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How Advertising Influence Youth Attitude Toward Dressing

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Summer training Report on How advertising influence youth attitude toward dressing UNDER GUIDANCE Mr. Vishal Jain MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (RETAIL MARKETING) SUBMITTED BY Mr. TARUN KUMAR REG. No. 720593065 PUNJAB TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY JALANDHAR (Punjab) ACKNOWLEGEMENT Through this seminar report I want to throw the light on the topic “How advertising influence youth attitude towards dressing”, it gives me immense pleasure to present my training survey report before my mentors. With deep sense of gratitude I would like to take this opportunities thank my honorable project guide Mr.

Vishal Jain This report incorporates many developments, which have taken place in the field of advertising as well as fashion during last 25 or 50 years or so.

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I have therefore tried to provide a report, which gives a precise and up-to-date view of marketing in a lucid and novel style. It is an attempt to correlate the modern marketing strategies and factual part of the business. Later on while discussing the reactions of various classes of people, the interplay of marketing and advertising factors, which profoundly influence the behavior of people’s buying a product, has been duly emphasized.

Everything has been presented in a simplified and refined form, illustrated by well-chosen representative examples. Throughout the report, presentation of material has been sharpened by inclusion of data report. I have made a very sincere attempt towards clear understanding of the report. My inexpressible gratitude is to the supreme guide who enables me to bring up my ideas into the concrete forms. Many people have contributed in the preparation of the report. I express my sincerest thanks and indebtedness to Ms. Gagandeep for inspiring me in the development of my project.

I will be very grateful to my mentors and seniors and inquisitive executives for constructive criticism of report and their suggestions for its further improvement. My heartfelt thanks are due to them. Tarun Kumar CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 2. HISTORY 3. RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT 4. MONTE CARLO & COTTON COUNTY 5. NEW ARRIVALS 6. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 7. INDIAN DRESSING 8. COSTUMES FOR BOYS 9. NEED OF MARKETING STRATEGIES 10. ORGANISATION OF MARKETING STRATEGIES 11. OBJECTIVES & RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 12. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY. 13. ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION 14. CONCLUSION 15. BIBLOGRAPHY 16.

QUESTIONAIRE INTRODUCTION Hearing is to forgetting, seeing is to remembering, doing is to understanding. Advertising is both an art and a business it tells the public at large about the availability of a product usually a consumer article and persuades the people through oral, visual and emotional appeals to buy the product. It presents an article in an attractive, respectable and highly useful way. Yet, like other arts it lies in concealing itself. To put it differently, advertisement of a certain product persuades us in a subtle way that we accept its publicized virtues as facts.

Wearing clothes with prestigious brand names seems to be very important for adolescents. This phenomenon was studied in the context of consumer socialization by examining the influence of three socialization agents, namely parents, peers and TV, on the development of French Canadian adolescents’ brand sensitivity and their relative importance. Controlling for socio-economic variables, multiple regression analyses were conducted separately for boys and for girls. For both genders, brand sensitivity is related to peer influence. Girls’ brand sensitivity is related to the importance fathers give to clothing brands.

TV exposure is not related to adolescents’ brand sensitivity. For boys and girls, peers represent the most important predictor of this consumer socialization. The results are discussed in the light of social and economic pressures and family relationships. Advertising influences the youth attitude towards dressing to a larger extent and has broad impact on the society and outlook of an individual personality. Fashions in dress have been current since the dawn of civilization. Fashions are meant to demonstrate the status of a person.

Advertisements make an appeal to our emotions and desires by associating the advertised brands with popular personalities such as film stars and sportsman. The style of advertising about the dresses combines pictures or cartoons with fine catchy phrases, musical tunes, and voice of advertising model, strong visual appeal. That is why they are most popular and most expensive of all. Advertising influences consumer’s subconscious mind. Youth tries to immediate the dressing sense of celebrities. Advertising has revolutionized the market of garment manufacturing.

In advertising everything is done to fetch the eyes of consumers and push up the sales. That’s why “William Shakespeare” remarked, “apparel ost proclaims the man”. Summarizing, in a nutshell here is a report, which has been made by thoroughly studying all the aspects of advertising world, Youth attitude towards dressing, market study etc. healthy criticism of the report is always welcomed. HISTORY Ludhiana is an important knitwear center located in North state of Punjab (about 400km from Delhi). More than half of the country’s hosiery products are supplied from here.

Commonly known as the Manchester of India and also as the industrial capital of small scale industry, the city has a business community that has proved its entrepreneurial strength all over the world. It has a long history in producing knitwear for the Indian market and is known for its woolen/blended knitwear including sweaters, pullovers etc. The word ‘knitwear’ is derived from the word ‘hose’, which means tubular that describes the shape in which the fabric was knitted, especially for socks. The first woolen knitwear unit was probably established in the last decade of the nineteenth century (maybe 1894) in Ludhiana for manufacturing socks.

Some others put the date as in the first decade of the twentieth century. Its origin can be traced to migrants from Kashmir, who settled in Ludhiana after a famine in Kashmir in 1933. These migrants brought with them skill of weave fine woolen fabrics and embroidery. Their skills were commercialized by the local traders who sought markets within Punjab and beyond. In 1935, the industry saw its first change with circular knitting machines introduced in the industry. They started manufacturing sweaters on these machines with cotton used as raw material.

The second turning point in the history of this cluster was the introduction of Flat Knitting machines during 1940s and during the same period, the industry started importing wool for manufacturing woolen products. The Ludhiana knitwear industry cluster developed during the second world war, when the woolen jerseys were in great demand. In 1947 the Muslim population that migrated to Pakistan after partition, owned most of the machines so then the local population and the immigrants from Pakistan sustained this industry. Trade grew smoothly for next four decades. Myanmar was a very important market for Ludhiana knitwear till the 1950 i. . before the Myanmar Government imposed import restrictions. In the same year the Government of India also imposed restriction on imports and most of the inputs i. e. machines, needles etc at that time were being imported. The import restriction thus fostered development of indigenous machine manufacturers, spinning mills etc. Before the breakup of Russia into CIS, it was the largest market for the woolens made in Ludhiana. The breaking up of Russia forced Ludhiana to explore for new markets. Till then the focus of the cluster was largely on woolen products in the lower priced segment.

