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Implications Limitations And Recommendations Education Essay

Chapter 5

This chapter focuses on deductions, restrictions of this research plus recommendations for those who intend to utilize and develop farther research in the hereafter.

5.1 Deductions

Based on the research and accomplishment of e-learning, and the findings presented in the preceding parts, this chapter offers deductions including literature reappraisal on e-learning every bit good as Moodle ‘s natures in online authorship that have late investigated at some colleges/universities as STU, HCMCOU.

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5.1.1 Deductions of literature reappraisal

Economy development, societal alterations and technological procedure revolutionise instruction and acquisition in educational organisations. E-learning, the signifier of web-based instruction and acquisition, is built with a system of networked computing machines that includes the waiter and workstations. Server is a computing machine plan that provides specific services to client package running on other computing machines. Teachers will make class content that consists of needed accomplishments and cognition in the signifier of text, image, life, streaming picture, sound, etc. that can convey to pupils in distance acquisition via the Internet, intranet/extranet. In world, the person or organisations can easy set up a free online school ( e-school ) , since constructing the web substructure does non necessitate a high disbursal as building existent school and complicated accredited formalities are non required, while pupils have non to pay a travel fee, save clip to travel to school for analyzing.

5.1.2 Deductions of research findings

The findings of this survey revealed assorted deductions of on-line instruction and online composing instruction and the web site. Deductions of on-line instruction

Most of the picks about scenes of web site and class in during installation and configuring Moodle will impact the user experience. After holding been making the classs and classs, and choosing blocks to utilize, participants create a model for their site. Then they ‘re ready to make full their classs with larning stuff. Moodle ‘s classs contain anything that can look on the World Wide Web ( texts, images, sound, picture, games, etc. ) . Based on the relationship between participants, Moodle ‘s content is classified into “ inactive class stuff ” , “ synergistic class stuff ” and “ societal class stuff ” ( Rice, W. , 2010 ) .

In Moodle, inactive class stuffs consist of resources that the pupil reads, but does n’t interact with. They are added from the Add a resource… drop-down bill of fare. Using this bill of fare, pupils can make text pages, web pages, links to anything on the Web, the class ‘s directories of files, a label screening any text or image, multimedia files utilizing sound, images and movie.

Synergistic class stuffs are activities, which help pupils to pass on with spouses, teachers or the acquisition system, include Assignments, Lesson, Quizzes, SCORM/AICC, Survey, Choices, etc. They are created by snaping “ turning the redaction on ” , so “ Add an activity… ” . SCORM ( Sharable Content Object Reference Model ) is a bundle of elaborate descriptions that permit handiness, reusability and interoperability of larning objects.

Social class stuffs are 1s in which student-to-student or student-to-teacher interaction exists. They include Chat, Glossary, Wiki, Workshop, etc. that is chosen from the “ Add an activity… ” bill of fare with the button “ turning the redaction ” on.

Owing to voluminous signifiers, attractive visual aspect, manageable activities, bidirectional exchange and collaborative acquisition, Moodle has become a powerful tool which helps participants better and develop composing accomplishment beautifully and variedly. Therefore, in schools, Moodle is supported and recommended for usage to raise preparation quality. However, e-learning system with Moodle non implemented over a big country, and merely installed in outstanding universities or high quality centres due to expensive cost of proficient substructure and a deficiency of clever experts of information engineering. Furthermore, e-learning preparation classs in foreign linguistic communications sections are restricted in the sum of clip every bit good as course of study stuffs are excessively hard for participants to use and use in on-line composing instruction and acquisition. Their computer-literacy is non plenty high to cover with jobs and troubleshoot mistakes in a computing machine system. Deductions of online authorship

Since the Moodle ‘s characteristics satisfy status and construction of learning and larning activities based on educational theory, it is an ideal platform for larning direction system. Through on-line activities, pupils normally enjoy executing authorship activities. They non merely experience comfy and easy to add images, sound, picture, and a game component every bit good as to modify the colour, the font face, font size and layout of the text but besides diversify on-line authorship activities from simple to complex. Sing the angle of a text unit, they can carry on undertakings bit-by-bit from taking appropriate word degree, composing accurate sentence, doing paragraphs, and eventually, building whole text. When clever at authorship, pupils have adequate cognition and accomplishments to build and post the Hagiographas on the Internet so that other people can entree to and portion them.

