Last Updated 14 Mar 2023

Thesis: Demography and Reproductive Health

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Implementation of Rh Bill in the Philippines a Research


Background of the Study “Where is the provision that recognizes the sanctity of family life? Where’s the provision to protect the life of the unborn, from conception? Is this bill morally acceptable? ”These are some of the question that will give an answer as you strived reading and analyzing this research study. What is population? Population is all organisms that both belong to the same species and live in the same geographical area.

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The Webster Dictionary defined population as the total number of persons inhabiting in a country, city or any district or area. Overpopulation is the most crucial issue in the Philippines. Many people suffer from poverty, hunger and slackness due to some conflicts the government cannot sustain the primary needs of its people, as the issue concerns the government still finding a adequate and right population policy. The population policy in one country or state aimed at controlling the quantity, and improving the quality of family life as well as managing the distribution of population so as to improve the community is economic life.

Philippines is ranked as the twelfth most densely populated country in the world compromising approximately population of 90 million(as of in 2006). According to some reliable research and documents, the population of the Philippines continually increasing as it goes by in the succeeding years. To control this matter the House of Representatives of the Republic of the Philippines proposed a bill which suggest to limit the population birth rate and to balance the over population, This bill was recognize to be called as Reproductive Health Bill, which was the main focus of the study.

The first time the Reproductive Health Bill was proposed was in 1998. During the present 15th Congress, the RH Bills filed are those authored by (1) House Minority Leader Edcel Lagman of Albay, HB 96; (2) Iloilo Rep. Janet Garin, HB 101, (3) Akbayan Representatives Kaka Bag-ao & Warren Bello; HB 513, (4) Muntinlupa Representative Rodolfo Biazon, HB 1160, (5) Iloilo Representative Augusto Syjuco, HB 1520, (6) Gabriela Rep. Luzviminda Ilagan. In the Senate, Sen.

Miriam Defensor Santiago has filed her own version of the RH bill which, she says, will be part of the country’s commitment to international covenants. On January 31, 2011, the House of Representatives Committee on Population and Family Relations voted to consolidate all House versions of the bill, which is entitled An Act Providing for a Comprehensive Policy on Responsible Parenthood, Reproductive Health and Population Development and for Other Purposes.

According to the Senate

Policy Brief titled Promoting Reproductive Health, the history of reproductive health in the Philippines dates back to 1967 when leaders of 12 countries including the Philippines' Ferdinand Marcos signed the Declaration on Population. The Philippines agreed that the population problem be considered as the principal element for long-term economic development. Thus, the Population Commission (Popcom) was created to push for a lower family size norm and provide information and services to lower fertility rates.

The Reproductive Health Bill, popularity known as the RH Bill, is a Philippine Bill aiming to guarantee universal access to methods and information on birth control and maternal care. The bill was become the center of a contentious national debate. House Bill No. 5043, the RH filled in previous Congress, called for the promotion of both artificial and natural methods of family planning, sex education and responsible parenthood. This bill indicated that the government would support couples who wanted to limit the number of their children by using contraceptives.

However, there is general agreement about its provisions on maternal and child health, there is great debate on its key proposal that the Filipino taxpayer and private sector will fund and undertake widespread distribution of family planning devices birth control pills(BCPs)and IUDs, as the government continuous to disseminate information on their use through all health care centers. Private companies and the public and private elementary and secondary school system will be required to participate in this information and product dissemination as a way of controlling the population of the Philippines.

This Bill is very controversial, as it is being opposed by concerned citizens, especially the pro-life, pro-family, and pro-God groups, regardless of creed of religion. The RCC or Roman Catholic Church expresses the opposition against the bill on many counts, most especially the pronouncement and distribution of family planning devices which are abortifacient to fertilized eggs; they kill the young embryos, who as such are human beings equally worthy of respect, making the bill unconstitutional and morally incorrect.

