that people possess and generate Social Capital Knowledge, trust, and norms of reciprocity in one's social network Structural Capital Relationship Capital Knowledge captured in systems and structures Values derived from satisfied customers, reliable suppliers, etc.
Knowledge Management Processes Acquisition Sharing Use Hiring talent Communication Awareness Acquiring firms practice Freedom to apply Individual learning Experimentation Developing a Learning Orientation Value the generation of new knowledge Reward experimentation Recognize mistakes as part of learning Encourage employees to take reasonable risks Explicit and tacit knowledge Explicit knowledge can be organized and communicated from one person to another Tacit knowledge subtle information acquired through observation and experience; can't be explicitly communicated, only possible through observation and experience Two Dimensions of Explicit Knowledge Easy to communicate facts and figures models and theories protocols, procedures, formula Can be captured Difficult to communicate intuition judgment experience-based insight getting things to work in practice Cannot be captured, but can be transferred The Explicit Dimension of Explicit refers to knowledge that has been reflected in some kind of medium such as in a document, image, process or tool.
Examples: Standard Operating Procedures Manuals Checklists Computer code Tacit Knowledge Tacit knowledge is more important competitive advantage The economic significance of tacit knowledge is derived from its barriers to transferability Its economic significance is an incentive to develop better understanding of tacit knowledge in its own right. The Tacit Dimension of Knowledge Tacit knowledge is highly personal and cannot be transferred without close personal contact. A technician abandons the standard operating procedure because experience tells him that it is not appropriate in this situation An auditor digs deeper because something about the accounts makes her uneasy Two core processes
Codification of knowledge into databases and repositories Facilitation of interpersonal knowledge sharing The Knowledge Creation Process Knowledge is created and expanded through: the social interaction between tacit and explicit From individuals to the group Monika & Attacked, 1995 Sharing and creating tacit knowledge through direct experience Solicitation Externalities Articulating tacit through dialogue and reflection Explicit Learning and acquiring new tacit knowledge in practice Monika, Attacked, Kong, Ottoman Internationalist Combination Stemming and applying explicit knowledge and Knowledge creation Solicitation - move from tacit to tacit knowledge CROSS NO. 00213J e. G. New knowledge is expressed in a way that can be shared Combination - move from explicit to explicit knowledge e. G. Working side by side; e. G. Integrate with what we already know and capture in policy or procedure Internationalist - move from explicit to tacit knowledge e. G. New learning become a pattern in your repertoire, taken for granted and you forget you learned them (Monika and Attacked 1995) Managing knowledge: transformation Levels of Knowledge Types of knowledge Individual Organization tacit Databases Systems and procedures Skills Know-how
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