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Hostel Implementation

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Evaluation Study on Construction of Hostels For SC Boys & Girls ALL INDIA (REPORT) Programme Evaluation Organisation Planning Commission, New Delhi, April, 2009 CONTENTS Chapters Topic Preface Executive Summary Chapter - 1 Introduction - Background of the Scheme - Objective of the Scheme - Guidelines for Initiating Hostel Proposal - Procedure for obtaining Central Assistance - Evaluation Study - The Scheme in Selected States

Page No. I-II i-xiii 1–2 Chapter – 2 The Evaluation Study – Objectives & Methodology - Objective of the Study - Sample Design - Reference period of the Study and Starting of field survey - Methodology/Instruments used for Data Collection - Data Analysis and Report Writing 3–6

Chapter – 3 Planning, Implementation & Monitoring Method of Scheme - Role of Nodal Ministry - Role of State Nodal Department - The Level at which Proposals Initiated - The Approval Procedures of the Scheme - The Process of Implementation of the Schemes in the State vis-a-vis General Guidelines - Achievements of Physical Targets - Role of PRIs/Local Bodies under the Scheme in Construction & Maintenance of the Hostels - Local Political/Bureaucratic Interference in Selection of Hostel Sites - Objective Criteria for Selecting the Location of Hostel - Inspection by State/District Administrative Authorities - Involvement/Role of NGOs - The Monitoring and Reporting System Prevailing under this Scheme, Including the Construction Stage 7 – 19 Chapter – 4 Allocation of Grants and Expenditure on Hostel 20 – 27 - Funding Pattern under the Scheme - Modality of Release of Fund - Release of State Share - Release of Central Share - Utilization of fund

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Chapter – 5 Functioning and Suitability of Hostels including Facilities 28 provided to Inmates 49 - The Suitability of Locations - Layout of Construction in Case of New Hostels - Use of Hostels Constructed under the Scheme - Availability, Quality & Maintenance of Facilities Provided in the Hostel • Dining Hall cum Kitchen in the Hostel • Food Provided to the Inmates and its Quality • Annual Charges Paid in the Hostel • Maintenance of Hostel Toilets • Water Supply to the Hostels • Supply of Food grains at Concessional Rates to SC Hostels - Facilities Provided to the Inmates - The Role of Nodal Department in Management and Maintenance of the Hostels Chapter – 6 Observations on the Impact of the Scheme - The Outcomes of the Scheme in Terms of Availability and uses of the Hostel by the Target Group - Impact of Scheme on Educational Development of SC Boys and Girls 2001 Census 50 – 55 Chapter – 7 Recommendations Project Team 56-57 58 PREFACE The Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) of construction of new hostels as well as expansion of existing hostels for SC girls was initiated in 963-64 so as to give an impetus to education of girls belonging to the SC community. During 1989-90, based on the recommendations of the Working Group on the Development and Welfare of SCs and STs, this scheme was extended to SC boys also. The scope of the scheme was enlarged further to cover institutions of higher education/learning such as colleges and universities. The main objective of the CSS is to provide free boarding and lodging facilities in the hostels for SC boys and girls studying at Schools and Colleges/University levels. In order to integrate the SC students with the mainstream, 10 percent of total accommodation in such hostels was left for non-SC students.

At the instance of the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, the Programme Evaluation Organisation, Planning Commission, conducted an evaluation study of the scheme in 8 selected states. The study was launched in November, 2004 with the following objectives: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) To study the approval procedures of the proposals for construction of hostels. To study the process of implementation of the scheme in various States vis-a-vis the guidelines. To assess financial & physical performance of the scheme. To assess the extent of utilization of hostel facilities by the target group. To study the monitoring & reporting system prevailing under this scheme, including that at construction stage. To assess the outcome of the scheme in terms of the use of the hostels by the target groups.

In order to generate the required data base the study covered 185 hostels from CSS, 65 hostels from 100 percent state funded and 15 hostels constructed by NGOs which were sampled from Eight selected states, namely, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. Besides, two Central Universities (JNU-Delhi and Central University, Hyderabad) were also covered in the study. The main findings of the study are as follows: The construction agency in most cases was the state PWD which took up construction work through approved contractors. The hostels, after completion, were handed over to the concerned District Social Welfare Officer in most of the states. The Panchayati Raj Institutions/local bodies played very little role in most states. The visit of the district officials to the hostels either during the construction period or later was casual in most states.

The time taken in release of the state share to construction agencies varied considerably from state to state from two months to six months or even more after the release of central share. About 80 percent of the hostels were found functional at the time of visit of PEO’s study team. Most of the non-functional hostels were in Uttar Pradesh. Whereas Bihar had three such hostels followed by Karnatka and Orissa which had two each. This was due to absence I of basic requirement/amenities, wrong selection of site and without assessing the need for SC students in that area. About 6 percent of the hostels were found being used for other purposes such as office, library, class rooms etc.

All these hostels were in Bihar, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh. Fifteen hostels in five states namely Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh were under construction at the time of visit of the study team to these hostels. Out of these 15, in six cases, the construction had been stopped due to land disputes in the case of Uttar Pradesh and due to constraint of funds in Karnataka. Hostels were overcrowded in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Orissa and Rajasthan where average occupancy per room exceeded 10 and upto 30 or even beyond this number in some hostels of Andhra Pradesh. On the other hand, hostels in Bihar, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, were underutilized.

In the hostels under 8 districts of Uttar Pradesh and 8 districts of Bihar, inmates themselves cooked food in their rooms as the servant cum cook appointed for the purpose were reported to be deployed elsewhere by the authorities. In almost all the hostels, maintenance of hostel building and toilets was unsatisfactory. 90 percent hostel Wardens reported that the release of fund for salary of hostel staff was received in time. However, grant for meeting day to day maintenance expenditure was in time only in56 percent cases. The scheme had significant outcome in terms of establishment of hostels in three states only namely Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka. Other states i. e. Orissa and Rajasthan did not take full advantage of the scheme while the scheme totally flopped in Bihar with negligible effect.

