Infancy and Early Childhood Development
As a child develops families play a role in teaching the child.The first role is done through the five senses as a child’s brain develops.Parents are also responsible for making sure a child stays healthy.
Piaget says that a child will learn through experiments in his or her world. Erickson and Freud also have ideas on family interaction in childhood development. Along with interaction a parent has different styles to bring up a child. These styles can help shape the child as he or she grows into adults. Early childhood education and cognitive development also play a role in childhood development also.
Families affect development through interaction with a child, the parenting style used by the parent will also help shape the child as he or she grows, along with early education and cognitive development. Families play a role in infancy and early child development. Early childhood experience is in two categories; experience-dependent (cultural-bound) and experience-expectant (universal) that aid in brain growth (Berger, 2008). As the brain grows senses and motor skills such as seeing, mobility progress, and hearing improve. The child’s environment helps with this as the brain will respond to different particulars in life.
Also in the biosocial aspect of development is health, a child will grow at expected rates and have better survival rates when the parents or caregivers practice healthy habits for the child such as immunization and nutrition, and regular well child check-ups. Another view of family effects on development comes from cognitive views of Piaget. Piaget’s work on sensorimotor intelligence and information processing says that infants progress from knowing their world through experiments. The child is shown objects by the parent and the parent tells the child what he or she is seeing, such as a cup, ball, or bottle.
This communication with the child is how the family helps the child with language development. According Berger (2008), by one an infant can speak about two words, and by the age of two languages explodes, and at the toddler ages a child capable of speaking in short sentences. The last role from parents in the developing child comes from psychosocial theories. Emotions play a basic role in newborns two aspects of the role of emotions are from Erickson and Freud. Erickson’s theory is one of trust versus mistrust, and Freud’s theory is one of oral and anal stages. Both theories express the guidance given by parents to help raise their children.
Parents and children play together, which helps develop social skills and attachment. Through attachment a child learns to explore and become independent in his or her world (Berger, 2008). Social play and attachment encourage social confidence. Besides play a parent must use a style to raise the child. Parenting styles vary the three most used styles consist of authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive. Authoritarian parents controls, evaluates behavior, and attitudes of the child with standard rules of conduct. A child who fails to follow the set rules normally receives punishment with no explanation regarding why.
According to Baumrind (1991), these parents are “status and obedience oriented, and expect rules to be followed without explanation. ” The authoritative parent also sets rules for his or her child. Authoritative parenting styles also sets rules for a child but unlike the authoritarian parent the parent is much more democratic about it. This parenting style permits the parent to be more responsive to the child’s needs, and listen to questions and concerns the child may have. The child is not punished when he or she does not meet expectations of the parent as the parent is more nurturing, and forgiving.
Discipline with the authoritative parent is more supportive than punitive, as the parent wants the child to be assertive, socially responsible, self-regulating, and cooperative (Baumrind, 1991). The last of the three parenting styles is permissive. The permissive parent consults with the child about decisions, gives reasons for rules, and makes few demands of the child. The permissive parent is more of a resource for the child to use, and is not active in shaping or altering the child. The permissive parent will try to manipulate the child to arrive at desired results but will not show power over the child (Baumrind, 1991).
Of the three parenting stages authoritative parenting has the best balance. Authoritative parents want for the child, helps shape the child into an upstanding citizen while nurturing and firm in rules. This parenting style values the expressiveness of the child, and still setting standards for the child. The authoritative parent will also be objective, uses reason, power, and shapes and reinforces achievements and objective for the child, but does this with consensus of the child and the child’s desires (Baumrind, 1991). Besides parenting education and cognitive development are important for a child.
Early childhood education can began in the 1800s with private classes in a person’s home. Serious studies of cognition and early education began with Piaget’s work in defining stages of development. Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky are both famous for theories on cognition, and early learning of young children. Piaget whom began his career as a biologist teaching in a boy’s school found an interest in child development after helping design a test on intelligence. His theory was that a child could not perform tasks until he or she was psychologically mature enough (Berger, 2008).
His second stage or preoperational stage works in the classroom with the child using language to define objects. Vygotsky theory on early childhood learning is more of a social one. Vygotsky theory is a basis of young children’s thinking being self-centered and at time magical. His theory was a second aspect of cognition; young children can be sensitive to other people’s emotions and wishes. Every aspect of child development is in social context, children are curious and observant. Vygotsky called this apprentice in thinking, as older children and adults are the teachers of society.
Younger children are guided participates as they learn to think from their mentors. Vygotsky belief was that children could do anything with the assistance of others in their social network (Berger, 2008). In conclusion as the brain grows, the interaction from the parent helps the brain develop, along with parent keeping a healthy regimen. Parent and caregiver interacting with the child helps the child learn language. The three parenting styles: authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive help shape with rules and responsibilities.
The well balanced parenting style is authoritative; allowing the child to understand why he or she is receives punishment, shapes and reinforces the child, and takes the child’s feeling into consideration. Early childhood education began in the 1800s. Piaget and Vygotsky both believed that education was important. Piaget thought that a child learned he or she was psychologically mature enough. Vygotsky belief was that children learn from others and could do anything with the help from their mentors. Cognition is needed to help a child learn, develop, and grow.