To illustrate how fundamentally divisive the issue is, two powerful institution in the Philippines find themselves at odds, as the bill is supported by the administration of the Philippine president Benigno Aquino III and actively opposed by Roman Catholic Church. The study wants to inform the readers about the truth behind the implementation of RH Bill. The researchers want to emphasize the issue of the growing population in the Philippines, as the government makes their step to combat this matter and how are the communities actively aware regarding this issue.

The objective of this study are to be able to know the advantage and disadvantages of legalization of RH Bill, the consequences behind its provisions and proposal, It’s impact to the Philippine economy, and criticism of concerned Filipino citizen, will it be an effective solution to combat the overpopulation. This research study was formed not to be bias in both parties being argue. We construct this study just to give additional information and to know the opinion of the majority coming from the voice of ordinary people, professionals and religious groups. Conceptual Framework

The two different theories which encompasses the issue of implementation of RH bill in the country as it is being pits into powerful sectors against each other - church on the one hand (theory of Existentialism)-and on the other hand, a well-funded institution the government (theory of Communism). Communism is a sociopolitical movement that aims for a classless and stateless society structured upon common ownership of the means of production, free access to articles of consumption, and the end of wage labor and private property in the means of production and real estate.

It is a specific stage of historical development that inevitably emerges from the development of the productive forces that leads to a superabundance of material wealth, allowing for distribution based on need and social relations based on freely-associated individuals. This theory was gradually proposed by Karl Marx and adopted by different countries. The Reproductive Health Bill, popularly known as the RH Bill, is a Philippine bill aiming to guarantee universal access to methods and information on birth control and maternal care. The bill has become the center of a contentious national ebate. The communist countries are the first ones who implement the law because they believe that wealth will be achievable in areas where there has less population. The state owns and controls the businesses and it is very easy for them to 'steal' money if they have the control. Less population makes the state business to provide small budget for the people because they provide the basic needs of their people. They have believed that much number of people is hard to control because of these reasons: 1. the state needs to provide big budget for the basic needs of its people. 2.

There will be a tendency that the money they can get from the state business will decrease because they need to balance the budget. 3. The people will become threat to the state due to the uprisings if more and more people become aware that the state is no longer capable to provide their needs. 4. It is easy to 'brainwash' the entire nation when it has only few people. Good economists disagree that population is reversely proportional to growth. They believe that the population is directly proportional to growth because the economic activity is very high in areas where population is very dense.

Another theory which represents the side of Roman Catholic Church regarding about their strong opposition concerning the bill was the theory of existentialism were they get the idea of importance of the life of the unborn. Existentialism is a term applied to the work of a number of philosophers since the 19th century who, despite large differences in their positions, generally focused on the condition of human existence, and an individual's emotions, actions, responsibilities, and thoughts, or the meaning or purpose of life.

Existential philosophers often focused more on what is subjective, such as beliefs and religion, or human states, feelings, and emotions, such as freedom, pain, guilt, and regret, as opposed to analyzing objective knowledge, language, or science. The early 19th century philosopher Soren Kierkegaard is regarded as the father of existentialism. He maintained that the individual is solely responsible for giving his or her own life meaning and for living that life passionately and sincerely, in spite of many existential obstacles and distractions including despair, angst, absurdity, alienation, and boredom.

Subsequent existentialist philosophers retain the emphasis on the individual, but differ, in varying degrees, on how one achieves and what constitutes a fulfilling life, what obstacles must be overcome, and what external and internal factors are involved, including the potential consequences of the existence or non-existence of God. Many existentialists have also regarded traditional systematic or academic philosophy, in both style and content, as too abstract and remote from concrete human experience. Existentialism became fashionable in the post-World War years as a way to reassert the importance of human individuality and freedom.

Research Paradigm Output Output Dependent Variables Dependent Variables Independent Variables Independent Variables Religious Groups Religious Groups Economic progress and development. Unequalization in the Community. Economic progress and development.

