Technological innovation is drastically taking place in almost every field. Experts and engineers put their extraordinary effort to develop software or products that requires some kind of security to protect it from misuse. Digital Rights Management is the one which is used for technologies that controls the use of digital content. With the advancement of Internet and development of digital content, content owners are being impelled into a new arena where they can enhance their rights by using DRM technologies as a way to control the use of their content.The present paper focuses on DRM, argumentative views of various experts on it and effectiveness of DRM in radically changing Hi- tech world. Digital Rights Management (DRM) facilitates copyright holders to achieve value for their works. DRM is used variably in literature. According to Electronic Frontier Foundation, “Digital rights management technologies are aimed at increasing the kinds and/or scope of control that rights-holders can assert over their intellectual property assets.”
DRM allows the copyright holder to control the ways consumer’s access and use the holder's work once the work is made available in a digital format. By controlling the access, a right holder is capable to offers an exclusively competent business model and his work will be protected from infringing uses. It is not possible for DRM at its own level to realize these aims because it is susceptible to the hackers, which is able to avoid DRM safeguards. That’s why, law enforcement is required to avert from hackers.
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These steps will strengthen DRM technology (Christopher D. Kruger, pg: 281). The focus of the first generation of Digital Rights Management (DRM) was mainly on security and encryption as a way of working out the problem of unauthorized copying of the content. It was performed by locking the content and to limit its distribution to only those who make payment. In the second-generation of DRM, major steps to cover the description, identification, trading, protection, monitoring and tracking of all forms of rights procedures over both tangible and intangible assets.
DRM deals with all rights and not only the rights applicable to permissions over digital content. There are two significant architectures which must reflect on while designing and implementing DRM systems. The Functional Architecture is the first. This covers the high-level modules or components of the DRM system that together provide a management of rights till the end user. The Information Architecture is the second critical architecture. This covers the modeling of the entities within a DRM system as well as their relationships.
In digital rights management, the licensing authority issues to the DRM licensee a certificate and a public/private key pair for use in service. The client will sign the certificate with the licensing authority private key and send it to the content server along with the public key. The content server then verifies the certificate and thereby authenticates the client. The server also checks the certificate with the list of revocation and if so, the client will not be able to receive or decrypt content. There are two algorithms used in signing.
The Windows DRM for Network Devices and HDMI and the Open Mobile Alliance use the RSA algorithm. An Elliptic Curve algorithm being much lighter, are used in Windows DRM for Mobile Devices and DTCP. There are number of companies holding patents, which cause some concern for adopters and have delayed the introduction of ECC to wider use in DRM. Once the authentication of a device is complete and it is determined that it has the valid license authority certificate, then in a DRM design, the last step is to decrypt content – the symmetric cipher key. This is obviously very important.
Consumers just can not break their head to manage a key for every song or video that they have licensed under a DRM scheme, nor would the owner of a brand new product wish to enter 40 hex digits into the new console before using it. It is to be noted that one tremendously imperative feature of DRM security design is the processes by which secret DRM values are stored. While these consumer electronic products can be accessed by consumers, hackers will pry the design looking for susceptibilities. It is better to use the key storage on chip non-volatile memory.
The major problems with this approach are NVM memory is not available in every process, especially the advanced technology nodes, the license fees for NVM are fairly high and last of all the programming of the secret values in off-shore ODMs may encounter a security issue as the secret values are in plaintext (Al Hawtin, Embedded Technology Journal). DRM has many advantages such as one can make more investment in digital content. Digital copies are perfect no matter how many copies are to be made. Large corporations are not the only creators of content.
The Internet provides low-cost distribution network globally from which thousands of software producers get advantage. Strong DRM ensures a revenue stream at lower rate. Furthermore, good DRM means more legal free media, and lower prices. (John Carroll, 2002ZDNet). Even though DRM has many positive aspects and it is legally protected, it is always a matter of argument. Debate over the issues of fair use and DRM at the 12th annual Computers, Freedom and Privacy (CFP) conference in San Francisco summarizes that it is too early in this period of technological modernization to begin locking down digital content.
Peter Jaszi, law professor at American University's Washington College of Law referred to copyright holders' attempts to keep tight control over their digital content, such as some record companies' moves to distribute DRM-protected CDs that cannot be played on more than one device. But even more threatening to fair-use advocates is proposed legislation introduced by Senator Ernest "Fritz" Hollings, which aims to incorporate a built-in copyright protection measure in all consumer digital devices. Most speakers at CFP established that DRM was not the solution to the copyright difficulty.
Many of the advocates agreed that DRM would be more successful in harmonizing the rights of user and copyright holders than would be legislation. Stefan Bechtold, a Stanford Law School fellow and author of a book on digital rights management, argued that even though DRM can slow down fair use and free speech, the technology is more progressive than law. It develops speedily and can be installed on an international level. According to Microsoft Security Architect Barbara Fox, DRM technologies make easy to secure the content and setting rules for consumer use but it is much more intricate to guarantee that users have fair use of that content.
Further he noted that copyright law is vague when it comes to fair-use rights and DRM would be incapable to settle on whether a user should be able to use content under certain state of affairs (CNN). Even so many controversies, various industries like the entertainment industry, led primarily by the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) and the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), are dynamically chasing DRM-friendly policy initiatives through federal legislation and regulations, the courts and standards organizations.
Music and movies have grabbed most of the headlines around digital rights management (DRM). The "killer app" for enterprise DRM is document management, primarily for purposes of regulatory compliance. The relevant regulations include the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA) and the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOA). These laws require that the confidentiality and/or integrity of certain types of documents be protected (E.
John Sebes, Mark Stamp, Pg: 52). DRM is computer code that can be embedded in music and video files to dictate how these files are used. The best-known example is the music Apple Computer sells at its iTunes Music Store. Using a DRM system it invented called FairPlay, Apple has engineered its songs, at the insistence of the record companies, so that they can be played only on a maximum of five computers, which means that one can burn only seven CDs containing the same play list of purchased tracks.
In fact, obtaining relatively liberal DRM rules from the labels was the key to Apple's success in selling music. But some other uses of DRM technology are not so benevolent. Some CD buyers are discovering to their dismay that new releases from certain record companies contain DRM code that makes it difficult to copy the songs to their computers, where millions prefer to keep their music.
People who buy online music in Microsoft's Windows Media format too often run into the DRM error message "unable to obtain license" when try to transfer the songs to a music player. The theft of intellectual property on the Internet is a real problem. Millions of copies of songs, TV shows and movies are being distributed over the Internet by people who have no legal right to do so, robbing media companies and artists of rightful compensation for their work (WALTER S.
MOSSBERG, 2005). The premier provider of smart mobile content retailing solutions, announced the U. S. Patents and Trademarks Office has issued the company a patent in the area of mobile content and applications Digital Rights Management (DRM). To sum up, DRM standardization is now taking place in a number of open businesses. Digital Rights Management is rising as an alarming new confronts, and it is necessary for DRM systems to provide interoperable services.
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Digital Rights Management. (2016, Sep 01). Retrieved from https://phdessay.com/digital-rights-management/
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