During the period of 1980s, the industry saw another change with introduction of automatic and computerised knitting machines. During 1981, the State government had set up a knitwear center with technical and financial assistance from UNDP and UNIDO, housing the most modern technology and equipment. The collapse of Russian market resulted in a major shakeout in the industry and several leading manufacturers were forced out of business altogether. At the same time the crises created a new generation of manufacturers, who learnt from Tirupur, Delhi and Bombay to thrive by shifting their business from winter wear to summer wear.

This paradigm shift eventually resulted in Ludhiana becoming more of a cotton and summer wear manufacturing center, while retaining its dominance in the domestic woolen market. Ludhiana has seen an enormous industrial growth in the last 8 years due to significant improvements in the law and order situation and a conducive atmosphere for Industrial growth. In order to attract the entrepreneurs to set industries, the State Government is providing benefits such as industrial parks and industrial estates as focal points. Although it is a highly labour intensive industry yet there is no systematic approach for providing training to the work force.

The importance of the Ludhiana knitwear cluster is evident from the following facts: *There are about 12000 small-scale units in the Ludhiana cluster *The total fixed investment in plant and machinery is Rs 300crores *Per capita investment in plant and machinery is Rs. 2. 13 lakh *The cluster is producing products worth Rs 5000 crores in a year. *The cluster provides direct and indirect employment to nearly 5 lakh persons *Per capita employment is 28 persons *The value of exports is around Rs 1300crores *Knitwear exports from Ludhiana has been growing at the rate of 25% since 1995 *Its share in total garment exports from India is around 3% More than 90% of woolen knitwear production of the country is from Ludhiana This sector comprises of some big organised composite manufacturers like Oswal Woolen Mills, Oswal Knit India (Pringle), Greatway, R N Oswal, Pee Jay International etc. that have a capacity of 0. 5 – 1. 0 million pieces each. In addition there are numerous medium and small scale units catering to local and export markets. The small-scale units are engaged in various activities like spinning of yarn, dyeing and processing of yarn and fabric, knitting, cutting, button holing and button stitching, washing and dry cleaning and label manufacturing.

This sector is a perfect example of ancillarisation and sub contacting in the country. The deep rooted knitwear industry in Ludhiana consists of both circular and flat bed knitting capacity. Structured knits, jacquards and fancy knits are especially from this centre. Auto stripers, velour & feeder stripers are other available options. Cottons, acrylics, rayon blends & woolen knitwear production is facilitated by an easy access to yarn production in the same region. The overall technological status is very low barring a few enterprises. The machinery and equipments are locally manufactured and are low in efficiency and quality.

The dyeing and finishing technology is highly polluting and consumes high amounts of energy and water. The knitwear industry of Ludhiana which has emerged as the largest self-sufficient sector in itself and has a huge potential of maturing into an eminent industrial name. Considering the size and potential of the Ludhiana Knitwear industry, it can be safely said that it will have a significant role to play in the changing global trading environment. It is therefore high time for the industry to become globally competitive and to make concentrated efforts. Analysis of Business Operations Product

The Ludhiana knitwear industry is a well-diversified industry. Product-wise it can be divided into two main sectors i. e. summer wear and winter wear. The main product for winter wear are sweaters, woolen socks, pullovers, cardigans, thermal wear, gloves, muffler, baret caps, shawls, jackets, jersey, and blankets, while for the summer wear the main product are T-shirts, cotton and blended socks, under garments, knitted bed sheet, knitted skirts, knitted tops, sports wear, night suits etc. Semiformal knitted made from double mercerized cottons blended with viscose and bed linen made for summer wear also fall into product basket of the Ludhiana luster. Raw material Most of the raw material is locally available. Cotton, Wool, Acrylic, Polyester, Nylon and Viscose are the main raw material used in the knitwear industry. Cotton is available in abundance as India is producing 1. 6 to 1. 7 million bales of cotton every year. But due to poor quality of Indian wool, generally the pure wool is imported from Australia, New Zealand or South Africa. Other synthetic fibres like Acrylic, Polyester, Nylon and Viscose are available indigenously. There are about 200 spinning units, which produce cotton, woolen and blended yarns. About 25% yarn is also exported from Ludhiana.

With increased level of Awareness through various exposure visits to Italy and China and interaction with the international buyers, Ludhiana manufacturers have begun to use new fashion varieties of yarn. The firms are either importing these new varieties of yarns from China, Australia and New Zealand or producing them in-house. Feather yarn and Crotchet yarn are examples of newly developed yarns. There is some collective yarn import also being done at Ludhiana. The fabrics used in the summer wear are locally knitted and use pure and blended cotton yarns and also synthetic yarns such as polyester, polyester cotton, polyester viscose etc.

Besides the above, there are various embellishments and materials requirement in the industry such as buttons, zip fasteners, sewing threads, thread lining materials, tapes, laces, labels, packaging material etc. that are easily available in India though not of very high quality in Ludhiana. In the dyeing sector, various dyes and chemicals are used for processing and finishing of yarns, fabrics and garments. Machines Ludhiana has about 4000 circular knitting machines out of which 1500 are fully automatic. There are about 500 flat computerized, 120 fully fashion and 50 to 60 thousand hand flat knitting machines.

There are local manufacturers who not only cater to the Ludhiana market but also supply throughout India. Many of the manufacturers having financial muscle import machinery from Italy, Germany, Taiwan, Korea etc. Of late there has been a provision of importing second hand reconditioned machinery from these nations under the TUFS scheme and many units are availing this facility. This machinery is much ahead of what is called ‘advance’ in the Indian context. This gives a technological uplift to the industry and in turn increases the quality of the produce.

There are 300 small and medium process houses. Most of them are traditional dyeing plants using hank dyeing. The number of package and fabric dyeing units are very few. The machinery used in dyeing is mostly indigenous while a lot of imported. Machinery is being used in finishing despite the fact that there is 25% import duty on machines. The import duty on the spare parts of these imported machines is 52% which means that the maintenance of these machines becomes a costly affair and is thus a detaining factor. There are around 25 units that are using imported machinery only.

The machinery that is locally available does not match the quality and productivity being offered by the foreign suppliers. Some of the manufacturers feel that this duty structure is a result of deliberate efforts to dump machinery. The machinery being imported is through indenters, which are around 25 in number. Direct machinery import is almost negligible. These indenters also give after sale service. Workforce: The Ludhiana knitwear industry is highly labour-intensive. It is estimated that the Industry has employed 5lakh persons.