On the whole, the hostels benefited the target group of very poor SC/ST students coming for studies from long distances. But the outcome in Bihar has been poor. The performance of the programme could considerably be improved if the suggestions made in the report could be suitably implemented. The study received continuous support and encouragement from Hon’ble Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission and Member (Evaluation), Planning Commission. The study was designed and conducted under the direction of Shri K. N. Pathak, the then Deputy Adviser in PEO. The services of Institute for Resource Management and Economic Development, Delhi were availed for tabulation, interpretation and analysis of data and preparation of report. Shri L. N.

Meena, Economic Officer, PEO assisted the research institute in Data processing, Chapter Plan, Tabulation & report drafting under the guidance of Project Director Sh. K. N. Pathak. Dr. R. C. Dey, Director, PEO gave a final shape to the present report and Mrs. Godhuli Mukharjee, Director, REO, Kolkata edited the same under guidance of Dr. Davendra Verma, Adviser (PEO) and my supervision. The list of the Officers involved in the study is given at the end of the report. The help and cooperation received from all of them is gratefully acknowledged. S. Bhavani Sr. Adviser(PEO) New Delhi Dated: April, 2009 II Executive Summary I. • Background & Objectives of the Scheme

Construction of hostels within or near to the campus of educational institutions was visualized by planners as one of the means to enable and encourage boys and girls belonging to Scheduled Castes(SC) community to improve access to education. Government of India, therefore, started the Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) of construction of new hostels as well as expansion of existing hostels for SC girls in 1963-64 so as to give an impetus to education of girls belonging to the SC community. During 1989-90, based on the recommendations of the Working Group on the Development and Welfare of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, this scheme was extended to SC boys also.

The scope of the scheme was enlarged further to cover institutions of higher education/learning such as Colleges and Universities. The main objective of the CSS is to provide free boarding and lodging facilities in the hostels for SC boys and girls studying at Schools and Colleges/University levels. In order to create social homogeneity and equity 10 percent of total accommodation in such hostels was left for non-SC students. The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment which is the nodal ministry for construction of hostels for SC boys and girls, invites applications from areas having: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) High concentration of SC population and Low literacy among SCs in the area.

Inadequate hostel facilities Adequate availability of school going SC children. Adequate number of educational institutions Good accessibility and safety of girl students. • • • The Ministry has also laid down certain procedures for obtaining central assistance for construction of hostels for SC boys and girls. i Evaluation Study • At the instance of the Central Ministry, the Programme Evaluation Organisation, Planning Commission, conducted an evaluation study of the scheme in 8 selected states. The study was launched in November, 2004. The study covered the period from 1963-64 to 2002-03. But for the selection of sample, hostels constructed during 1992-93 to 2002-03, were considered. •

The Broad Objectives of the Evaluation Study: To study the approval procedures of the proposals for construction of hostels. (ii) To study the process of implementation of the scheme in various States vis-a-vis the guidelines. (iii) To assess financial & physical performance of the scheme. (iv) To assess the extent of utilization of hostel facilities by the target group. (v) To study the monitoring & reporting system prevailing under this scheme, including that at construction stage. (vi) To study the role of nodal Departments at the State/UT level and those at the district/block level in proper utilization, maintenance and upkeep of the hostels. vii) To assess the outcome of the scheme in terms of the uses of the hostels by the target groups. (viii) To analyze the impact of the scheme on educational attainment of SC boys and girls during the period between 1991 census to 2001 census. II. • (i) Methodology Eight States where the scheme had made considerable progress and representing different regions namely Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh, were covered in the sample survey. Besides, Two Central Universities were also covered in the evaluation study. Sixty eight districts constituting about 20 percent of the districts of the selected states were covered in the sample for detailed study.

These districts were selected from two types of states namely (i) those having hostels more than the average number of hostels per district and (ii) those having hostels less than the average number of hostels per district. It was decided to canvas a supervisor schedule from one official in each hostel involved in construction/supervision of construction of the hostels. • • ii • This was restricted to hostels constructed under the centrally sponsored scheme (CSS) only as relevant information regarding state funded hostels were not likely to be available readily. In all, 185 hostels from CSS, 65 from 100 percent state funded and 15 constructed by NGOs, were covered under the study.

Ten boarders per hostel upto the sanctioned strength of 100 and 5 boarders per hostel having the sanctioned strength of less than 100, were selected. In all, 1417 inmates were covered in the study. Two ex-inmates subject to availability were selected randomly from each hostel. A total of 368 ex-inmates were contacted during the study. A total of 210 knowledgeable persons, i. e. roughly one per hostel, were also contacted to elicit their views regarding functioning of such hostels. Two Central Universities (JNU-Delhi and Central University, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh) and five State funded Universities from Haryana were covered under the study. Nine types of schedules as per details provided below were administered for getting information at different levels. • • • • • •

Type of Schedule State Level* District Level** Officials involved in Construction Level Hostel Wardens Inmates Ex-inmates Knowledgeable Persons NGOs Level University Level Schedule*** No. Canvassed 7 67 191 211 1417 368 210 8 7 * Indicates that State Level Schedule of Uttar Pradesh has not been received so far. ** As new district Sant Kabir Nagar not having its own staff, its work was carried out by the staff of Basti district. Therefore only one district level schedule was canvassed for the both districts viz. Basti and Sant Kabir Nagar. *** 2 Central Universities (JNU,Delhi & Central University,Hyderabad) +5 State Funded Universities in Haryana. iii III. •

Planning, Implementation and Monitoring The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, GOI had formulated certain guidelines for initiating proposals and obtaining central assistance for construction of hostels for SC boys and girls. Proposals in the prescribed form received by state governments from the level of district and down below for construction of hostels were forwarded to the nodal Ministry for getting necessary sanction. The Ministry, in turn, examined the physical and financial progress of the hostels sanctioned earlier and released necessary funds to the concerned states for construction of such hostels. For release of funds by the nodal ministry, the following requirements were considered. (i) A certificate regarding availability of land (ii) Site plan of the proposed hostels (iii) A certificate that the estimates are prepared as per latest PWD/CPWD norms. iv) Detailed cost estimates of the proposed hostel (v) Physical progress of hostels constructed since 1992. (vi) Hostel-wise, year-wise statement of utilization of State as well as Central shares in the prescribed proforma. (vii) Matching share of State Governments/Universities/NGOs. • • In most of the States, Department of Social Welfare at the state level acted as the nodal department for construction of hostels for SC boys and girls. It implemented the scheme through its administrative setup at the district level and down below in different areas. Proposals for construction of hostels were initiated at different levels such as district, taluka and panchayat.