Producing texts at word degree implies much significance: ( 1 ) How to utilize words right, efficaciously, and imaginatively ; ( 2 ) How to separate sets of normally baffled words ; ( 3 ) How to associate words to definitions and illustrations, etc. All of undertakings help us to show what we think. In the web site, classs introduced some typical vocabulary pattern as a crossword, a fill-gap and duplicate words. In add-on, some other points are added to help pupils to finish their accomplishments.

There are several agencies to bring forth texts at sentence degree. Student can pattern typical exercisings as swinging buildings and parallel construction. Teachers can make talks by utilizing the Quizzes faculty to show peculiar grammar point in an interesting manner. The texts are connected with images and pictures and sounds from web sites. Students can have enlightening feedback on attempts to consequently do them happier and better their acquisition. From responses of pupils, the instructor can wholly better the feedback and appropriately alter the inquiries. Through this, they can raise pupils ‘ consciousness of how certain types of the sentences are structured.

Producing paragraphs and whole texts incorporates many procedures. Here, we emphasize the procedure of roll uping, sharing and developing thoughts, so be aftering, outlining, proofreading and revising texts. Writing can be organized in single activities or in a little group activity or a whole category activity. Feedback on authorship can be immediate ( as in Activities 1 and 2 ) or delayed ( as in Activities 4 to 12 ) . One of the attractive characteristics of Moodle is that it enables composing to be enhanced by images and striking layouts. After garnering informations, pupils will spread out, explore and form a set of thoughts for authorship by excess faculty as mindmap. The add-on faculty, Mindmap is a utile tool to portion and develop and brainstorm composing assignments. It is related to other activities as Journal, Assignment, Wiki to do composing originative. Personal profile is a Moodle ‘s faculty that helps pupils prosecute in composing personal profiles in production activities. After happening out the personal profiles of equals, they can notice on these personally in schoolroom, or could post the remark on a Moodle web page for a comment. Students ‘ authorship is showcased on Moodle site by making a Moodle Blog or put ining the add-on OUblog to let other pupils to notice on the web logs. If utilizing the Book faculty, pupils can non redact pages and instructors has to look into and import this composing into Book before it exists. In other options of learning composing an essay, the instructor finds a subject that is appropriate to the category and illustrates it in an highly attractive manner. The Glossary faculty allows pupils to show the collected information. After composing about the subject, pupils will add images to do the entry luring. Then, the instructor grades the pupils ‘ work. The concluding result is the signifier of a mini encyclopaedia that gives the information about subjects. The Chat faculty supplying models for pupils to rephrase what they ‘re stating to acquire their significance through authorship. The Assignment faculty to supply a stimulation, motivate pupils and to supply a more realistic background and do up a authorship undertaking. It allows pupils to take portion in procedure authorship in which they can subject a bill of exchange, acquire feedback, re-submit other bill of exchanges and acquire better feedback. To actuate pupils and provoke their response, the instructor normally use the images of existent life or a set of exposure of an event involved. A series of aggregation of copyright-free images can be searched for on the web, or private exposures are selected to function for composing. The Forum faculty is a topographic point where all pupils can add their slideshows by uploading exposures and captions and participants can read and notice on other pupils ‘ slideshows. The Wiki faculty helps pupils collaborate on a authorship undertaking and utilize different and separate efforts to lend to the same undertaking. Alternatively, with the characteristics of Wiki, merely group members can see and modify its web pages involved. Deductions of the web site

On-line instruction is extremely assessed by participants in the fact that “ Modular Layout ” is sensible and scientific, “ Interface ” is attractive, user-friendly and intuitive, “ Management ” of registration, clip, activity, and class is rigorous in exactitude but flexible in extent, “ Appraisal Schemes ” is broad in scope, varied in type, “ Concerted Learning ” is conducted in student-to-student and student-to-teacher interaction. However, the ratio of understanding of instructors is instead higher than the ratio of understanding of pupils.

In instructors ‘ and pupils ‘ sentiments, online authorship classs are performed in the process-based attack and genre-based procedure, elements labelled by ( 1 ) and ( 2 ) are selected much more than others. In the teacher-to-student ratio of choice, the former is instead higher than the latter.