Out of which, more then 2lakh are employed Indirectly. The concept of contracted labour prevails in the industry because of it being a seasonal industry and also to avoid the factories act. These indirect activities are related to the forward and backward linkages within the industry such as tailoring, embroidery, packaging, retailing and marketing etc. The labour available is migratory labour and is mostly unskilled. Though there are training courses being run locally, these are not being extensively used. Women workers, a major equirement of the garment industry is only 2% in number at Ludhiana. Although the biased attitude of the entrepreneurs towards women has been largely taken care of yet there is much to be done. Technical workforce is available but technical inputs are mostly given by the entrepreneur themselves who have practical industry experience and better knowledge gained by secondary sources. This is the reason why training levels are negligible in the cluster. The salary levels are low and despite the availability of professionals, their employment is very limited.

There is a lack of professional attitude amongst the managers and is being taken care of by unit level training programmes. Entrepreneurial Background: Most of the entrepreneurs in Ludhiana are self-made businessmen, who learnt the job while serving as workers in other units. Most of them lacked any technical or professional qualifications. Although these owners do not possess any formal technical education, their knowledge of materials, machinery and products is considerable. The owners perform all basic functions of marketing, procurement and finance.

This is precisely the reason why they do not want to appoint professionals or believe in training. The coming up second generation is again a mixed category, with some of them having professional qualifications before entering the family business, while others joining at an early age with shop floor and hands-on experience. The decision making powers are vested with the entrepreneur themselves. There is no delegation of authority and the amount of trust posed in the employees is very less. Production There are huge but fragmented capacities in the cluster and not much of subcontracting prevails.

Thus the capacity utilization is very low. It is 40% in units operating computerized machines while 80% in hand flat machines that are suitable for value added niche products. More than 60% of the units are working either as ancillary or vendors to their mother units. There is less differentiation with thrust on knit structures, silhouettes, shades and patterns, which are limited in range. This is a seasonal industry and the production capacity utilization is remarkably low in the lean season, which is from December to April for winter wear. Delivery schedules are seldom adhered to. Designing

Professionally qualified as well as experienced designers are available in the industry. Local institutes like Pinnacle, JD Institute and NIFD are serving the industry actively. But still Ludhiana is lacking in new designs because of no efforts being put on research & development. Most of the small entrepreneurs prefer doing this job themselves. The big ones, who are interested in keeping themselves abreast with latest trends visit nearby countries like Hong-Kong and Singapore to pick up some of the latest available samples. These are then modified to suit the needs of domestic market as well as that of some developing countries for exports.

The importers of developed countries usually provide their designs themselves. A proposal for collaboration with international institute likes CITER (Italy) & FIT (US) is under pipeline. Infrastructure Ludhiana is very poor as far as infrastructure facilities are concerned. The only airport, which is near to Ludhiana is not functional at the moment and it is required to increase its status from domestic to international airport. An international level exhibition centre for buyer-seller meets is needed so that it is easier for the buyers from abroad to visit Ludhiana. There are no proper facilities for labour force.

Due to scattered location of industries, the common effluent treatment plants do not work. Some units have installed them individually but they are working at much lower capacities. The conditions of roads is very poor and even the sewers are not laid down in some areas. The power supply is very erratic and very costly. Very recently this has been hiked by around 4%. Even the use of generator sets commands heavy taxes. There are no common facilities. MOT has announced a couple of schemes like TCIDS wherein the industry has to give a matching contribution. The cluster has already submitted a proposal in this respect.

In some areas, the associations have even pooled in resources for laying down roads and sewers. Finance Most of the units are financially independent with a strong base. Loans are easily available from banks and other financial institutions but preference is given to private financiers who provide loans at a higher rate. This is largely to hide the illegal business transactions. Various banks such as the SBI under its UPTECH programme is giving soft loans on their PLR and contributing initial Rs. 1 Lakh in terms of equity for technical up-gradation of units. Marketing Marketing is a very weak feature of the Ludhiana cluster.

At the outset, there is no distinction between the manufacturer and the marketer. There are a few firms who are selling directly through their own retail outlets such as Duke, Sportking or through marketing channels such as Monte Carlo, Pringle, Jain Udhay, Neva etc. Many units are doing job work for big brands such as Raymonds, Wills, Allen Solly, Esprit etc. Every year in two phases i. e. in January for summers and in July for winters, the manufacturers do their sampling and procure orders by displaying these in hotels at Delhi where they invite their prospective retailers.

A huge amount is spent in this process. An initiative in this respect has been taken by a few of the manufacturers in terms of collective and negotiated hotel bookings. It is being planned to conduct these meets in a collective fashion, which will reduce the cost of this activity. There is also a lot of price undercutting in the cluster. There is no emphasis on branding and this largely reduces the margins because the maximum value addition in chain is at this stage. To overcome this problem, a collective marketing and common branding project has been planned.

There is very less participation in domestic trade fairs and the international ones are also seldom visited to get a feel of the market trends. The marketing in the export sector is targeted mainly at the buying houses. There are very few units that are directly marketing in the international market. Domestic market Ludhiana knitwear industry is doing Rs. 3629 crores business in the domestic market. 95% domestic demand for woolen knitwear is fulfilled by the Ludhiana cluster alone. The main markets for Ludhiana knitwear industry are high-end domestic markets in Delhi, Ahmedabad, Mumbai, Lucknow and Kanpur.

There is also a low-end middle income mass domestic market including immigrants from Tibet and Nepal. Another major market are the Government Departments, primarily defence and police, that is routed through tenders announced by these departments. Export market The global knitwear market is of about 200 billion USD. Export of knitwear from Ludhiana is of about Rs. 1371 crores. The main foreign markets for Ludhiana knitwear industry are the high quality conscious Americans, Europeans and the market of the CIS countries. USA and EU are high fashion and design markets.

The export being done to American and EU nations is primarily job work for big brands wherein the designs are provided by the buyers. There is very less export being done with manufacturer’s own label and that too is limited to Middle East and CIS nations only. The Middle East markets are low quality markets. An important feature of the knitwear export from Ludhiana is that almost 90% of export is carried out by the manufacturer exporters. There are very few merchant exporters. Around 25% of the yarn is also exported. There is a huge demand for synthetic fibres in the European nations.

These possibilities have not been exploited so far. Role of marketing agents Marketing agents are basically catering to the requirements of the domestic markets, both high-end and low-end middle-income segments. They provide two kinds of important services to the entrepreneurs; firstly they source orders from distant buyers and secondly they serve as a guarantor of the buyer for the manufactures. They are responsible for collection of money from the buyers after expiry of credit limit. In case of dispute, they reimburse 50 percent of entrepreneur’s dead payment. The intermediaries take away around 6% of the sales as commission.