Unequalization in the Community

RH BILL in the Philippines RH BILL in the Philippines Professional Professional Ordinary People Ordinary People Philippine Gov’t Philippine Gov’t Statement of the Problem The proponents would like to study the issue of the growing population of the Philippines, the implementation of RH Bill and the consequences behind its provisions and proposal.

The proponents aim to address the following questions: 1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of implementing RH bill to the Filipino society? 2. What are the reasons why women with unmet need in the Philippines do not practice contraception in the Philippines? 3. What are the views and opinions of the religious groups, professionals, and common people? 1. 2 Assumptions One of the measures to be adopted by the RH Bill is to inculcate in the educational curriculum matters pertaining to reproductive health, responsible parenthood, sex education, etc.

My issue is that in Criminal law, persons below the age of 15 are presumed to be innocent and cannot incur criminal liability. It seems that our law is inconsistent in the sense that as far as reproductive health is concerned; persons below 15 are presumed to be mature enough to be educated on such topics yet are presumed to be innocent with respect to criminal liability. The advantages of the RH bill in third world countries like Philippines, reproductive health bill (less population) means economic growth, less crimes, less uneducated children, more food on the table without resorting to begging.

This bill hopes to provide midwives for skilled attendance to childbirth and emergency obstetric care, even in geographically isolated and depressed areas. Thus, the one of the causes of maternal mortality, that arising from unattended births, will be addressed. The disadvantages of the Reproductive Health Bill in the Philippines is the undue focus being given to reproductive health and population and development, when many more urgent and important health problems need to be addressed in the country, those that cause a significant number of deaths across the country such as cardiovascular diseases and infections.

Financial resources allotted by foreign donors to assist the Philippine government programs could actually be better spent towards pursuing health programs targeting communicable diseases than purchasing artificial contraceptives. The bill also calls for the integration of family planning and responsible parenthood in anti-poverty programs. The most common reasons why women with unmet need in the Philippines do not practice contraception are health concerns about contraceptive methods, including a fear of side effects.

The second largest category of reasons why women with unmet need do not use contraceptives is that many believe they are unlikely to become pregnant. Their specific reasons include having sex infrequently, experiencing lactation amenorrhea (temporary infertility while nursing) and being less fecund than normal. The cost of contraceptive supplies has become a more common reason for nonuse in of contraception in recent years.

The proponents assume that the views and opinion of the respondents will result into three sides: the religious group will opposed the bill, professional will somehow agrees and advocates the bill, and the result of the survey for common people will be divided into both points of views of the two first respondents.

Significance of the Study

This section of the book is written by the proponent to give emphasize and overlook to the possible effect of the study to the concern individual. It contains criticism and encouragement to the following type and group of people.

Barangay Officials - This will help them realize that RH Bill may help lessen their communities growing population and inform their people about effective method in family planning. Couple - This will make them realize that they use contraceptives if they are not yet ready on having a child. Doctors - This will help them realize about informing their patients with sexually transmitted disease that using contraceptives may prevent those diseases. Filipino Women - This will help them to understand that abortion is wrong and educate them about unnecessary pregnancy.

Filipino Family - This will help them decide freely and responsibly the number of spacing of children and to have information and means to do so, and to informed them the effective family planning method, and to make them understand that abortion is not included in family planning. Prostitutes - This will make them realize the importance of contraceptives to their job, this will prevent them on having a sexually transmitted disease like AIDS and STD. Religious groups - This will make them realize that this bill may be the only solution on our growing population and make them also understand hat abortion and using artificial contraceptives are different matter. Students - This will make them realize that this law might be the answer to our growing population, and for not committing unnecessary sex at their age. Teenagers - This will make them aware about the content of the bill and the importance of being responsible to their life and point it out that abortion is not right. Scope and Delimitation The bill is national in scope, comprehensive, rights-based and provides adequate funding to the population program.