The web site received the positive response from the respondents. Almost sentiments assumed that classs are enlightening and comprehensive. In footings of interaction, class stuffs allow participants to see, to read and mention to and class activities enable participants to interact with the spouses, the acquisition system, or others. In footings of authorship activities, class stuffs are recognized from composing order and text construction and learning activities encourage to show personal sentiments. The figure of instructors chooses picks labelled by ( 1 ) and ( 2 ) is instead higher than the figure of pupils.

5.2 Restrictions

Moodle becomes Learning Management System popular and widespread and is indispensable larning environment in the educational system. Its activities are ever enhanced and promoted. However, this does non intend that Moodle has non its restrictions. From this research plus some other bing research, restrictions can be recognized.

5.2.1 Restrictions of the literature reappraisal

Generating from critical literature reappraisal, e-learning restrictions can be considered in the corner of engineerings, methodological analysis, personal psychological science issues and other issues. With the statement in this portion, the things agree with e-learning besides accords with Moodle.


Necessary hardware and other ICT resources are core elements required for e-learning execution in schools and establishments. In order to hold entree to the Internet for online acquisition, authorities organisation and non-government organisation spent a big sum of money to purchase desktop, laptop computing machines, pressmans and ICT hardware for colleges, universities and bureaus that implemented e-learning. Persons that have demands of online acquisition can purchase or lease necessary computing machine equipment so as to larn.

E-learners have entree to the Internet without clip limitation but the outstanding benefits are non executable for some people populating in farther and distant countries due to a deficiency of services for accessing the Internet. High-speed bandwidth is easy accessed in the cardinal universities while it has problem with the other schools with hapless Internet backgrounds. Uys ( 2003 ) stated that limited telecommunication substructure and installations are impeding the e-learning procedure.

The limited Internet coverage can be hinderances to all educational constitutions nationwide that are able to near information services, digital educational information, and on-line preparation engineering. Technological barriers can severely impact Internet application as equipment failed, malfunctioned, or asynchronous, clip to larn a new engineering and trouble to schedule schoolrooms with engineering. Limited bandwidth due to a slow ADSL connexion and hapless transportation rate of a communications web may impede the acquisition procedure as the downloading of multimedia stuffs, sometimes interrupted or students’answers for their teacher during an on-line treatment session. In educational activities, picture conferencing as synergistic telecommunication engineerings which allow two or more pupils to pass on with bipartisan picture and audio transmittals at the same time. It might non be executable for scholars who use the slow DSL connexion from their places. Broadband service is overloaded and limited to certain locations where there are higher population denseness sharing Internet capacity. Consequently, it is easy recognized that most of the e-learning classs are merely text-based as the Internet bandwidth is limited.

Personal psychological science issues:

Newcomers get accustomed to believing that e-learning environment is the same as traditional acquisition environment. To derive effectual work, they need to psychologically fix for the online composing environment. Therefore, to hold accurate orientation and to avoid proceeding by test and mistake, they need enlightening direction from on-line classs every bit good as website Godheads. Besides, Dearnley ( 2003 ) stated that fledglings to untraditional acquisition may acquire lost because they do non cognize what to make as there is no elaborate counsel from the instructor.

E-learning is the merchandise of the high engineering that requires e-learners to hold on new accomplishments and command associated with it. New e-learning pupil feel puzzled as exposing to the unconventional e-learning environment and separation from others. In add-on, the deficiency of ICT accomplishments is one of the obstructions in e-learning preparation that adheres to new procedure and use connected with the engineering. As a consequence, deriving new engineerings is a complication to the novice in e-learning.

E-learning is a learning activity that requires several self-denials and independency. It encourages the independent and comfy manner of acquisition, but the scholars ‘ self-motivation and self-denial are the finding factors in keeping and finishing analyzing. Schott et Al. ( 2003 ) asserted that the e-learning success rate was really dependent on pupils ‘ abilities to be autonomous and internally motivated. Naturally, e-learning pupils have a higher dropout rate than their conventional opposite numbers ( Abouchedid & A ; Eid, 2004 ) . E-learners need extra encouragement and support, to counterbalance for the isolation ; motive is the key for them to successfully finish the class ( Lessons from the e-learning, 2002 ) .

Specifications of on-line class:

Harmonizing to a new attack to learner-centered instructional design, pupils can command and set their coursework. In an e-learning environment, scholars need to pull off their acquisition and schedule their assignments ( Grant & A ; Spencer, 2003 ) . This is instead different from the traditional acquisition environment where scholars need to go to some classs in physical schoolrooms, and they need to make their assignments or take scrutinies within a certain clip frame ( Miller & A ; Corley, 2001 ) . As a consequence, e-learning scholars may take a longer clip to graduate, as compared to traditional pupils who need to finish their surveies within a clip frame ( Choy, 2002 ) .