This indirect link limits the feedback received from the final customers and results in low customer loyalty, besides reducing the profit margins. Decentralized sector The knitwear industry in Ludhiana is highly decentralized & varies in size. The small knitwear units are located in residential areas around Sunder Nagar, Madhopuri, Brahmpuri, Shivpuri, Purana Bazar and Bahadur ke road. The medium and large units are generally located in the outskirts of Ludhiana in the Industrial Area, Focal Point, Chandigarh Road or Jalandhar road. Most of the units are based in the residential areas converted into commercial places.

Only a few big units have their production units in eleven of the Government promoted industrial estates in the Ludhiana district. There is no exclusive industrial estate in the city for knitwear units. Research and development There is no stress on R&D activities in the cluster. The R&D is only in terms of new varieties and finishes of yarns and in terms of technology up-gradation. An exhibition on latest yarns was organized, where Chinese and Indian firms displayed their innovations. This created some awareness but the cluster still needs to put in more effort in this. Taxes and Duties

There is chain of taxes on industry which are stated as under 1. Excise duty on fibers – 12% 2. Excise duty on yarn(12%) / Excise duty on polyester filament yarn (34 %) so average duty on yarn – 23% 3. Sales tax on yarn – 4. 4% 4. Sales tax on Ready made & knitwear – 4 TOTAL (of 1+2+3+4) – 66. 8% Proposed Entry tax on yarn – 4. 4% The knitters and weavers of grey fabric can pay excise duty on an optional basis. The rate of excise duty on fabric, made ups and garments is 12%. This special Dispensation shall continue up to 28th Feb 2005. The industrial fabrics would however continue at 16%.

The Hand processing of textile fabric by independent Processors is exempted from excise duty even there is use of power in three Specified processes i. e. scouring, hydro-extraction and calendaring in the case of Cotton and man made fabrics. Policies and regulations •EXIM Policy 2002 – 2007: In the EXIM policy 2002 – 2005, Ludhiana has been awarded the status of town of export excellence for woolen knitwear. This will entitle Ludhiana cluster for the following benefits: – Recognized association of units will be able to access funds under MAI (Market access initiative scheme) for creating focused technological services.

Funds will also be available for undertaking market promotion efforts on country Product basis. – Receive priority for assistance in identified critical infrastructure gaps. There are two schemes namely Apparel Integrated Park for Exports and the Textile Center Infrastructure building scheme under which 37 crores of funding is available. Various benefits will be extended to the member units as relaxation in labour laws, common facilities etc. – Sample fabrics permitted duty free within 3% limit for trimming & embellishment and 10 % variation in GSM to be allowed for fabric under advance license.

Additional items such as zip fastness, inlay cards, evelets, rivets, eves, toggles, velcro-tape, cord & cord stopper are included in input output norms. – DEPB rates are permitted for all kinds of blended fabrics. Such blended fabrics are to have the lowest rate as applicable to different constituent fabric. Oswal Woollen Mills Limited (OWM), the flagship company of the Nahar Group of Companies is expanding its existing capacities by raising funds through a public issue and has obtained SEBI’s nod for the issue of up to 8,320,000 equity shares of Rs. 10 each through the book built route. The issue comprises of a net issue to the public of up to 8,305,000 equity shares and reservation of up to 15,000 equity shares for subscription by employees. The net issue will constitute 25. 05% of fully diluted post-issue capital of the company,” said Mr. Jawahar Lal Oswal, Managing Director of the company. OWM, was incorporated in 1949 and is a part of Rs. 19,000 million well known industrial conglomerate Nahar Group which also consists of Nahar Spinning Ltd, Nahar Industrial Enterprises Limited, Nahar Exports Ltd and Nahar Capital & Financial Services Limited based at Ludhiana in Punjab.

The Group is one of the oldest and well-recognized business houses in India. The Company is one of the pioneers in the organized Indian woollen hosiery industry. OWM made modest beginning as a manufacturer of hosiery items and over the years has emerged as a vertically integrated woollen textile company having presence in diverse markets, with wide range of products including branded woollen hosiery and cotton garments. OWM is the registered owner of well-known brand name ‘Monte Carlo’ for selling woollen hosiery and cotton garments which was added to the existing product portfolio in the year 2002.

International Society for Super brands has recognized ‘Monte Carlo’ as a ‘Superbrand’ for woollen hosiery garments since Fiscal 2003. The products in woollen hosiery segment are also sold under the brand names of ‘Canterbury’ for premium quality woollen hosiery garments while the specialty worsted woollen yarns and hand knitting yarns are sold under the brand name of ‘OWM’. Since March 2006, the company has started manufacture of indigo dyed specialty denim fabric, which has added to the existing range of rich product portfolios.

The Company has been certified to conform to the QMS Standard: ISO 9001:2000 by DNV Certification B. V. , Netherlands for the manufacture and supply of dyed and grey tops and yarn in worsted wool, pure wool, lamb wool, acrylic wool blends and polyester wool blends and angora, berthia and serge fabrics. The Company endeavors to strengthen its position in the in the retail sector and it plans to further augment its existing reach of ‘Monte Carlo Exclusive Brand Outlets’ by opening additional 106 outlets by Fiscal 2009 from the existing 44 outlets as of now.

Further, OWM is contemplating selling denim fabrics to ready-made denim garment manufactures in domestic and international market. From 2007 autumn and winter season, The Company would start production and marketing of fine micron pure merino blended knitted products for children in the age group of one to eight years for the Indian domestic market. In the Fiscal 2006, OWM had commissioned a co-generation power plant with multi fuel capabilities with an installed capacity of 3. MW to meet the entire power requirements of integrated yarn textile manufacturing plant. Post commissioning of this co-generation power plant in addition to cost reduction of power, the company would benefit from uninterrupted availability of power resulting in better quality of yarn and reduction in manufacturing wastage. Under the current expansion plan, it proposes to set up a co-generation power plant with installed capacity of 7. 5 MW, which is expected to meet the full requirements of power for integrated denim operations post expansion. Mr.

