Last Updated 18 Oct 2019

Effect of Change in an Organisation

Category Data, Epistemology
Words 1376 (5 pages)

www. MA-Dissertations. com Dissertation Writing Service Even though the positivist and phenomenological approaches seem to completely contradict one another, Bryman and Bell (2004) maintain that a researcher should not select one or the other but, instead, should weave the two together.

In other words, for those aspects of the research problem which can be better served if explored through a scientific approach, the positivist methodology should be employed whereas those which require the researcher’s more active engagement or an analysis of the social environment, the phenomenological approach should be used. The implication here is that the two approaches can coexist within a single study and can be used to explore different aspects of the research problem (Bryman and Bell, 2004).

Rather than select the one approach over the other, the selected research approach shall combine between the two. As such, the researcher shall engage in the objective analysis of tardiness behaviour through the analysis of attendance records while, at the same time, monitoring 20 students for a period of 12 weeks for the purpose of closer and more critical observation of the dimensions of the defined problem and the behavioural and situational variables which induce it. The effects of the corrective strategies which shall be deployed vis-avis these 12 students shall also be observed.

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To this extent, the research unfolds within a phenomenological framework. The research, however, is not restricted to the phenomenological approach as a thorough investigation of the problem also necessitates the adoption of positivist approach. Therefore, for a better understanding of the social and environmental factors influencing tardiness, the researcher will survey faculty members and homeroom teachers and interview the two school administrators responsible for the control of the problem.

The researcher shall, in other words, explore the socio-environmental factors influencing tardiness. 16 www. MA-Dissertations. com Dissertation Writing Service 3. 2. 2 Quantitative versus Qualitative The data gathered shall be analysed from both the qualitative and quantitative approaches. As Punch (2000) emphasises, within the context of social science research, both approaches must be used in order to arrive at both an objective, measurable understanding of the phenomenon and a humanistic comprehension of its socio-environmental dimensions.

While attendance records and the effects of the corrective strategies on the twenty students under observation shall be qualitatively analysed, the variables which influence tardiness rates, both increase and decrease, shall be qualitatively analysed as a strategy for uncovering the socioenvironmental factors influencing tardiness rates. In other words, both qualitative and quantitative data analysis approaches shall be used for the purposes of arriving at a more holistic understanding of the phenomenon. 3. 2. 3 Deductive versus Inductive Marcoulides (1998) defines the deductive approach as a testing of theories.

The researcher proceeds with a set of theories and conceptual precepts in mind and formulates the study’s hypotheses on their basis. Following from that, the research proceeds to test the proposed hypotheses. The inductive approach, on the other hand, follows from the collected empirical data and proceeds to formulae concepts and theories in accordance with that data (Marcoulides, 1998). While not disputing the value of the inductive approach, the research opted for the deductive approach, or the `top-down,’ as opposed to the `bottom-up’ method. 3. 3 Data Sources and Data Collection Methods

For the purposes of this research and given that both primary and secondary data are needed, three data collection methods will be used. Apart from the desk-based data collection method traditionally associated with secondary data collection, primary data will be collected 17 www. MA-Dissertations. com Dissertation Writing Service through the archival records (attendance sheets), interviews with two school administrators, a survey of faculty opinion, and the researcher’s own observations.. 3. 4 Credibility of Research Findings Ultimately, the data collected is used to inform the research findings.

If the data is not verifiable, the implication is that the findings are potentially suspect. incumbent upon the researcher to validate his/her findings (Sekaran, 2003). Accordingly, it is 3. 4. 1 Reliability A study is reliable only if another researcher, using the same procedure and studying the same phenomenon, arrives at similar, or comparable, findings (Sekaran, 2003). Accordingly, it is important that the researcher maintain a comprehensive protocol of his study, in case others may be interested in checking its reliability (Sekaran, 2003).

Even with the best of intentions in mind, the researcher is often confronted with a variety of variables which may impinge upon the reliability of his findings. Quite simply stated, if he is partly drawing conclusions on the basis of questionnaire and interview data, it could very well be that respondents were biased or, simply not in the mood to answer the questions with any degree of interest. It is not at all uncommon for respondents to simply tick of response options without reading or considering them (Sekaran, 2003).

Accordingly, research scholars advise researchers to carefully select their respondents, ensure that they are, indeed, willing participants in the study and will answer the questions with the minimum degree of bias (Hair et al. , 2005). To ensure that this, indeed, is the case, when in-putting the questionnaire data, the researcher should carefully read through them to ensure that there are no logical flaws and that the responses given by any one respondent are not contradictory (Hair et al. , 2005).

In addition, and to better ensure reliability, the researcher should schedule interviews at the respondent’s convenience and, 18 www. MA-Dissertations. com Dissertation Writing Service further, when distributing questionnaires, should give participants several days to answer. By pursuing this advice, the researcher would, at least, be minimising the chances that the interview be rushed and the questionnaires blindly answered (Hair et al. , 2005). To enhance the reliability of the current research, the cited advice shall be considered and meticulously applied. 3. 4. 2 Validity

Saunders et al. (2000) contends that a research is valid only if it actually studies what it set out to study and only if the findings are verifiable. There are three methods for establishing validity. As Saunders et al. (2000) explains, construct validity entails the establishment of accurate operational measurements for the research’s core concept. This is done by establishing a chain of evidence throughout the data collection process; by verifying key information through the use of multiple sources of information; and by presented informants with a draft of the study for review.

Besides establishing construct validity, social science researches need also establish external validity by testing the applicability of the findings to external case studies (Yin, 1989). While conceding to the importance of external validation methods, they are beyond the scope of the current research. Consequently, the research shall seek the verification of its findings through construct validation. 3. 5 Conclusion As may have been deduced from the above, the research shall adopt a mixed methodological approach. The selection of the aforementioned and above explained ethodology was imposed upon the research by the nature of the phenomenon under investigation, the multi-layered nature of the research problem and the imperatives of satisfying the study’s diverse, but interrelated, objectives. 19 www. MA-Dissertations. com Dissertation Writing Service 4. 0 References Battisch, V. and Hom, A. (1997) The relationship between students’ sense of their school as a community and their involvement in problem behaviors. American Journal of Public Health, 87(12), 1997-2001. Booth, A. and Dunn, J. F. (1996) Family-School Links: How Do They Affect Educational Outcomes?

NY: Erlbaum. Bryman, A. and Bell, E. (2004) Business Research Methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chaker, A. M. (2005) Schools get tough on tardy students. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved on 10 Jan. 2007, from http://www. post-gazette. com/pg/05321/607996. stm Conaway, H. W. (2006) Collaboration for Kids; Early Intervention Tools for Schools and Communities. Highland: Aha Process Inc. Cooper, D. R. (2003) Business Research Methods. London: McGraw-Hill. Cooper, D. R. and Schindler, P. S. (2005) Business Research Methods. London: McGraw-Hill. Creswell, J. W. 2003) Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Method Approaches. California: Sage Publications. Crosnoe, R. (2000) Friendships in childhood and adolescence: The life course and new directions. Social Psychology Quarterly, 63, 377-371. ___ (2001) Academic orientation and parental involvement in education during high school. Sociology of Education, 74, 210-230. Dane, F. C. (1990) Research Methods. Cambridge: Thomas brooks. Fassett, D. L. and Warren, J. T. (2004) You get pushed back: The strategic rhetoric of educational success and failure in higher education. Communication Education, 53(1), 21-39. 20

Effect of Change in an Organisation essay

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