Requirement of online authorship accomplishment

Writing accomplishment is one of the indispensable accomplishments in e-learning environment and traditional environment. Learners with weak composing accomplishments can be at a obstruction to an e-learning environment ( Smith & A ; Rupp, 2004 ) . In on-line acquisition, it is a text-based environment that scholars need to frequently communicate in. Consequently, that exists on many defects in composing accomplishments severely impact on the acquisition procedure and ability to show pupils ‘ idea.


Another restriction in e-learning is the deficiency of existent communicating. Schott et Al. ( 2003 ) expressed that the deficiency of physical interactions made e-learning pupils feel stray and discerning. In an online environment, it is excessively hard for pupils to have advice, when compared to face-to-face schoolroom. In unrecorded schoolrooms, interacting with the teachers or equals for information, scholars are cognizant of the job easy and larn more quickly.

Body position, gestures, facial looks, and oculus motions do non be in e-learning. An illustration is when a pupil stated that he missed “ facial and manus gestures ” , from which of import cues can be derived ( Meyer,2003 ) . The deficiency of lively interactions will exclude pupils ‘ observation and can suppress their feelings and emotions, may forestall teachers from giving their feedbacks on pupil ‘s demands and consequently lead to restrictions of the acquisition procedure.

E-learning non merely lacks physical interaction but besides blamed for non holding installations like traditional environment: internship, voluntary chances, entree to physical library, book shops, calling and development guidance ( McCraken, 2004 ) . Some acquisition establishments tried to supply these installations but they were excessively limited ( McCraken, 2004 ) . McCraken farther pointed out jobs such as budget, compatibility of package, and college policies, that hindered the development of incorporate back uping systems.

In fact, pupils need to execute a batch of life world observations in nature every bit good as in society so as to develop their accomplishments and cognition, and this may be difficult to recognize through e-learning simulations.

A set of method is based on engineerings and are developing and changing quickly along with e-learning. Traveling into e-learning is hard for teachers who are already familiar with the traditional instruction environment ( Angelina, 2002a, p.12 ; Strauss, 2003 ; Kearsley, 2000 ; Wang, 2003 ) . Strauss ( 2003 ) said that passage into e-learning is instead hard as it involves transition of physical instruction stuffs into e-learning stuffs and this takes clip to finish. Many teachers are non exposed to the necessary package, and do non desire to alter their instruction manners ( Levy, 2003 ) . In an online schoolroom, teachers are besides required holding many pedagogical accomplishments to pass on, usher and buttocks efficaciously. As a consequence, teachers need e-learning preparation before transitioning ( Levy, 2003 ; Strauss, 2003 ; Pachnowski, 2003 ) . A manner of learning in an online schoolroom is peculiar and different from a general manner of a traditional schoolroom. Due to underestimating e-learning, some teachers might compare it with face-to-face acquisition environments. All these complicates teachers ‘ passage towards e-learning.

Interface design

Bad design of the e-course is a major affair for scholars and e-learning suppliers. It make users a stressed province and non good treated feeling ( Ivergard & A ; Hunt, 2005 ) . They farther mentioned this makes users to experience disgruntled and eventually give up larning. E-course design should be adapted for the demands of the scholars: it should be easy to utilize and pupils should hold easy entree to direction and information ( Howell, Williams & A ; Lindsay 2003 ; James-Gordon, Young & A ; Bal, 2003 ) . Svensson ( 2004 ) said that it is non easy to plan the e-learning e-course, as it should non be limited to merely content and should include other constituents to heighten acquisition. In brief, the hapless serviceability of the on-line class will forestall the scholar ‘s ability to get cognition ( Smulders, 2003 ) .

Since e-learning is normally designed fundamentally for practical cognition and apprehension of the ICT, it may be excessively proficient for ICT novitiates ( James-Gordon, Young & A ; Bal, 2003 ) . Therefore, to continue popularity and easy serviceability, e-course is redesigned for scholars from all backgrounds and categories to successfully entree and efficaciously usage.