Kamal Oswal, Director said, “We also propose to increase capacities to manufacture additional 125,000 pieces of wool based knitted and hosiery garments together with additional 4,784 spindles for worsted woollen yarn and also increasing denim fabric weaving capacity to 20 million meters per annum from the present level of 15 million meters per annum. As a backward integration for the denim fabric weaving, we are also setting up a cotton spinning plant with a capacity of 14,400 spindles and 2,160 rotors. ” The Book Running Lead Managers to the Issue are UTI Bank Limited and Motilal Oswal Investment Advisors Private Limited.

Oswal Woolen Mills NAHAR GROUP, established in 1949 surges ahead to establish it self as a reputed industrial conglomerate with a wide ranging portfolio from Worsted Spinning, Cotton Knitted, and Cotton Woven Garments, Woollen Hosiery Etc. The group has spinning capacity of 0. 4 millions cotton spindles 25000 worsted spindles with turn over of $500 million inclusive of export turnover of $150 million. Out of total production, 60% of the production is dedicated to exports and the rest 40% for domestic market.

The production facility have been awarded ISO 9001:2000. Today OWM is the flagship company of the glorious Nahar Empire and a proud owner of widely loved Super Brand in Knitwear, Monte Carlo and Recoganised Super Brand Canterbury. The company boasts of a product portfolio that is truly large and varied. They include diverse types of Woollen, Acrylic and Synthetic Blended Yarns, Lambs Wool Yarn. The markets of NAHAR GROUP are cris crossed allover the globe with major clientele in Australia, New Zealand, Europe, Middle East, Africa, Russia and Asia.

The objective is meeting the buyers expectations with consistent quality backed by R & D divisions equipped with latest equipment, Cream of highly qualified technocrats and adhering to timely schedules. Today Oswal Woolen Mills LTD. is a company that owes its strength in the market and solidity to foresight of its chairman Sh. Jawahar Lal Oswal ,the professional inputs of the board of directors and able to team of highly skilled mangers OSWAL WOOLEN MILLS LTD is the Flagship company of over US$500 millions NAHAR GROUP OF COMPANIES

Oswal Woollen Mills (OWM) is the flagship company of the Rs 2,000 crore Nahar Group, which is an industrial conglomerate with a diversified portfolio that includes spinning, knitting, fabric processing, hosiery garments, knitwear and infrastructure. Starting off as a small hosiery factory in Ludhiana in 1949. It produces a wide range of products, which include diverse type of woollen acrylic, synthetic blend yarns, lamb wool yarn, woollen viscose and acrylic tops, textile fabric, woollen hosiery, thermals, knitwear and cotton Garments. The Company’s infrastructural base includes six factories with a workforce of 10,000 people.

OWM has recently become the first domestic company in the country to receive the prestigious ISO- 9001-2000 certification in the designing, knitwear, manufacturing and supplying category. Oswal Woollen Mills (Spinning Mill) Limited Garment Manufacturer Oswal Woolen Mills NAHAR GROUP, established in 1949 surges ahead to establish it self as a reputed industrial conglomerate with a wide ranging portfolio from Spinning, Knitting, Fabric, Hosiery Garments etc. Out of total production, 60% of the production is dedicated to exports and the rest 40% for domestic market.

The production facility has been awarded ISO 9001:2000. OWM is the flagship company of the glorious Oswal Empire and a proud owner of widely loved Super Brands in Knitwear, Monte Carlo and Canterbury. The company boasts of a product range that is truly large and varied. They include diverse types of Woollen, Acrylic and Synthetic Blended Yarns, Lambs Wool Yarn, Woollen Viscose & Acrylic Tops, Textile Fabric, Woollen Knitwear, Hosiery & Cotton Garments The knitting industry in India can be classified into following groups: • Hosiery knitting for undergarments • Flat knitting for sweaters and winter garments Socks knitting for socks and stockings • Warp knitting for dresses, furnishings and industrial applications In the recent times, knitting sector has undergone enormous modifications that have resulted in an increase in efficiency, ease of operations, use of computer aided designing etc. The various reasons for the growth of knitting industry are as follows: • The capital investment for starting a new knitting unit is relatively small than that required for other fabric producing industries. • High productivity and very low preparatory process as compared to weaving. More flexible and easy changeover of styles and designs to keep up with the frequent fashion changes in apparel market. • Knitted fabrics are comfortable and are in tune with the time. • Knitwear don’t require ironing and thus it gives people a carefree feeling while traveling etc. • Low labour cost per unit as compared to weaving. • Wider scope of designing in a knitting machine at a lower cost as compared to weaving. Traditionally pure wool was more commonly used for knitted fabrics. But its cost being very high and production being very low, it could not meet the requirements of the increasing population.

Due to these constraints, the use of acrylic and other noncostlier fibres like jute have overshadowed wool in the knitting sector. Optimal utilisation of the manufacturing capacities of the industry is required to face the global challenge in terms of quantity and price in the post WTO quota regime. Most of the hosiery/knitwear manufacturing units in India are in the small-scale sector. India is the largest producer of cotton in the world, with Gujarat as a number one cotton producer with a yield of 300-400 kg per hectare. It is expected that within a couple of years, it will touch the mark of 550 kg per hectare.

Therefore India has an abundant supply of the basic raw-material for knitwear industry. Presently, the main centers where this industry is located are Ludhiana, Tirupur, Delhi, Culcutta, Banglore, Ahmedabad, Saharanpur, Surat, Kanpur and Mumbai. About 95% of the nation’s output of woolen/acrylic knitwear and over two third of its bicycles and parts production comes from Ludhiana. Tirupur is famous for cotton hosiery and most of its produce is exported. Knitwear industry uses various types of yarns like woolen, worsted, cotton, blended and various other types of fancy yarn.

However Ludhiana, which is very famous for woolen knitwear makes substantial use of acrylic fiber and less of pure wool because of its high price. This is primarily because wool as a raw material is produced mainly in Australia, South Africa and New Zealand and the import duty on the same is very high. The industry in India mainly imports wool either in its fiber stage, yarn stage or old woolen rags, which are then recycled. In terms of looks and feel for a common user, acrylic and woolen seem to be similar. At present world cloth market stands at 200 billion USD and the share of knitwear is almost 50% of the total market.

China has a hold over 24% of the global knitwear trade. While the domestic apparel market in India is around 9 billion USD wherein knitwear has only 15% share. If we analyse the per capita consumption of fabrics, the share of knitted fabrics in the Indian market is around 3% as compared to the world average of 13%. Globally, the per capita consumption of knitted fabrics is 31 kg in the US, 20 kg in the EU & 24 kg in Japan, whereas in India the per capita consumption is 0. 2 kg per annum. This proves that there is huge scope for growth of knitted fabric in India.