The approval for construction of hostels was generally given by the state nodal department i. e. the Department of Social Welfare, after ensuring the fulfillment of prescribed norms under the guidelines. Number of hostels to be constructed every year depended largely on the availability of funds. State Public Works Department (PWD) provided technical help such as approval of design, cost estimates etc. in respect of construction of hostels for SC boys and girls. • • • • iv • Officials involved in the construction of hostels, designated here as supervisors, were involved in construction activities in a number of ways. Cost estimation, and supervision of construction were among important activities performed by them (Table - 3. 1).

About 53 percent of supervisors acknowledged that they had received guidelines for construction of hostels. The majority among them were from Orissa, Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh while in Delhi and Karnataka not a single supervisor received any guidelines. (Table - 3. 2). The guidelines issued to supervisors contained components like procurement of land, sanctioning of work, release of fund for work, implementation and monitoring of work (Table - 3. 3). The administrative set up for implementation varied from state to state. The construction agency in most cases was the state PWD which took up construction work through approved contractors. In a majority of cases, i. e. 1 percent, guidelines for making special provision for physically handicapped were not issued to the supervisors (table 3. 4). • • • • Quality of Work • As reported by supervisors, in 75% percent cases, the materials used for construction, were tested by quality control wing of state PWDs. Regular supervision by higher officials also helped in the process (Table - 3. 5). Notwithstanding the above, the field study team found defects in the erected structures in some states i. e. Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh. The problem faced by the supervisors in Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka related to the fund not being received in time for construction, where as in Bihar, problem of land dispute was reported.

On the other hand, no problem was reported from Andhra Pradesh, Haryana and Rajasthan in this respect. The hostels, after completion, were handed over to the concerned District Social Welfare Officer in most of the states. There was a mixed picture across the sample states with respect to achievement of physical targets. For example, in states like Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa targets were more or less fully achieved. On the other hand, in states like Karnataka and Rajasthan • • • v achievements were reported to be far behind the targets, while in Bihar only 4 boys hostels out of a target of 40 could be constructed during the 11 year period (Table-3. 6). •

The Panchayati Raj Institutions/local bodies played either very little or no role in most states as reported by the district authorities and Supervisors, both as can be seen from table - 3. 7. By and large, there was no political/bureaucratic interference in the selection of hostel sites except in some cases in Uttar Pradesh and Haryana. In most of the selected districts, the objective criteria laid down in the guidelines for selection of hostel sites, were largely followed. However, some exceptions were reported in Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. In Rajasthan district level bureaucracy is reported to have played a dominating role in selection of hostel locations while in Uttar Pradesh selection of hostel site was largely determined by political and bureaucratic pressure groups.

The visit of the district officials to the hostels either during the construction period or later was casual in most states due to (i) the hostel scheme being not a priority (ii) Grants for the scheme is not routed through the District Welfare Officer (iii) there is excess workload & too many meetings at district level and lack of infrastructure facility like vehicle, staff etc. In Andhra Pradesh such visits were regular and frequent. Visits of the state officials were mostly casual. The supervisors, however, visited the construction sites very frequently(Table-3. 9 & 3. 10) Haryana was the only state where NGOs were involved for the construction and upkeep of the hostel. Most of the supervisors (81 percent) sent progress reports on monthly basis during the course of construction out of them 69% sent MPRs to district level officials concerned (Table-3. 14).

There was a mixed picture across the states with regard to sending progress report by hostel wardens about maintenance and upkeep of hostels. It was only in 54 percent cases that the wardens sent the progress report to the concerned district level Social Welfare Officials. Some wardens in Bihar, Karnataka, and Uttar Pradesh did not send any progress reports to the district administration about their hostel. • • • • • • vi V. • Allocation and Utilisation of Funds The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Govt. of India has laid down certain norms for funding various agencies for construction of hostels for SC boys & girls. The hostels constructed under CSS have 50:50 percent matching shares of state and central govt. for construction of hostels under central Universities.

Central share goes upto 90 percent and remaining 10 percent is borne by Universities themselves. As far as grant to state Universities/NGOS hostels is concerned, 45 percent burden is borne by centre and 45 percent by the state government while the remaining 10 percent is to be contributed by the state University/NGOs. An analysis of the data collected from the various nodes of the implementing agencies reveals that: An amount of Rs. 22,230 lakh was spent for construction of hostels during 1992-93 to 2002-03 of which Government of India’s share was about 50 percent and state governments’ share was about 46 percent. The balance 4 percent was contributed by universities/NGOs (Table-4. 2).

In 43 percent cases, state governments released their share in advance directly to the executing agencies on the basis of estimates submitted by them while in 22 percent cases; the state share was released in installments only after receipt of the Government of India share, on the basis of progress of construction. The more frequently encountered preconditions for release of fund by the state governments were availability of owned land, cost estimates based on CPWD/PWD rates and selection of construction agency. The officials in a few districts in Bihar, Orissa and Rajasthan were, however, not even aware of any preconditions. The time taken in release of the state share to construction agencies varied considerably from state to state from two months to six months or even more after the release of central share.

The Central share was released to the Finance Department of the concerned states from where it was further transferred to the state nodal department i. e. Department of Social Welfare. In many states the transfer of the central share from the Finance Department to the state nodal department was delayed. This delay was reported to be 1 month in Karnataka , 2-3 months in Haryana and Rajasthan, and in case of Bihar it is inordinate due to complicated procedure. • • • • • vii • Time taken by the Government of India in releasing the central share after receiving applications from the state governments was negligible in the case of Andhra Pradesh but several months in the case of Bihar and Orissa because of inadequacies on the part of respective state governments.

In case of Bihar, a reason for this could have been the availability of huge amount of unutilized fund (i. e. Rs. 360. 23 Lakh) from earlier years resting with the state govt. There was a reasonably good convergence between sanctioned costs and actual expenditure in most states except Andhra Pradesh, Delhi(JNU) and Karnataka there the actual expenditure was observed to be higher than the estimated cost. Per inmate, average expenditure on construction of hostels varied widely across the different states from Rs 85606 in Haryana to Rs 21918 in Orissa and Rs. 178720 in Delhi(JNU). Norms of ceiling on expenditure fixed by the Union Ministry were violated in most of the states.