Although there are many e-courses available in the market, Sambrook ( 2003 ) mentioned that it is non easy for scholars to take a suited courseware that comes with relevant content and equal degrees. Before making or building an on-line class, the trainers and teachers need to see and measure package applications every bit good as the quality of the preparation stuffs and course of study. The rightness of the courseware may increase the scholar ‘s satisfaction ( Grooms, 2003 ) . Therefore, it is hard how to accommodate the quality of package execution and preparation class to reenforce cognition and accomplishment.

Other issues

Although e-learning provides limitless entree anytime and anyplace, this may non be favorable to some persons. Dringus ( 2003 ) explained that scholars can post any inquiries in the forum or direct electronic mails whenever they are free ( even during weekends ) . This neverending acquisition and learning procedure will easy emphasize both the scholars and particularly the teachers ( Newton, 2003 ) . It is besides more time-consuming to steer on-line pupils, delegate a undertaking and give pupils a feedback on their Hagiographas. These e-learning teachers have heavy work loads and this may sabotage their public presentation and even cut down their opportunities to turn with the environment ( Dringus, 2003 ) . This will impact their work in learning or assist pupils, hence scholars may merely acquire an unacceptable scope of services.

It is instead difficult to obtain academic honestness and justness in footings of on-line appraisal. because the e-learner can portion the username and the watchword with others during unsupervised online trials. Patalong ( 2003 ) provided another good illustration of rip offing when pupils shared or “ cooperated ” during an on-line scrutiny in Coventry University, United Kingdom. Submiting the online assignments, e-learners can be dishonest because they may trust on a spouse for aid to make the assignment. Schott et Al. ( 2003 ) referred to all these jobs as “ digital cheating ” , when scholars “ utilised ” computing machine engineering for rip offing or plagiarism.

Many unlicensed schools have organized e-learning classs. Consequently, a figure of companies and bureaus do non acknowledge online grades and acknowledgment of e-learning classs is presently certain restriction. Therefore, achieving a making with accreditation position from e-learning is normally a job for pupils ( Collins, Buhalis & A ; Peters, 2003 ) . It is normal to admit that there be some on-line instruction institutes even selling grades for a certain sum of tuition fees and without any type of appraisal ( Khoo & A ; Azizan, 2004 ) . Due to the characteristic and map of e-learning, it must be examined further carefully and thoroughly scrutiny for accreditation and acknowledgment. Similarly, Eaton pointed out that accreditation is hard for distance acquisition establishments, as there are issues in the rating of instruction quality and the appraisal of the effectivity of the distance acquisition model ( Baker, 2003 ) .

Taking portion in online acquisition, scholars from all over the universe will confront the troubles because of difference in clip zones. It is instead difficult for the teacher to schedule an on-line category to run into and fulfill the demands of different pupils from different clip zones. It is apparent to place that in an on-line class, pupils barely stipulate a clip period for group treatment due to the different clip zones in some subdivisions.

Despite e-learning ‘s current popularity, does it hold any restrictions? Evan & A ; Hasse ( 2001 ) found out that scholars are reasonably missing in computing machine proficiency and, since e-learning is centered around computing machine engineerings, it is a barrier to those scholars without good computing machine accomplishments. In add-on, surveies of Evan & A ; Hasse ( 2001 ) , O’Regan ( 2003 ) and Rovai & A ; Jordan ( 2004 ) found out that scholars face limited physical interactions among themselves in e-learning.

5.2.2. Restrictions of the web site

Due to the chief limitations on allocated clip and e-learning ‘s substructure, the empirical survey and its the consequences have the restrictions cited as follows.

The empirical research is conducted on Moodle for 2nd linguistic communication learning with authorship activities. Therefore, it has yet non clarified the mutual relationship with other accomplishments that well contribute to success of on-line authorship.

The survey was limited to merely two features – Moodle ‘s characteristics and procedure and genre-oriented authorship direction in the foreign linguistic communication section of schools. Simultaneous, the appraisal of the web site is based on these two cues. Therefore, the other issues as subjects on Moodle, excess plans, SCORM bundle, etc. are neglected.

The information collected about respondents focused chiefly on students/teachers. Therefore, the probe does non execute on employees in vocational administrations and concern endeavors that are of import takers to pull general decisions of the installing and application of Moodle in the cognition economic system.

Students ‘ on-line academic degree and instructors ‘ distant preparation criterion are still limited due to inadequate preparation course of study and a deficiency of ICT resources in institutes. Therefore, the consequences of research into on-line composing instruction will take to certain restraints on application of Moodle.