Significance of knitwear in garment industry The survival of knitwear industry depends on the survival of the garment industry. At present, the knitwear industry has only 43% share in volume of garment industry but the same is increasing at a very fast rate due to the comfort properties of knitted garments. As on January 1 2002, there were 50,000 units in India engaged in garment manufacturing, of which 9600 were in the knitted sector and 40,400 in the woven sector. Year 1999 2000 The garment sector in India is growing at the rate of 7. % in volume, but a notable point is that this growth has been largely supported by the growth in the knitted sector at a rate of 11. 4% in volume. Knitwear accounts for 18% of foreign exchange earned by the country from export of all commodities. Garment exports from India in July have registered a growth of 20% in value terms and is at 379 million USD as against 316 million USD, in the same period last year. Both the sectors of the garment industry i. e. knitted and woven have progressed over the last decade & a half but in the later half of the decade, the knitted sector has overtaken the woven sector in terms of volume.

Significance in export It is expected that the textile sector would fulfill the export target of Rs. 65,000 crores this year, out of which the knitwear contribution will be about 15% – 20%. The union Government has fixed the export target of 50 billion USD for the textile items by the year 2010, the share target for garment is at 50% i. e. 25 billion USD. Country’s Export of garment from Ludhiana region during Jan-December 2001 was 705. 19 crores under quota countries, while export of garment from India was of 21414. 52 crores.

Thus the percentage share of Ludhiana in export of garment was only 3. 29 %. The total global garment market is of 198. 7 billion USD. (From clothesline). Destination of export Presently U. S. A. , Canada, South Africa, U. K. , Germany, France and U. A. E are the main destinations for knitwear exports from India. West Europe, Australia, Japan, Middle East, Russia, Poland, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan & Ukraine countries are big importers of knitted items. Yarn from India is exported to almost the whole of the world but more so to Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Korea. Competitors

China, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Indonesia, Pakistan and Sri Lanka give severe competition to India in the world market. The share of China alone in the world market is 24% while that of India is just 3%. Import Barriers India’s import duties on wool fiber, textiles and apparel are highest amongst the world. Duties remain high at all stages of the pipeline and exporters also face nontariff barriers such as special import licenses for wool fabrics etc. The import duty on raw wool is 22% and on wool-top it is 50% with an additional duty of 11. 5% payable on imports. Besides this, the total duty on the wool yarn is 67. %. Import duty on machine is 25% while import duty on machine parts is around 52%. Sometimes the maintenance of imported machine becomes costlier. Because of this, the manufacturers avoid purchasing of modern imported machine. Oswal Woollen Mills Ltd enters capital market [pic] [pic] NEW DELHI: Oswal Woollen Mills Limited (OWM), the flagship company of the Nahar Group of Companies is expanding its existing capacities by raising funds through a public issue and has obtained SEBI’s nod for the issue of up to 8,320,000 equity shares of Rs. 10 each through the book built route. The issue comprises of a net issue to the public of up to 8,305,000 equity shares and reservation of up to 15,000 equity shares for subscription by employees. The net issue will constitute 25. 05% of fully diluted post-issue capital of the company,” said Mr. Jawahar Lal Oswal, Managing Director of the company. OWM, was incorporated in 1949 and is a part of Rs. 19,000 million well known industrial conglomerate Nahar Group which also consists of Nahar Spinning Ltd, Nahar Industrial Enterprises Limited, Nahar Exports Ltd and Nahar Capital & Financial Services Limited based at Ludhiana in Punjab.

The Group is one of the oldest and well-recognized business houses in India. The Company is one of the pioneers in the organized Indian woollen hosiery industry. OWM made modest beginning as a manufacturer of hosiery items and over the years has emerged as a vertically integrated woollen textile company having presence in diverse markets, with wide range of products including branded woollen hosiery and cotton garments. OWM is the registered owner of well-known brand name ‘Monte Carlo’ for selling woollen hosiery and cotton garments which was added to the existing roduct portfolio in the year 2002. International Society for Superbrands has recognized ‘Monte Carlo’ as a ‘Superbrand’ for woollen hosiery garments since Fiscal 2003. The products in woollen hosiery segment are also sold under the brand names of ‘Canterbury’ for premium quality woollen hosiery garments while the specialty worsted woollen yarns and hand knitting yarns are sold under the brand name of ‘OWM’. Since March 2006, the company has started manufacture of indigo dyed specialty denim fabric, which has added to the existing range of rich product portfolios.

The Company has been certified to conform to the QMS Standard: ISO 9001:2000 by DNV Certification B. V. , Netherlands for the manufacture and supply of dyed and grey tops and yarn in worsted wool, pure wool, lamb wool, acrylic wool blends and polyester wool blends and angora, berthia and serge fabrics. The Company endeavors to strengthen its position in the in the retail sector and it plans to further augment its existing reach of ‘Monte Carlo Exclusive Brand Outlets’ by opening additional 100 outlets by Fiscal 2010 from the existing 44 outlets as of now.

Further, OWM is contemplating selling denim fabrics to ready-made denim garment manufactures in domestic and international market. From 2007 autumn and winter season, The Company would start production and marketing of fine micron pure merino blended knitted products for children in the age group of one to eight years for the Indian domestic market. In the Fiscal 2006, OWM had commissioned a co-generation power plant with multi fuel capabilities with an installed capacity of 3. MW to meet the entire power requirements of integrated yarn textile manufacturing plant. Post commissioning of this co-generation power plant in addition to cost reduction of power, the company would benefit from uninterrupted availability of power resulting in better quality of yarn and reduction in manufacturing wastage. Under the current expansion plan, it proposes to set up a co-generation power plant with installed capacity of 7. 5 MW, which is expected to meet the full requirements of power for integrated denim operations post expansion.