Functional Status of Hostels About 92 percent Wardens and 87 percent Knowledgeable persons viewed the location of hostels as suitable. In Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh Wardens(8%) and Knowledgeable persons(13%) both are not satisfied with the location of hostels while only Knowledgeable persons are not satisfied in Haryana and Orissa and only one Warden not satisfied in Rajasthan. Reasons varies from sites being not accessible by easy approach road, non-availability of drinking water, electricity etc. (Table-5. 1). About 80 percent of the hostels were found functional at the time of visit of PEO’s study team. Most of the non-functional hostels were in Uttar Pradesh. Bihar too had three such hostels followed by two each in Karnataka and Orissa.

Reasons were absence of basic requirements, wrong selection of site and improper assessment of need for hostel for SC students (Table-5. 2- A). About 6 percent of the hostels were found being used for other purposes such as office, library, class rooms etc. All such hostels were in Bihar, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh (Table-5. 2-B). Fifteen hostels in five states namely Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh were under construction at the time of visit of the study team to these hostels. Out of these 15, in six cases, the • • VI. • • • • viii construction had been stopped either due to land disputes in the case of Uttar Pradesh and or due to constraint of funds in Karnataka(Table-5. 2-C). •

Hostels were overcrowded in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Orissa and Rajasthan where average occupancy per room exceeded 10 and reached upto 30 or even beyond this number in some hostels of Andhra Pradesh. On the other hand, hostels in Bihar, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, were underutilized. Taking the country as a whole, average occupancy per room was 11 to 20. All functional hostels had dining halls attached to the kitchen but some of them in Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh were in dilapidated condition Inmates in most hostels were provided food. The quality of food was considered good only in Andhra Pradesh whereas in Karnataka, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Rajasthan, the quality of food was a mix between good and average.

But in Uttar Pradesh there is no mess facility except in a few hostels of Gonda and Allahabad districts where some inmates reported about quality of food as average. In Bihar, no free food is given to inmates in hostels. In Madhya Pradesh 50 inmates of eleven selected hostels reported that either mess facility is not available in the hostel or food is not provided free. They paid for the food from their stipend amount. Similarly 15(43%) inmates in Orissa paid to the hostel management for food or ate outside the hostel. In the case of Haryana also, the information on the quality of food is available from 18 inmates in Kurukshetra district only, while for the remaining districts food was not provided free of cost to inmates.

Over all only 41 percent of the inmates reported the quality of food in the hostels as good. In the hostels under 8 districts of Uttar Pradesh and 8 districts of Bihar, inmates themselves cooked food in their rooms as the servant cum cooks appointed for the purpose were reported to be deployed elsewhere by the authorities(Table 5. 4-A). In 42 percent of the selected hostels in Uttar Pradesh, inmates wanted supplies of Kerosene oil on BPL rates for cooking and lighting(Table 5. 4-B). In states like Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh, no annual charges were levied on inmates whether SC or non-SCs. But in other states i. e. Haryana and Orissa some charges were levied on inmates.

In Bihar there is no mess facility in the hostel. Inmates themselves had to cook their food or get the food from outside on payment. • • • • • ix • In almost all the hostels, maintenance of hostel building and toilets was unsatisfactory. Drinking water supply facility was available in 64 percent hostels as reported by the inmates. But in Bihar, Karnataka, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh a majority of inmates felt that either water supply was not available at all or it was inadequate for the hostels. Supply of food grains at concessional rates at par with BPL rates was available to hostels as reported by wardens, in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya

Pradesh, Orissa and Rajasthan and to some extent in Haryana but were not made available in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, as can be seen from views of Wardens presented in Table - 5. 7. Facilities provided free of cost to inmates included accommodation, bedding/cot, free food and drinking water. Similarly, free text books, newspapers/magazines, articles for sports & games, first aid etc. were also supplied to a number of inmates free of cost. Among other facilities provided free of cost in the hostels were hair cutting facilities, telephone and transport allowances. In a majority of cases these services were rated as good. About 87 percent boarders were paid scholarships while staying in hostels. Around 13 % of them received amount Rs. 51/- to above Rs. 00/per month (Table – 5. 9). As reported by 59 percent inmates, there were proper security arrangements in the hostels. 64 percent inmates reported that there was sufficient potable drinking water in the hostels. 47 percent inmates reported that there were bath/common rooms in their hostels. 45 percent of them also reported that they got stipend while staying in hostels. The position with respect to study aids like bench/table etc were found to be grossly inadequate in the hostels of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. Even in the sample hostels for SC boys and girls in Orissa, benches or tables were not provided.

About 92 percent inmates reported that overall atmosphere in the hostels was congenial Maintenance of the hostels was the responsibility of the District Social Welfare Officers who appointed wardens to carry out various functions related to maintenance of building and ancillary activities. • • • • • • • • x • About 74 percent wardens reported that they had received guidelines for maintenance of hostels while the remaining 26 percent informed that such guidelines were not provided. 87% percent hostel Wardens reported that the release of fund for salary of hostel staff was received in time. However, grant for meeting day to day maintenance expenditure was in time in only 56 percent cases.

In a majority of districts, fund was released on monthly basis for salary The behavior of hostel wardens in respect of sorting out problems was satisfactory, as reported by both inmates and ex-inmates. Andhra Pradesh is the only state where hostel wardens did not face any problem in management of hostels. A major problem faced by wardens in Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh was that they were over burdened since additional charges of more than one hostel were placed on them. The problem of fund constraint was reported by wardens from several states. Inadequate basic amenities were another problem mentioned by Wardens in 56% of selected states (Table-5. 18).