It is a departure from the present setup in which the provision for reproductive health services is devolved to local government units, and consequently, subjected to the varying strategies of local government executives and suffers from a dearth of funding. The reproductive health (RH) bill promotes information on and access to both natural and modern family planning methods, which are medically safe and legally permissible. It assures an enabling environment where women and couples have the freedom of informed choice on the mode of family planning they want to adopt based on their needs, personal convictions and religious beliefs.

The bill does not have any bias for or against either natural or modern family planning. Both modes are contraceptive methods. Their common purpose is to prevent unwanted pregnancies. The bill will promote sustainable human development. The UN stated in 2002 that “family planning and reproductive health are essential to reducing poverty. ” The Unicef also asserts that “family planning could bring more benefits to more people at less cost than any other single technology now available to the human race. ” Coverage of RH. 1) Information and access to natural and modern family planning (2) Maternal, infant and child health and nutrition (3) Promotion of breast feeding (4) Prevention of abortion and management of post-abortion complications (5) Adolescent and youth health (6) Prevention and management of reproductive tract infections, HIV/AIDS and STDs (7) Elimination of violence against women (8). This study will give an additional information and concrete background about the reality of proposing and opposing this bill.

The proponent will use their patient and much effort in conducting a good compilation of ideas regarding population explosion and the population policy which is particularly mandates by the government. The proponent will try to overlook on the broader and wider data and information that is based on the facts and reliable sources. This research will help us to critically evaluate and examine the motives of the two powerful institutions in the Philippines, as the bill is supported by the administration of the Philippine President Benigno Aquino III and actively opposed by Roman Catholic Church.

The condition of this research is likely to hear the views and opinions of religious groups, professionals and common people. The voice of majority is the most valuable in this research study. The group will gather information through questionnaires together with interviews and reliable sources. The proponents will conduct their interview into three types of group of people: the religious group, professional and common people. The proponents also relied on the internet regarding the related topic. Moreover, the respondents for religious groups were coming from the opinions of Sto.

Nino Parish Church at Brgy

Bago Bantay, teachers of social studies major in Economics of San Francisco High School and students taking Bachelor of Science in Nursing at Our Lady of Fatima University for professionals, and residents of Brgy. Bahay Toro for common people. The said respondents were male and female and will serve as an instrument to make our thesis be fulfilled. Definition of Terms This section will be of use for reference, and will serve as a medium of an invaluable aid to a complete understanding and deeper appreciation of the words/terms being use in conducting this study.

It is an improvise dictionary make by the proponent in order to gain the research more factual and easily comprehensible by the readers. Abortion - lexically, the expulsion of a nonviable fetus; spontaneous expulsion of a human fetus during first 12 weeks of generation; operationally, a barbaric and inhumane practices ever devised by sinful man; murder of the unborn. Abortifacient – lexically, inducing abortion. Advocating/Advocate – lexically, one that pleads the cause of another. Approximate – lexically, to bring near close.

Bias – lexically, to incline to one side; to give a particular direction to; to influence; to prejudice; to prepossess. Birth Control Pills (BCPs) – lexically, known as oral contraceptives, stop the development of the egg and also help in thickening the cervical mucus in the uterus, thus restricting the passage of the sperms to the egg. Common People – Operationally, a group of people which is one of the respondents of the study; they will serve as the medium of the proponent to make the study factual and reliable. Compromising/Comprise – lexically, to come to agreement by mutual concession.

Condoms – Operationally, are the most commonly used male contraceptives to escape pregnancy using condoms during sexual intercourse acts like a barrier for sperms to enter the vagina, thus restricting their contact with the egg. Congress – lexically, an assembly or conference; a gathering; operationally, in the study House of representative or Congress was the proponent of RH Bill. Contraceptive – Operationally, a form of chemical and medicine which was indicated in RH Bill in order to control the birth rate and overpopulation. Contradictory – lexically, involving, causing, or constituting a contradiction.