Mr. Kamal Oswal, Director said, “We also propose to increase capacities to manufacture additional 125,000 pieces of wool based knitted and hosiery garments together with additional 4,784 spindles for worsted woollen yarn and also increasing denim fabric weaving capacity to 20 million meters per annum from the present level of 15 million meters per annum. As a backward integration for the denim fabric weaving, we are also setting up a cotton spinning plant with a capacity of 14,400 spindles and 2,160 rotors. The Book Running Lead Managers to the Issue are UTI Bank Limited and Motilal Oswal Investment Advisors Private Limited. Mr. N. D. Jain, president of the company, announced sale policy of textile products for the year 2007-2008. Mr. Jain informed that the company was manufacturing textile products of highest quality which are best in country. Oswal Woollen Mills Limited (OWM) is the  the flagship company of the Nahar Group of Companies. OWM, was incorporated in 1949 and is a part of Rs. 9,000 million well known industrial conglomerate Nahar Group. The Group is one of the oldest and well-recognized business houses in India. The Company is one of the pioneers in the organized Indian woollen hosiery industry. OWM made modest beginning as a manufacturer of hosiery items and over the years has emerged as a vertically integrated woollen textile company having presence in diverse markets, with wide range of products including branded woollen hosiery and cotton garments.

OWM is the registered owner of well-known brand name ‘Monte Carlo’ for selling woollen hosiery and cotton garments which was added to the existing product portfolio in the year 2002. The products in woollen hosiery segment are also sold under the brand names of ‘Canterbury’ for premium quality woollen hosiery garments while the specialty worsted woollen yarns and hand knitting yarns are sold under the brand name of ‘OWM’. Since March 2006, the company has started manufacture of indigo dyed specialty denim fabric, which has added to the existing range of rich product portfolios.

The Company has been certified to conform to the QMS Standard: ISO 9001:2000 for the manufacture and supply of dyed and grey tops and yarn in worsted wool, pure wool, lamb wool, acrylic wool blends and polyester wool blends and angora, berthia and serge fabrics. Monte Carlo India – Mens Fashion, Formal Office & Fashion Shirts, T-shirts, Jackets, Womens Cardigans & Sweaters Over the years, Monte Carlo has established itself as a brand name trusted world-wide for its excellence in quality and eminence.

Some of our products include sweaters, cardigans, cardigan sweaters, Mens pullovers, T-shirts, trouser, shorts, Womens cardigan sweaters & womens sweater. All our clothes are designed in a manner to give our customers the ultimate feeling of comfort and ecstasy. Our collections also includes a wide range of thermals and track suits India. In our compilation of exquisite clothing and qualitative attires we have variety of jackets India like Womens jackets, sleeveless jackets, Mens jackets & Shirts like fashion shirts, formal shirts, office shirts & wholesale shirts etc. “Dress up by the ways of world and eat what you please”

When getting ready for new day it’s all about looking fresh and feeling energetic. Dressing up in a fine manner and carrying it all with grace is what actually recites the personality and the real “you”. Styles change every season so there is no point in limiting and sticking to one style but it’s always better to experiment wisely. The dressing style of Men: The clothing styles change every season but there is one constant touch that unleashes the kind of taste you have. When it comes to men’s clothing its important that the colors are right and same goes for the cuts.

There are a few basic colors that actually suit men these include blue, black, white, grey, cream etc. Another vital tip for dressing will be to iron your clothes every time you wear them. When dressing up it’s not just about clothes but accessories as well. For that “ideal look” it’s important to always have a few things like watch, tie, pen, cuff link and tie pin. Once equipped with all above and a positive attitude you are all set to rule the world. The dressing style for Women: Dressing correctly is most confusing for women. Be it casuals or formal the only secret to look just “right” is to be graceful.

Although a few rules are standard for both men and women but still they have a wider range to choose from. When dressing up for a normal day its better to sport a simple look accompanied with a few accessories. A light make up with a serene identity is the idea to unite all the positive energies and bring out the confidence. More than any thing else it is mandatory no matter what you wear it should be comfortable because your wardrobe exactly portrays you individual identity. High waist or low waist only thing that matters is to be able to carry it well.

All said and done remember be true to yourself. To look trendy and fashionable it’s not important to change your wardrobe with every season what matters is to actually feel “Trendy”. Shopping Tips Shopping is one of the most favorite hobbies for both men and women. It is regarded as a stress buster activity. Despite of its soothing nature shopping can be troublesome at time so here are a few tips that guide you to enjoy the entire experience. • Most importantly you should be dressed casually so that you can easily take off and put back in the dressing room. • If you are not the “firm” kind and you annot decide by yourself, remember to take a friend with you who can guide you well on what actually suits you. • Until you are not shopping for pleasure remember to make a list of it all and shop only for the things that you need. • Keep trying new styles you never know what suits you until you have an experience; you might surprise yourself. • The best way to make sure that something is comfortable is to actually try it well. When you are about to buy something; move you arms and sit down that will give you a better idea of whether it is worth buying or not. With all the above ideas and tips now you are all set to buy just the right lothing and that too without any inconvenience. So, Get ready and get going!! How to buy? Find the Item – the website has been designed in a very user friendly manner with all the classification done all you need to do is to choose from the categories and order the product. Keyword Search – in case, you are looking for a particular dress type the item code ore a bit of its description you can access the item using the search option. Learn about the item you found – Before you actually buy the product make sure that you have all the details of the product like • Item no. Its description • Order no. • Price • Images Shipping and Payment Details: Make sure that you have read the details of the product and the Payment Information and other Shipping Instructions. New Arrivals Montecarlo Ladies Collection 08-09 Monte Carlo the flagship  brand  of  Oswal  Woollen  Mills   has Unveiled its s/s 08-09 collection. Dedicated to women are three lines. — Alice in Wonderland, Uber – dona and the New Proportions All the three collections are done by keeping one thing in preview, that it should be for every women,be her a college going girl or ur home maker.

Alice’s Wonderland inspired knit collection embodies design , colorful patterns and prints , with soft material and dynamic cuts, colorful threads. Tees in multi-colors and stripes also take their own place. Colors are rich and aristocrat , cardinal reds , majestic purples with off whites and soft ekrus. Browns , turqs and theatrical fucias ginger with light peach, sophisticated rose accents , contrast dusky vintage pinks. Uberdona– A desire for beauty and all the finer things in life. This party collection offers a range of kurtis crafted with extreme fineness and embellished with pearls and shells , metals and threads , flowing fabrics.