Major suggestions given by wardens for improved functioning of hostels included provision of (i)adequate basic amenities,(ii) funds for regular maintenance (iii) adequate grant for meeting the food expenditure of the inmates and(iv) regular warden/hostel staff in the hostels. During the year between 1995-96 to 2004-05, a total of 49,384 students applied for admission into these hostels of whom about 93 percent were actually admitted. Of those admitted, about 69 percent were SCs, 11 percent ST and 14 percent from other categories. But in Haryana, the norm regarding intake of SC students was violated as the proportion of SCs admitted to hostels constructed/renovated by NGOs accounted for only 30 percent (Table – 5. 20). • • • • • • VII. Impact of the Scheme •

The scheme had significant outcome in terms of establishment of hostels in Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka only. Other states i. e. Orissa and Rajasthan did not take full advantage of the scheme while the scheme nearly flopped in Bihar with negligible effect. In Haryana inmates from the SC category were less than half (30%) of the total strength which amounted to violation of the objective of the Scheme. In case of Uttar Pradesh a number of hostels were not being used by the beneficiaries due to various reasons. xi • The occupation of 35% of the parents of inmates was cultivation while this proportion was higher (76%) in case of ex-inmates.

Parent’s occupation as agricultural and non-agricultural labour among inmates, accounted for 42 percent against 22 percent from ex-inmate category. Haryana, however, had a different picture. Students from somewhat better off SC families were admitted to hostels run by NGOs in Haryana. About 78 percent of the inmates came from poor families having monthly income of less than Rs. 3000 and 26 percent were very poor having monthly income upto Rs. 1000 only. But Bihar and Haryana had much greater proportion of inmates from better off families about 42% of inmates and as high as 77% of ex-inmates came from families having monthly income above Rs. 5000/-. 54% inmates and 38% ex-inmates reported that they came to stay in the hostels from a distance exceeding 20 km or more from their residences.

On the whole, the hostels benefited the target group of very poor SC/ST students coming for studies from long distances. But the outcome in Bihar has been poor. Overall increase in the literacy rate among SCs in 2001 census compared to 1991 was 17 percent for males and 18 percent for females. Part of this increase could be due to other factors also. About 94 percent of inmates were of the view that the scheme of construction of hostels for SC boys and girls had brought about a considerable improvement in the educational development among SC boys and girls. This percentage is lower in Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Bihar and Orissa. • • • • • VIII. Observation and Suggestions •

Locations selected for construction of hostels must have adequate security for girl students and access to good roads, potable drinking water. There should be a regular and adequate budget provisions for repair and maintenance of hostels. Monitoring mechanism of the scheme ought to be strengthened. Design of such hostels should have provision for ramps for barrier free movement of physically handicapped students. • • • xii • Adequate number of hostels should be constructed in highly SC concentrated areas to reduce congestion in hostel rooms. Warden quarters may be constructed in all the girls’ hostels and it should be made mandatory for warden to stay in them. Every hostel should have a qualified warden. Women wardens should invariably be posted in girls hostels.

In cases where inmates are more than the sanctioned strength, provision for additional amenities such as toilets, living rooms etc. should be made. Scholarships should be increased to compensate escalation of prices and should be paid on time since these form major source of funds for food and other components of expenses by hostel inmates. Diet charges should be enhanced to meet the rising prices. Mess facility should be strengthened and free food should be must. Adequate infrastructure like benches/tables should be provided in every hostel. There should be provision for clean and hygienic toilets. Timely submission of utilization certificates before release of further installments of funds for construction of hostels should be ensured.

District Social Welfare Officers should be involved in the admission process of hostels constructed by NGOs to ensure adequate representation of SC students in these hostels. Cost ceilings for construction of hostels fixed several years ago must be updated from time to time corresponding to rise in prices of construction materials and labour. A satisfactory mechanism for dissemination of guidelines issued by nodal agencies to implementing agencies must be ensured. There should be adequate arrangement for coaching facility for inmates of the hostels during extra timings. There should be uniformity in terms of rules and regulations for boarding and lodging across states. • • • • • • • • • • • • xiii Chapter - 1 Introduction 1. 1 Background of the Scheme The constitution of India envisages special protection for socially and economically deprived sections of the society for ensuring their rapid economic development and achieving equality with others. Provision of quality education is an important tool for empowering the weaker sections. Various socio-economic factors obstruct the access of the children belonging to scheduled castes to education in general and girls in particular, especially those living in rural areas. Construction of hostels within or close to the campus of educational institutions has been considered one of he means to enable and encourage boys and girls of SC community to strive towards achievement of quality education at reasonable costs to improve access to education. Government of India started the Centrally Sponsored Scheme for construction of new hostels as well as expansion of existing hostels for SC girls in 1963-64 so as to give impetus to SC girl’s education. In due course, certain changes were introduced to improve the scheme by allowing central assistance in construction of hostels in Universities and for making hostels barrier-free for disabled students. A major change came during the Seventh Five Year Plan (19851990) when the Working Group on the Development and Welfare of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes recommended that hostels for SC boys should also be constructed.

They recommended at least two hostels for boys and girls should be established in each district HQ in the country. In light of this; the coverage of the scheme of construction of hostel for SC girls was also extended for SC boys. Accordingly, in respect of SC boys, this scheme was started from 1989-90. 1. 2 Objective of the Scheme The main objective of the Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) is to provide free boarding & lodging facilities in hostels for SC boys and girls studying in schools and also for those studying in Colleges and Universities. In order to provide and propagate social homogeneity and equity 10 percent of total seats were meant for non-SC students.

The general instruction issued by the Government of India under the Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) further provided that if after accommodating all SC applicants, certain seats were left vacant then accommodation to non-SC students might be considered. However, the proportion of non-SC students in any case should not exceed 25 percent. The guideline also states that for general category students some charges may be levied which may be utilized for better maintenance of the hostel. 1. 3 Guidelines for Initiating the Hostel Proposal The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, GOI prepared general guidelines for initiating proposals for construction of hostels for SC boys and girls. Guidelines pertaining to the implementation of the scheme at istrict level were given to the district level authorities to be considered while initiating the proposals. These are: High concentration of SC population and low literacy among SCs in the area. Inadequate hostel facilities in the area. Availability of school going SC children. Adequate number of educational institutions. Suitable location keeping in view the connectivity aspect, safety and security of students particularly for SC girls. 1. 4 Procedure for Obtaining Central Assistance The Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment, GOI has laid down a procedure for obtaining central assistance for construction of hostels for SC boys and girls.