Survey research and schoolroom state of affairs observation are chief research methods used in the thesis. The other research methods as instropection research, correlational research and experimental research are glanced up rapidly merely to back up some diminutive inside informations in research inquiries. Therefore, deep illations from an explorative probe are scarce to pull from.

5.3 Recommendations

The recommendations are drawn from the literature reappraisal and findings of the online composing study consequences achieved in this research are put frontward.

5.3.1 Recommendation for farther research into Moodle ‘s system

The followers is recommendations for farther research in the hereafter on the application and usage of the Moodle package in online composing instruction.

In authorship, the subjects can be normally assigned for pupils and sometimes pupils can besides choose a subject on their ain and have a opportunity to transcribe anything they are cognizant of and cognize really good. Subjects are typical topics of developing paragraphs and essays and can be modified to suit about any sort of composing assignment. Teachers can farther mention to subjects through the web site reference or the book about authorship.

Owing to restraints on clip and finance, the writer merely utilize the nucleus faculties and some add-on faculties to implement activities on Moodle. To similar surveies in the hereafter, it is suggested that research workers should use or develop authoring packages or bespoke package plans appropriately redesigned to their pupils. For illustration, an excess plan that helps pupils develop and form a set of thoughts to set up semantic maps for composing. This plan is intended to reenforce Moodle ‘s modular layout and attraction in online composing instruction by implanting sound, picture, and hyperlinks in it.

In add-on to utilizing Moodle ‘s techniques in class activities, the writer besides suggests a farther survey of the interoperable theoretical account between on-line composing instruction and traditional authorship learning so as to make links harmonious and inheritable between regular method and technology-based method every bit good as between process-based composing direction and modular object-oriented authorship instruction.

An experimental research is conducted among schools and concern endeavors in Vietnam by utilizing the same methodological analysis and measurement instrument to pull comparative decisions and to light positions on Moodle ‘s characteristics and activities

It has been suggested that newest version of Moodle will be used because it integrates with connectivist, the emerging theory of larning for the digital bringing to explicate the technological impact on life doctrine: unrecorded, love and larn.

A research is conducted to find whether Moodle ‘s resources, activities other characteristics, etc. are conditions necessary and sufficient for on-line activities in general and on-line authorship in peculiar.

A farther study research is conducted to develop a package to make packaged on-line talks for usage in a distributed instruction environment, based on developing direction system as criterion of IMS Global Learning Consortium ( IMS GLC ) and Advanced Distributed Learning ( ADL )

5.3.2 Recommendations for development research into e-learning in the hereafter

Due to agencies and the topic of acquisition, the undermentioned recommendations for possible future research of e-learning are as follows:

Mobile engineerings:

Because of technological development and scholars who are without substructure or individuals whose occupations require them to continuously travel. Therefore, larning activities need to be transferred through nomadic engineerings as nomadic phones, PDAs ( personal digital helpers ) , digital pen and paper, etc.

Simulations in e-learning procedure:

Simulation engineering is used to analyse the possible result of a given state of affairs based on one or more known variables. The purpose of the simulation is to minimise an unwanted result, but to increase the opportunities for success. So, simulations may heighten talks, presentations, existent universe pattern, immersive environment and experiential acquisition.

Learning personalization

Owing to the diverseness in individualised learning population, the diverseness in the entree media and modes, and diverseness in the context of usage of such engineerings. The most popular LMS like Moodle still does non back up larning personalization. Therefore, Researchers need to bridge the spread between the universes of Learning Management Systems ( LMSs ) and Adaptive Learning Environments ( ALEs ) . So, they map personalization functionality on different faculties of LMSs. Similarly, research workers of ALEs integrate their ALE within bing LMSs.

Open beginning e-learning tools

From demands of extended developer communities and a certain e-learning package for instruction, unfastened beginning package applications are noticed due to be nest eggs, stableness, public presentation and entree to code. Users in the close hereafter will hold entree to outdo unfastened beginning package that should be built on unfastened criterions for the populace to analyze, alteration, better and administer the package in an collaborative mode.

Standards development

Standards development is aimed at linking involvement and concern of different groups in distributed acquisition community. It is conducted through the combination between current engineerings and public executions. The impression is to set up a mention theoretical account for the foundation of effectual Internet-based acquisition. These criterions are considered as the guidelines for the Godhead to plan, develop, and implement the acquisition content.