Bullying: Relational Aggression and Boys

Bullying 1. Why do you think that bullying is an issue to study in Lifespan Development? I believe that bullying should be studies in Lifespan Development because Bullying is a multifaceted form of mistreatment, seen in schools and the workplace. It is characterized by the repeated exposure of one person to physical and emotional aggression like teasing, name calling, mockery, threats, harassment, taunting, hazing, social exclusion or rumours. Lifespan Development is the exploration of the biological, cognitive, and psychosocial changes that occur across different periods of life.

So I believe the two go hand in hand. 2. Describe the three components or types of bullying behavior, as observed by researchers. The three important components of bullying : 1. Bullying is aggressive behavior that involves unwanted, negative actions. 2. Bullying involves a pattern of behavior repeated over time. 3. Bullying involves an imbalance of power or strength. 3. Explain how gender influences the styles of bullying. In contrast to girls, boys of any age and ethnic group tend to be physically aggressive (e. g. , hit, kick, slap, push, or punch) .

Also, research shows that physical abuse tends to occur more often among boys than girls at all educational levels (e. g. , elementary, high school, college). Also, male college students tend to bully and be bullied through physical and verbal forms of bullying (e. g. , name-calling) more often than college girls. Also, boys may be more accepting of bullying, than are girls. That is, boys may like a girl even if she bullies others. In contrast, girls may still befriend boys that bully, but tend to dislike girls that bully.

At the core of these differences is children’s and, indeed, societal beliefs about acceptable behaviors for boys and girls. Many people may see bullying among boys as “just boys being boys. ” So, girls may accept this attitude and tolerate boys’ bullying. However, girls may be less accepting of girls who bully if it is seen as overly aggressive. Girls tend to bully other girls through the peer group. Rather than bully a targeted child directly, girls more often share with other girls (and boys) hurtful information about the targeted child.

For example, a girl may tell a group of girls an embarrassing story about another girl. They may create mean names, gossip, and come up with ways of letting the girl know that she is rejected from the peer group (for example, saying mean things about her on Facebook, using her email address to send harassing messages to everyone on her email list, texting her a death threat). These are called “relational” bullying because they attack relationships and friendships.

Another example of bullying experienced more often by girls than boys is sexual (e. g. , touched in private body parts or received sexual messages). Sexual types of bullying may occur at school, in the general community, and on-line. In recent Canadian and U. S. surveys, a significant number of girls report receiving unwanted sexual messages. Fewer boys reported being targeted. This form of bullying combined with messages about rejection from friendships is just as hurtful as being physically attacked, maybe even more hurtful.

Rejecting messages can devastate a girl’s sense of enthusiasm for school and learning, self-esteem, and hopes for the future. These forms of bullying can be particularly time-consuming and difficult to resolve given that they involve many people over a period of time. It may even involve adults who react aggressively in defence of their children. In addition, parents and school authorities do not always detect gossiping or other covert bullying behaviors because it’s generally hidden from adults.

Thus, they may not be disciplined and “caught”, which may increase the severity and duration of these behaviours. It may even occur among “friends”, making it seem that it’s just usual peer conflict. However, when one girl feels powerless in how she is being treated, then bullying is occurring, and adults need to intervene. Reference: http://www. education. com/reference/article/Ref_Bullying_Differences Children at Play 1. What kinds of skills are developed through play? 2. Why do children play? 3. List two kinds of gender preferences in play.

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