The proposals under the scheme have to be separately submitted by States/UTs for SC boys and girls in the prescribed proforma along with the following documents: (i) A certificate regarding availability of land, (ii) Site Plan of the proposed hostels, (iii) Detailed cost estimates of the proposed hostels, (iv) A certificate that the estimate has been prepared as per the latest PWD/CPWD rates, (v) Physical progress of the hostels sanctioned earlier since the year 1992 in the prescribed Performa, (vi) Hostel wise, year wise statement of utilization of State as well as Central share in the prescribed Performa, (vii) Matching share of the Sate Governments/Universities/Voluntary Organisations. 1. 5 Evaluation Study

Since, the beginning of this scheme in the year 1963-64 and its expansion of scope from 1989-90; no evaluation study had been taken up. In order to assess the impact of this scheme across the country it was felt necessary to undertake an evaluation study at All India level. Accordingly, at the instance of the Union Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, the Programme Evaluation Organization of the Planning Commission, conducted an evaluation study on the scheme of construction of Hostels for Scheduled Castes boys & girls. The study was conducted in eight states and two Central Universities where this scheme of construction of hostels for SC boys & girls was largely taken up.

The study was launched in the field in November, 2004. The study has covered a reference period of ten years i. e. 1992-93 to 2002-03. 1. 6 The Scheme in Selected States The Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) of construction of hostels for SC boys and girls has been in operation in several states of India. Some states like Orissa, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan have constructed hostels only under the Centrally Sponsored Scheme. Others like Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh have constructed such hostels both under the CSS as well as 100 percent state funded scheme. In Haryana, only the hostels owned and managed by NGOs have been covered under the present study.

In all other states, covered under the present study the hostels constructed for SC boys & girls have been owned and managed by the district level agency of the state nodal department i. e. the Social Welfare Department in most cases. In case of Central Universities, such as, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, Central University, Andhra Pradesh and the hostels constructed by State funded Universities, it is the University which owns and manages the hostels. The district wise coverage of the scheme has also varied from state to state. In Andhra Pradesh and Orissa all the districts of the state were covered under this scheme. But in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh several districts had no hostel for SC boys and girls.

Taking into account the size of population of the 8 selected states, the number of such hostels is relatively more in Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka and relatively less in Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Orissa and Rajasthan. As per available information from 8 selected states, a total of 2310 (1479+831 i. e. CSS and 100% state funded respectively) hostels were constructed between the period from 1992-93 to 2002-03. Chapter – 2 The Evaluation Study – Objectives & Methodology 2. 1 Objectives of the Study The broad objectives of the evaluation study were the following: (i) To study the approval procedures of the proposals for construction of hostels. (ii) To study the process of implementation of the scheme in various States vis-a-vis the guidelines. iii) To assess financial & physical performance of the scheme. (iv) To assess the extent of utilization of hostel facilities by the target group. (v) To study the monitoring & reporting system prevailing under this scheme, including that at construction stage. (vi) To study the role of nodal Departments at the State/UT level and those at the district/block level in proper utilization, maintenance and upkeep of the hostels. (vii) To assess the outcome of the scheme in terms of the uses of the hostels by the target groups. (viii) To analyze the impact of the scheme on educational attainment of SC Boys and Girls during the period between 1991 census to 2001 census. 2. 2 Sample Design 2. 2. 1 States

With a view to complete the study within a specified time and also to have a better in depth analysis the following eight states representing different regions were selected under the study: (1)Andhra Pradesh, (2) Bihar, (3) Haryana (For hostels constructed through University/Colleges & NGOs), (4) Karnataka, (5) Madhya Pradesh, (6) Orissa, (7) Rajasthan and (8) Uttar Pradesh. It was observed that in Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh large numbers of hostels (i. e. 163 and 666 respectively) were constructed under this scheme. Hence, it was decided to select these two states to assess their impact. From the Eastern Region, Orissa had the largest number of hostels (112), and Bihar had sizable SC population & also a large number of hostels (37) but considerably low literacy rate i. e. 49 percent as against the national literacy rate of 54. 16 percent.

Hence, these two states were selected as sample states from the eastern region. From the Southern Region, Andhra Pradesh was selected due to very high concentration of SC population (16. 17% males and 16. 22% females) and the second largest number of hostels (196) constructed for SC boys and girls under this scheme. In the Northern Region, Uttar Pradesh has a sizeable SC population (20. 76% males and 20. 18% females) & largest number of districts in the country i. e. 70, the number of hostels constructed in this state is 76. It was, therefore, decided to select the state as a sample state to be covered under this study. Similarly, Rajasthan was also selected due to high SC population in this state.

It was observed that five Central Universities have been funded for construction of hostels for SC boys and girls under this scheme. It was decided to select Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi (Mahi & Mandvi Hostels) and Hyderabad Central University as each of these two Universities has one hostel each for boys & girls. It is also observed that the state funded Universities in about 6-7 states have been covered under this scheme. In Haryana large numbers of hostels are reported to have been expanded under this scheme through NGOs. Therefore it was decided to select Haryana as a sample state to be covered under this study. 2. 2. 2 Districts

It was decided to select 20 percent districts from each sample state for the study. Average number of hostels per district in a state was worked out by dividing total number of hostels constructed in the state by the number of districts. The districts in a state were divided in two categories, first the districts having hostels more than the state average number and second category of districts having hostels less than the state average. Twenty percent of districts in a state were selected pari-passu from each of the two categories. Based on the above criteria, total 68 districts were selected from the above mentioned states other than Delhi.

