In chapter 8, the author highlights the development of a child’s body as he/she goes through different stages of development both physically (body growth and brain) and at the same time acquires different motor skills and begins to manifest different health conditions. In the chapter, focused on different important concepts that included the parts and functions of the body that is beneficial for a child’s growth and development. Due to their relative importance, the chapter also points out important steps that parents and early childhood educators can do to enhance a child’s capabilities.
It included different approaches in improving a child’s (1) emotional wellbeing, (2) nutrition, and (3) prevention of different diseases children are prone to during such stage. In addition to that, the chapter also focused on the concept of heredity and how it influences the physical growth of a child. It also stimulates the creation of different bodily functions. Lastly, the chapter mentions the development of motor skills. It elaborated on different situations wherein such skill can be improved and enhanced. Looking at Chapter 9, it relatively focuses on the cognitive development during early childhood.
It first elaborates on important theories surrounding the concept. It included (1) Piaget’s Preoperational Stage and (2) Vygotsky’s Sociocultural theory. These two theories explained the realm of cognitive development among children. Looking at Piagets theory, it explains the way children’s cognitive processes are developed and enhanced. In his theory, Piaget advocates that as children advance in age, they also increase their capabilities to decipher mental representations like language and the ‘make believe’ concept among children becomes complex in nature.
As children progress in age, they begin to understand the reality in their individual ‘make believe’. This process is called dual representation. In addition to such, the preoperational stage can be characterized as egocentric in nature. sensitivity to children’s readiness to learn, and acceptance of individual differences” Vygotsky’s theory on the other hand roots his analysis in the way society affects the development of children’s speech.
It is through this that Vygotsky advocated the importance of language as the main contributor for the cognitive process. It emanates from the concept called ‘private speech’ that deals with inner, verbal thought. In addition, the theory points out the creation of intersubjectivity which is a neutral zone for communication and the element of scaffolding by parents as the main components of social interaction that is vital for cognitive development among children. Chapter 10 on the other hand focuses on the emotional and social development in early childhood.
It looks at Erikson’s theory of initiative versus guilt and points out important concepts such as: (1) emotional development, (2) peer relations, (3) cultural influences, (4) morality, (5) gender typing and (6) child rearing. In the chapter, the author pointed out the importance of Erikson theory in the analysis of the diverse emotional and social changes during childhood. In addition, the factors mentioned above also have their own fair share of contributions to the development of a child. The chapter pointed out different factors that can affect the way children behave.
Due to this, the responsibility is left to parents and educators to effectively enforce and promote the correct values among children since this is an important stage in their overall development as an adult. Another important factor pointed out by the chapter is the relative occurrence of violence and aggression among children. It pointed out the relative influence of media in the increased violent tendencies of children. The chapter points out that parents should create rearing mechanisms that will shield their children to such violent behavior at a young age.
(n.d.) Chapter 8:Physical Development in Early Childhood. Retrieved June 23, 2008.
(n.d.) Chapter 9:Cognitive Development in Early Childhood. Retrieved June 23, 2008.
(n.d.) Chapter 10: Emotional and Social Development in Early Childhood. Retrieved June 23, 2008.