The New Proportions – A casual daywear – an interplay of clean cut silhouettes , pastels and earthy colors , fine cottons and minimal embroidered patternsPick a shirts or a tunic to dress down for effortlessly stylish daywear and it make sure to steal u a second glance. The trousers are baggy . Tastefully selected pieces lend timelessness and opulence to fashion – that’s what Monte Carlo ‘s / s 09 collection is all about. Price range – Rs 345 onwards – u can’t resist it!! Available – Monte Carlo’s exclusive stores and MBO’s. MonteCarlo Trousers Monte carlo offer more:

A perfect timeless look which shines you apart from the crowd. A perfect blend of premium fibres which gives the monte carlo trouser a uniqueness of its own. In the season we present you a complete range of classy chinos , edgy linens ,premium cotton lends bio-polished for a peach skin finish will give an extra smooth feel. The enzyme and silicon in these trousers makes the fabric extremely soft ideal and anti crush makes you feel beginning the day even at the end. A complete gracious range which starts from Rs 699 – Rs 1495. This season Monte Carlo has introduced its new LEXUS(miracle cotton) Wrinkle free Cotton(trousers). hich is made of 2 ply100s California PIMA cotton to give premium lustre and strength, Ultra light, high density, fabric with resin coating makes it a perfect non-iron trouser. New colour lock technology to keep colour fresh & bright wash afyer wash. For sporty look there is multi pocket cargos with different washes. And the Cargo range for men comprises of multi pocket cargos with detailing of snaps, velcros and zippers. Garments are treated with ultra enzyme wash and softeners to provide a trendy washed look and soft hand to the garment to increase the wearing comfort.

Canterbury Monte Carlo’s Canterbury is a premium brand that delivers elegance, soft luxury and creativity in intrinsic patterns and styles for those who settle for nothing but the best. The collection liberally uses superior quality of pure cash wool in fine count of eighteen micron. This makes the woollens lightweight and extremely warm. These garments have an excellent hand feel, drape gracefully and fit perfectly on all body types. The Cantebury  collections introduced every season pullovers and cardigans in 100 % pure cashmere wool and cash wool for both men and women.

The exciting Canterbury range has exclusive designs that come in unique colour combinations. The designs comprises of intarsia – classic argyles (diamonds shapes) and patterns of checks. Single colour self structure with links and transfers. The collection is available in fusion of urban neutral colours with a predominance of shades in blues, in evergreen greys, the elegance of beiges and brown, dull blues and the bright hues of turquoise. The fall winter 2009-10 collection has more than seventy designs on offer for its customers. Monte Carlo : It’s the way you make me feel Brand : Monte Carlo Company: Oswal Woolen Mills Ltd[pic]

MonteCarlo is a premium knit wear brand in India. Launched in 1984, this brand is dominating the Mass + Class segment winter cloth market. Oswal has around 50% market share in this segment. With the booming retail sector driving the growth of Readymade clothing in India (estimated to be to the tune of Rs40 bn) no one can resist extending their brand to readymades. That is exactly what MonteCarlo is doing now. MonteCarlo ( which is a super brand) has similarity with Color Plus (discussed in previous blog) in that it created a market for itself in a category that was dominated by lesser known brands.

Monte Carlo was careful in brand building and the ads were catchy and theme oriented. Since I am in South India where there is little market for woolen clothes, still the ads shown in national channels used to excite me. The ads were full of “feel good” factors with great models and excellent imagery. All the ads had Romance and two people discovering a relationship. The print ads were like that of ” ColorPlus” gave a premium touch to the brand. It is said that most of the earlier models of this brand are now superstars including Mallika Sherawat, Arjun Rampal to name a few.

Monte Carlo is promoted with the baseline “It’s the way you make me feel”. The catchy point of the TVC s is the music which always set the tone for the message. The brand is still communicated along the same themes since two decades. The company spent lot of effort in making sure that the premiumness is not lost in campaigns. This is going to pay rich dividend when the brand is getting into the competitive world of every day wear. The brand was extended to T shirts in 1999 with the brand Summerz. In 2001, the brand forayed into everday wear market under the sub brands Wonderhugs and Trouserz and introduced ladies wear in 2003.

This year saw the national launch of cotton wears from Monte Carlo. The company was carefully ramping up the distribution and retail strategies to ensure that this brand succeed. The price range of readymades is in line with the premium brands like Van Heusan and Louis Philippe. So Monte Carlo can expect some serious competition. With the kind of success this brand had in the winter wear market, it is reasonable to believe that Monte Carlo has the potential to be a ” Color Plus”. Hope that the brand will be built along the same themes that made it successful. REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Oswal Woolen Mills NAHAR GROUP, established in 1949 surges ahead to establish it self as a reputed industrial conglomerate with a wide ranging portfolio from Spinning, Knitting, Fabric, Hosiery Garments etc. Out of total production, 60% of the production is dedicated to exports and the rest 40% for domestic market. The production facility has been awarded ISO 9001:2000. OWM is the flagship company of the glorious Oswal Empire and a proud owner of widely loved Super Brands in Knitwear, Monte Carlo and Canterbury. The company boasts of a product range that is truly large and varied.

They include diverse types of Woollen, Acrylic and Synthetic Blended Yarns, Lambs Wool Yarn, Woollen Viscose & Acrylic Tops, Textile Fabric, Woollen Knitwear, Hosiery & Cotton Garments The knitting industry in India can be classified into following groups: 1. Hosiery knitting for undergarments 2. Flat knitting for sweaters and winter garments 3. Socks knitting for socks and stockings 4. Warp knitting for dresses, furnishings and industrial applications In the recent times, knitting sector has undergone enormous modifications that have resulted in an increase in efficiency, ease of operations, use of computer aided esigning etc. The various reasons for the growth of knitting industry are as follows: 1. – The capital investment for starting a new knitting unit is relatively small than that required for other fabric producing industries. 2. High productivity and very low preparatory process as compared to weaving. 3. More flexible and easy changeover of styles and designs to keep up with the frequent fashion changes in apparel market. 4. Knitted fabrics are comfortable and are in tune with the time. 5. Knitwear don’t require ironing and thus it gives people a carefree feeling while traveling etc. 6.

Low labour cost per unit as compared to weaving. 7. Wider scope of designing in a knitting machine at a lower cost as compared to weaving. Traditionally pure wool was more commonly used for knitted fabrics. But its cost being very high and production being very low, it could not meet the requirements of the increasing population. Due to these constraints, the use of acrylic and other noncostlier fibres like jute have overshadowed wool in the knitting sector. Optimal utilisation of the manufacturing capacities of the industry is required to face the global challenge in terms of quantity and price in the post WTO quota regime.

Most of the hosiery/knitwear manufacturing units in India are in the small-scale sector. India is the lar

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How Advertising Influence Youth Attitude Toward Dressing. (2017, Mar 25). Retrieved September 22, 2019, from https://phdessay.com/how-advertising-influence-youth-attitude-toward-dressing/.