These varied from 5 each in Andhra Pradesh, Haryana and Karnataka, 6 each in Orissa and Rajasthan, 9 in Madhya Pradesh, 10 in Bihar and 22 in Uttar Pradesh Table 2. 1 gives the complete list of selected districts. Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi had two hostels, one for boys and one for girls. Since the two hostels covered under the study were constructed by University itself without any involvement of district administration in construction and management, hence Delhi has been excluded from this list. State wise number and names of the district selected as sample for evaluation study have been given in Table 2. 1. Table 2. 1: Number and Names of Districts Selected for the Study No. f Name of the Name of the Selected Districts Districts Selected States Selected Andhra Pradesh 5 West Godavari, Vishakhapattnam, Karim Nagar, Mehboob Nagar, Chittor, Central University Bihar 10 Patna, Siwan, Muzaffarpur,Bhojpur, Bhagalpur, West Champaran, Purnia, Rohtas, Aurangabad, Samastipur JNU, Delhi Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi Haryana 5 Rohtak, Hisar, Sirsa, Kurukshetra, Kaithal Karnataka 5 Kolar,Chitradurga, Davengere,Chamraj Nagar, Gulbarga. Madhya Pradesh 9 Ujjain, Sidhi, Guna, Sehore, Narsinghpur, Tikamgarh, Datiya, Bhopal, Sivni Orissa 6 Jajpur, Keonjhar, Bhadrak, Dhenkanal, Balasore, Cuttack Rajasthan 6 Dausa, Tonk, Baran, Sikar, Bundi, Rajsamand Uttar Pradesh 22 Pratapgarh,Bareilly,KanpurNagar,Shahjahanpur, Chandoli, Meerut, Fatehpur,Barabanki,Varanasi, Gonda, Faizabad, Allahabad, Basti, Siddarth Nagar, Gorakhpur, J. P. Nagar, Banda, Sant Ravidas Nagar, Badayun, Ambedkar Nagar, Sant Kabir Nagar, Chitrakut Total 68 2. 2. Officials involved in the Construction/Supervision of the Hostels It was felt that the role of the officers who released the fund, coordinated the work and were directly involved in construction/supervision of the hostels was quite significant. Hence it was decided to frame a schedule for Officers at this level. That officer could either be a Junior Engineer, Assistant Engineer, Executive Officer of Zilla Parishad, PWD or DRDA etc. It was decided to cover only those hostels constructed under CSS as information regarding the state funded hostels were not available because in all the cases where hostels were constructed long back, most of the Officers who had been involved in the activities at the district level had retired. 2. 2. 4 Hostels and Hostel Wardens

It was decided to select ten (10) percent of the total hostels constructed (during the period 1992-93 to 2002-03) in each selected state under the CSS on random basis for the evaluation study. It was also decided to select at least two percent of the hostels constructed under100 percent funding by the state government, in case the particular state had such hostels. Following this criterion, 185 hostels from CSS, 65 hostels from 100% state funded category and 15 hostels run by NGOs in were selected (table-2. 2) for the evaluation study. In each selected hostel, a Warden level schedule was canvassed. Thus a total of 211 Warden level schedules could be canvassed. As remaining 54 were either did not respond or their post were vacant. Table 2. 2: Coverage of Hostels in Sample States No. f Hostels: Covered Covered under Run by Total under CSS 100% State Funded NGOs Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls 10* 14* 18 8 28* 22* 2 10 9 12 9 1 1 1** 1** 11 4 11*** 4*** 21 6 10 5 31 11 36 23 36 23 10 8 10 8 10 5 10 5 26 12 5 31 12 116 69 43 22 11 4 170 95 States Andhra Pradesh Bihar Delhi(JNU) Haryana Karnataka Madhya Pradesh Orissa Rajasthan Uttar Pradesh Total * Includes one boys’ and one girls’ hostel in Central University, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh. ** Indicates two hostels (Mahi and Mandavi) of JNU, New Delhi *** Hostels in State Universities also included. 2. 2. 5 Inmates It was decided that 10 percent of the sanctioned strength of each selected hostel would be selected as sample beneficiaries for the study. This norm was followed for hostels having a sanctioned strength of 100 boarders.

However, if the sanctioned strength of the hostels was less than 100, even then minimum 5 boarders from such hostels were selected for the study. It was decided to cover inmates from non-SC category also, if available in the hostels. Overall 1417 inmates were selected for the study. State-wise number of inmates selected as beneficiaries is given in table - 2. 3 (Page-6). 2. 2. 6 Ex-inmates Two ex-inmates were randomly selected from each sample hostels with a view to get a feedback regarding the operational aspects of the hostels and the constraints faced by them while staying in the hostels and also to have an idea of the advantages, if any, they had as a result of staying in such hostels. 2. 2. 7 Knowledgeable Persons

For the purpose of getting an over all view of the functioning of hostels as well as social perception of their benefits and constraints, it was decided to cover one knowledgeable person for each sample hostel. This knowledgeable person could be a member of village Panchayat, local body, village level worker, a teacher or an NGO activist etc. Total 210 knowledgeable persons were selected for this study. 2. 2. 8 Universities There were five Central Universities where the scheme was in operation. Of these, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi and Central University, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, which ran one hostel each for boys and girls, were selected for the study.

In addition, 5 State Universities from Haryana which had constructed hostels for SC boys and girls were also included in the sample of State Funded Universities. 2. 2. 9 Guide points Guide points were prepared to help the field team in preparing qualitative notes regarding implementation of the scheme in respect of quality of construction, maintenance of hostels and mechanism adopted for planning, supervision and monitoring of the scheme. 2. 3 Reference Period of the Study and Starting of Field Survey The study covered the period since inception of the scheme in 1963-64 upto 2002-03. However, for the selection of sample hostels, only those hostels which were constructed or taken up for construction between 1992-93 and 2002-03 were considered.

The study was launched in the field in November, 2004. 2. 4 Methodology/Instruments Used for Data Collection Data at primary and secondary stages were collected through structured instruments of observation at different levels. Data on financing and monitoring were collected through secondary sources, such as the Union Ministry (Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment) and from the nodal department implementing the schemes in different states. Information on aspects relating to project proposal, sanction and release of fund, administration & maintenance of hostels and especially the impact of the scheme were elicited through field surveys. Table 2. : Types of Schedules used to collect data at Different Levels for the Evaluation Study in Selected States. Selected States Instruments of Observations Devised for Data Collection State Level District Level Officials Hostel involved Wardens in construction Level Inmates ExKnowinmates ledgeable Persons NGOs Level University level Schedule Andhra Pradesh Bihar Delhi(JNU) Haryana Karnataka Madhya Pradesh Orissa Rajasthan Uttar Pradesh* Total 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 NR 7 5 10 5 5 9 6 6 21 67 24 2 2 15 25 58 18 11 36 191 50 15 2 13 33 58 7 14 19 211 500 96 20 108 189 271 35 70 128 1417 94 32 4 22 60 94 10 25 27 368 48 16 2 13 33 58 7 14 19 210 8 8 1 1 5 7 *Note: I. State level schedule of UP has not been received so far. II.