Development – lexically, refers to a multi-dimensional process involving major changes in social structures, popular attitudes, and national intuitions as well as the acceleration of economic growth, the reduction of inequality and the eradication of widespread poverty. Disseminate – lexically, to scatter widely. Divisive - lexically, creating disunity or dissension. Economy – lexically, the management of household or private affairs and especial expenses; a thirty and efficient use of material resources; Operationally, the main purpose of the government in implementing RH Bill is to have a healthy economy.

Embryo – lexically, refers to a child at the early stages of development. Family Planning – lexically, planning intended to determine the number and spacing of one’s children through effective methods of birth control. a. Natural Family Planning - any several methods of family planning that do not involve sterilization or contraceptive devices or drugs; coitus is avoided during the fertile time of a woman’s menstrual cycle. b. Artificial Family Planning - means of preventing pregnancy that involves some kind of device or medication.

It does not include periodic abstinence or the withdrawal method. Fertilized Ovum - lexically, the cell resulting from the union of an ovum and a sperm. Fetus – lexically, the young in the womb of viviparous animals in the later stages of development, specifically in women from the end of the second month, prior to which it is called to embryo; unborn offspring. Fertilization – lexically, is the fusion of gametes to produce a new organism. In human, the process involves the fusion of an ovum with a sperm, which eventually leads to the development of an embryo.

Intrauterine device (IUD) – lexically, the IUD or Copper T as it is commonly known is a very convenient, safe and reversible method of family planning which does not require a daily routine. It is small device made of metal, copper or plastic that is inserted into the uterus of a woman of reproductive age, for as long as she does not want a pregnancy. Normally once it is inserted, it stays in place for 5 to 10 years and inhibits the entry of sperms into the inner recesses of the vagina and also prevents fertilization.


Implementation/Implement – lexically, carry out accomplish to give practical effect to and ensure of and ensure of actual fulfillment by concrete measures. Inter-breed - lexically; to breed together. Legalization – lexically, it is an authentication or certification by an appropriate public authority; the act of making legal. Population – lexically, it is a number of or term for all the inhabitants of a designated territory; is all organisms that both belong to the same species and live in the same geographical area.

Population Explosion - lexically, a pyramiding of numbers of biological population; especially the recent great increase in human numbers resulting from both increased survival and exponential population growth. Population Policy – lexically, measures taken by a state to modify the way its population is changing; defined as legislative measures, administrative programs, and other governmental actions intended to alter or modify existing population trends and composition in the interest of national survival and welfare.

Population Development – lexically, refers to a program that aims to: (1) help couples and parent achieve their desired family size; (2) improve reproductive health of individuals by addressing reproductive health problems; (3) contribute to decreased maternal and infant mortality rates and early child mortality; (4) reduce incidence of teenage pregnancy; and (5) enable government to achieve a balanced population distribution. Procure – lexically, to get possession of obtain by particular care and effort.

Professional – lexically, it is the one who pursues as a business some vocation or occupation one skilled profession. Reproductive Health Education – lexically, refers to the process of acquiring complete, accurate and relevant information on all matters relating to the reproductive system, its functions and processes and human sexuality; and forming attitudes and beliefs about sex, sexual identity, interpersonal relationships, affection, intimacy and gender roles. Responsible Parenthood – lexically, is the core responsibilities of parents to provide the needs of the children they have in term of the aspects in life.


It is putting the needs of the child over your own. Religious People – lexically, group of people devoted to religious beliefs or observances. Reproductive Health (RH) Bill – lexically, a Philippine Bill aiming to guarantee universal access to methods and information on birth control and maternal care Roman Catholic Church – operationally, pro-life groups whose against the RH Bill; they promotes only natural family planning and is opposed to the use of artificial birth-control pills, saying these could lead to promiscuity and a rise in abortion cases.

Sex Education – lexically, it is a broad term used to describe education about human sexual, sexual reproduction, sexual intercourse, reproductive health, emotional relations, reproductive rights and responsibilities, abstinence, contraception, and other aspects of human sexual behavior. Common avenues for sex education are parents or caregivers, school programs, and public health campaigns. Vibrant – lexically, it is readily set in vibration.

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