The rapidly increasing population of elderly all over the world has been one of the important concerns of the decision makers and planners on how to provide health care and facilities. Statistics shows that population of elderly accounts for one individual of the ten persons is now at age 60 years old and above. It is projected that in the year 2015, there will be an increasing rate of elderly population such that there will be five out of 10 persons considered as senior citizens. In the Philippines, there is an estimated 5. Million elderly Filipinos or about 6. % of the total 80 million populations. This is projected to grow by 9. 5% in the year 2020. Despite of the life expectancy and the facilities on medical and social systems provide to elderly, the vital question is “What are their situations and experiences at elderly stage? ” Are they experiencing uncomfortable situations such as loneliness, depression, social isolation or controversial quality of life? In some Asian countries like the Philippines culture dictates that the family must take care of their elders.
But some arousing circumstances like when both couples of a family must work so that here is no one to take care of them or when poverty cripples the financial status of the family. These circumstances will leave an option but to put their elders in an institution. The connotation that putting them in an institution might divulge some questions such as will the elders be lonely when they are in an institution or will they be happy thinking that they will never be a burden for their family.? Will their loneliness affect the quality of life that they have in the institution?
How the Filipino family may adjust when their elders are in the institution and as they are facing the dead of ingratitude to their loved one. According to some research studies, it was postulated that the quality of life is not homogeneous, but multidimensional in nature with many option extending from health indications to individual habits, cultures and ethics. Loneliness has a psychological dimension which reflects somebody attitude and behavior about his life. Elderly often expresses negative feelings and loneliness because of the ageing process and social strength that influence their quality of life.
In this reasons, loneliness could be a one important parameter or indicators that effect the quality of life or vice versa, particularly the elders’ society. Theoretical Framework Psychosocial Theory. Erik Erikson (1950) who took a special interest in the final stage of life, concluded that the primary psychosocial task of late adulthood (65 and beyond) is to maintain ego integrity (holding in to one’s sense of wholeness) while avoiding despair (fearing there is too little time to begin a new life course).
According to the author, those who succeed at this final task also develop wisdom that includes accepting without any regrets of life and has to live until the end of last breath death). He emphasized that even older adults who are above in the high degree of integrity can felt some despair at this stage which they contemplate their past experiences. Interactions Theory. Weiss (1978) mentioned there are two elements of loneliness. One aspect is the emotional loneliness due to the absence of an attachment figure; and the other one is the social loneliness or the absence of an acceptable social network.
Register Theory of Generative Quality of Life for the Elderly. According to M. Elizabeth Register and JoAnne Herman (2006), the quality of life is defined as being unconnected with the forces and processes that constitute an assenting
Conceptual Framework In the above theoretical framework, the conceptual framework of the study is developed as shown in Figure 1. The first rectangle box contains the variable of loneliness (independent variable) while the second rectangle box contains the actors contributing to the dimensions of quality of life. The two arrows determine the relationships between loneliness and the quality of life of elders. The third rectangle contains the output/outcome of the study as an “Enhanced Quality of Life” of the elders in the community and the institution.
Conceptual Paradigm Figure 1. Conceptual Paradigm Showing the Relationship between Loneliness and Quality of Life of Elders Statement of the Problem The study will determine the relationship of loneliness and quality of life of elderly individuals living in the community and institutions. Specifically, the study will seek to answer the following questions: 1. How may the level of loneliness of the elders in the community and in the institution be described when categorized as: 1. 1 . Positive feelings, and 1. 2. Negative Feelings? . What is the level of the quality of life of the respondents when grouped according to: 2. 1. Emotional aspect 2. 2. Physical aspect and 2. 3. Social aspect? 3. Is there a significant relationship between loneliness and quality of life of the elders? 4. Is there a significant difference in loneliness and quality of life between elders in the community and in the institution? 5. What are the policy recommendation(s) to improve quality of life and sustain the programs of elderly in mitigating the loneliness of elders?
In this study, the researcher will provide policy recommendations or measures on how to intervene appropriate program and activities for the elderly whether in the community or within the institution. Hypothesis The hypothesis will be tested at 0. 05 level of significance. Ho: There IS no significant relationship between the level of loneliness and quality of life among elders. Ho: There IS no significant difference IN the loneliness and quality of life of elders living in the community and institution. Significance of the Study Student nurses.
The result of this study will help them enhance their knowledge and understanding on taking care of elders. It will help them to have an open mind to care holistically for the elders and to treat them highly individualized. Family members. The findings of the study can help them assess the quality of life of elders in institutions and will serve as a guide in the decision making if they are pushed to whose between putting their beloved parents to an institution or not. Health practitioners. The results of the study can help them to reach out beneficial conclusions.
They can detect the factors on how to mitigate and improve the quality of life by avoiding the loneliness experiences of elders. It can also provide information on what are the weaknesses and opportunities of elder’s daily living and make a sustainable program and activities, I. E. , rehabilitation programmer for elders. Future researchers. This study can provide information to have follow-up study to elated the variables and other parameters to measure the loneliness relative to the quality of life.
Scope and Limitation The focus of this study is to establish the relationship between loneliness and quality of life of the elders at the institutions and community levels. The study will adapt and use the generic questionnaire developed by Nottingham Health Profile for Quality of Life and UCLA Loneliness using the Liker scale. The respondents of this study will be limited to 150 respondents in which the elders had an age ranging from 60 to 89 years old. The respondents also had no dementia and physical disability.
Definition of Terms Loneliness refers to the positive and negative feelings of the elderly in community and institution. Negative Feeling- refers to a state of social isolation and feelings of emptiness. Positive Feeling- state of harmony with oneself and other people. Quality of Life- refers to the emotional, physical and social dimensions of the elders. Emotional Aspect- refers to the inner feelings of elders regarding their emotion. Physical Aspect- refers to the functional and biological status of the elder Social Aspect- refers to the status of connection of elders to the people surrounding them.