As new district Sant Kabir Nagar not having its own staff, its work was carried out by the staff of Basti district. Therefore only one district level schedule was canvassed for the both districts viz. Basti and Sant Kabir Nagar. 2. 5 Data Analysis and Report Writing The Survey and data collection work relating to this study was done by the Officials of Programme Evaluation Organisation, Planning Commission. The services of Institute for Resource Management and Economic Development, Delhi were availed for tabulation, interpretation and analysis of data and preparation of report. Chapter - 3 Planning, Implementation and Monitoring of the Scheme 3. 1 Role of the Nodal Ministry

The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, GOI has laid down procedures for obtaining central assistance for construction of hostels for SC boys and girls. At the time of inviting proposals under the scheme, the ministry impresses upon the states to submit the proposals separately for construction of hostels for SC boys and girls in the prescribed proforma along with the following documents: i) A certificate regarding availability of land ii) Site plan of the proposed hostel iii) A certificate that the estimate has been prepared as per the latest PWD/CPWD rates. iv) v) Detailed cost estimates of the proposed hostel. Physical progress of the hostels sanctioned earlier since the year 1992 in prescribed proforma. i) Hostel wise, year wise statement of utilization of state as well as central share in the prescribed proforma and vii) Matching share of the state government/NGOs/Universities. The Ministry received proposals for construction of hostels from Nodal Department (i. e. Social Welfare Department) of the State Government and held periodic meetings with state govt. representatives about the implementation of the scheme as reported by 43% state nodal departments. Based on the above, funds were provided to the state nodal departments for construction of hostels for SC boys and girls. In case of Central Universities, the Ministry received proposals directly from the Registrar of the concerned University. It was learnt that there was no guideline/manual as such formulated for monitoring this scheme at level of the Ministry.

Hence funds were released only after examining the physical and financial progress of the hostels sanctioned earlier. But the nodal ministry mentioned that only general scrutiny of the proposals was done, as there were no technical experts for this purpose. Due to lack of staff, hostels under construction were not visited by any official from the nodal ministry. State nodal departments were required to send quarterly progress report and photographs of the hostels to the Nodal Ministry. 3. 2 Role of the State Nodal Department Social Welfare Directorates or Departments were the nodal agencies for the implementation of the scheme in most of the states. In Madhya Pradesh, however, the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribe Welfare Department was the nodal agency.

In most of the states the scheme was taken up in areas where need for hostels was felt uppermost. Based on the availability of funds and the need for such hostels in the areas with high concentration of SC population, the state nodal department used to receive proposals from various parts of the state through District Social Welfare Officers. The applications were sent in the prescribed proforma containing information about availability of land, audited statement of accounts for the funds received in earlier years. The nodal department scrutinised the proposals keeping in view the guidelines given by the Union Ministry. Proposals were sent to the ministry for clearance and release of funds.

The nodal department also convened review meetings of the district welfare officers at regular intervals depending upon the need for such meetings. The nodal department officials at the state level used to visit the construction sites during construction as well as post construction phases at intervals, the frequency of which, however, varied considerably from state to state. The state nodal department claimed that they obtained the progress reports on the construction of hostels from different locations and submitted these reports annually to the Union Ministry. But such progress reports were neither insisted upon nor were maintained systematically at the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment. 3. The Level at which Proposals Initiated In most of the states proposals for construction of hostels for SC boys and girls were initiated at local levels. In Andhra Pradesh district collectors identified locations for construction of hostels with the assistance of revenue department. In Karnataka, District Social Welfare Officer(DSWO) took the initiative for construction of hostels. In Madhya Pradesh, the proposal was basically received from local Panchayat and after careful scrutiny and discussion sent to state nodal department for approval. In Rajasthan, proposals regarding construction of hostels were initiated by Directorate of Social Welfare through District Collector.

In Haryana, where study was conducted to evaluate the role of NGOs, it was observed that the proposals were initiated at the local level by the concerned NGOs as District Welfare Officer publicized the programme among NGOs and other educational institutions at the local level. In Uttar Pradesh the Social Welfare Department did not provide the information, but field study revealed that the potential of the SC students be assessed by Zila Samaj Kalyan Adhikari by involving Principals of the local colleges. In Central Universities the Registrar of the concerned university initiated proposal for construction of hostel for SC boys and girls after being intimated by the Ministry to send a proposal to this effect. 3. 4 The Approval Procedures for the Scheme

Generally approvals for construction of hostels for SC boys and girls were given by the state nodal departments after going through proposals received from different districts. Approvals were given to the proposals which fulfilled following parameters of the guidelines: (a) Availability of owned land of concerned School/College authority or transferring land in favor of the Social Welfare Department preferably free of cost, (b) Availability of school going SC children in the area, (c) Inadequate educational facility in the area, (d) Low literacy among SCs, (e) High concentration of SC population, (f) Local demand, and (g) Cost estimate of hostel. The districts, which qualified on the basis of the above criteria, were asked to identify suitable locations for the hostel sites.

The short listed proposals were sent by the concerned nodal department of the State to the Union Ministry for their approval. The Ministry, in turn, after giving approval to the schemes, released funds to the state nodal department for initiating of work. Grant is limited to sharing of cost of construction of the hostels 3. 5 The Process of Implementation The implementation of the scheme for the construction of hostels for SC boys and girls involved several aspects and stages like deciding the number of hostels to be constructed, administrative formalities, issue of guidelines for construction by the nodal agency at the state level, specifying an administrative set up for implementation, nsuring quality of work, handing over possession etc. However in Haryana the focus was on additions or renovations of already existing hostels being owned and managed by NGOs. 3. 5. 1 Deciding the number of hostels to be constructed At the beginning of each financial year, the concerned nodal department of the state govt. decided the number of hostels for SC boys and girls to be constructed on the basis of availability of funds and the following criteria: (a) The hostels should be located in the towns and large villages having a concentration of SC population. (b) The large villages and towns should have satisfactory standard of education on the ba

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