Last Updated 02 Apr 2020

The Ozone Behavior and Variability of Thickness

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The Ozone Behavior and Variability of Thickness

Introduction

The ozone O3has good and bad effects on the Earth. For illustration the stratosphere, where most of the ozone is located, absorbs harmful UV beams. Because the ozone plays such an of import function on human life and the ecosystem, it is of import to invariably endeavor to larn more about the ozone and record and analyze informations. Harmonizing to Shaw, while both O and ozone together absorb 95 to 99.9 % of the sun’s UV radiation, merely ozone efficaciously absorbs the most energetic UV visible radiation, known as UV-C and UV-B, which causes biological harm ( Shaw, 2014, p. 3 ) . When UVC is absorbed by free O groups in the stratosphere, they break apart into two O atoms, and so they combine with O2molecules to organize stratospheric ozone Oxygen3, shown by the undermentioned reactions:

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Oxygen2+hvi?? O + O

O + O2+ M i?? O3+ M

wherehvis ultraviolet radiation and M is an inert molecule that enhances the reaction of O with O2. The ozone is created, destroyed and created once more in rhythms, of course. While there are legion reactions of how the ozone is destroyed of course, anthropogenetic substances/processes are increasing the devastation the ozone. Examples of anthropogenetic substances/processes would be

  1. CFC’s such as infrigidation, air conditioning and aerosol propellents.
  2. Halons ; man-made chemicals that can be used to snuff out fires.
  3. Burning of fossil fuels.

If the ozone continues to be destroyed faster than the natural procedure of being created, less and less of the harmful UV visible radiation will be absorbed in the stratosphere and will finally do it to the Earth’s surface. The UV radiation to the surface would ensue in effects to the worlds and the ecosystems such as the addition of skin malignant neoplastic disease instances, development of cataracts, lessening in photosynthetic productiveness, an addition in vaporization rates and lessening in precipitation. To protect the ozone’s hereafter from anthropogenetic substances the Montreal Protocol, adopted in 1987, with extra understandings, required states to diminish the sum of atmospheric concentrations of CFCs. With these understandings, concentrations chlorine began to diminish in 1995 ( Sahw, 2014, p. 6 ) .

Analyzing the information recorded about the ozone thickness provides grounds on whether the ozone is consuming or non, penetration on the effects of anthropogenetic substance/processes and aid in the formation of theories, such as the ozone repairing itself. This assignment will supply a general apprehension of the tendency of longitudinal sets -60/-55, -40/-35, -10/-5, 15-20, 30/35 and 50/55 for the old ages of 1997 – 2005.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Data was provided for this assignment by Professor Shaw. Harmonizing to the hand-out provided the information was collected by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer ( TOMS ) for the old ages of 1997 – 2005. The TOMS instrument provides scientists with a planetary position of the stratospheric ozone bed in existent clip with measurings for the full universe every 24 hours ( Shaw, 2014, p. 6-7 ) . The provided information was manipulated in an excel spreadsheet to concentrate on latitudinal sets -60/-55, -40/-35, -10/-5, 15/20, 30/35, 50/55. The given informations was so manipulated and graphs created utilizing excel to be better represented and more easy understood. Each latitudinal set of involvement was individually graphed over the eight twelvemonth p to compare by the months of January, April, July and October. Then the one-year mean for each latitudinal set of involvement was calculated ( non including the months with zero readings ) and put into a graph demoing the tendency of the entire ozone thickness over the eight twelvemonth p. More specific inside informations may be found in the lab instructions titledThe Chemistry of the Ozone Layer( Shaw, 2014, p. 8 ) . Additionally, a press release by Mindy Shaw and the text edition,Global Environment: Water, Air and Geochemical Cycles, were available with information sing the behaviour of the stratigraphic ozone. After reading the stuff sing the stratigraphic ozone the graphs were interpreted and hypothesis’ formed.

Consequence

Figure 1: The one-year mean ozone thickness recorded by the TOMS for the latitudinal sets -60/-55, -40/-35, -10/-5, 15-20, 30/35, 50-55 for the old ages of 1997 - 2005. The ozone thickness is measured in Dobson Units ( DU ) . The one-year mean calculated does non include the nothing ( 0 ) records.

Figure 2: The monthly tendency of the ozone thickness recorded by the TOMS for the latitudinal set -60/-55 for the old ages 1997 - 2005.

Figure 3: The monthly tendency of the ozone thickness recorded by the TOMS for the latitudinal set -40/-35 for the old ages 1997 - 2005.

Figure 4: The monthly tendency of the ozone thickness recorded by the TOMS for the latitudinal set -10/-5 for the old ages 1997 - 2005.

Figure 5: The monthly tendency of the ozone thickness recorded by the TOMS for the latitudinal set 15/20 for the old ages 1997 - 2005.

Figure 6: The monthly tendency of the ozone thickness recorded by the TOMS for the latitudinal set 30/35 for the old ages 1997 - 2005.

Figure 7: The monthly tendency of the ozone thickness recorded by the TOMS for the latitudinal set 50/55 for the old ages 1997 - 2005.

Discussion

Harmonizing the Figures 2 – 7, the variableness in the tendencies of the latitudinal sets gets larger the further off from the equator they are. Vice versa the closer to the equator the less variableness there is, as seen in Figures 4 and 5. This correlativity is due to the Earth’s joust. As the Earth jousts towards the Sun the Earth receives more sunlight and consequences in longer yearss. This addition in sunlight additions the sum of high-energy solar atoms striking the ambiance which consequences in an addition in coevals of ozone.

The information besides shows a tendency of a thicker ozone bed near the poles during the spring seasons for the single poles respectfully ( Figure 2 and Figure 7 ) . The North Pole spring season begins around March while the South Pole spring season begins around September. A upper limit of thickness is shown for the North Pole in Figure 7 and South Pole in Figure 2. This addition in thickness during the spring season could perchance be due to the accretion of ozone transported from the Torrid Zones during the autumn and winter seasons.

The twelvemonth to twelvemonth informations shows that surprisingly the ozone thickness is bit by bit increasing over clip ( Figure 1 ) . In fact, out of the latitudinal sets of involvement, the latitudinal set -10/-5 was the lone one to diminish in thickness over the eight twelvemonth p. This information entirely ( including merely the old ages of involvement from 1997 – 2005 ) does non back up the theory that the ozone is being depleted quicker than it is being of course created ; nevertheless, the correlativity of the alteration should be noted as due to the lessening of anthropogenetic substance by the Montreal Protocol, adopted in 1987, and other extra understandings that decreased the atmospheric concentrations of CFCs. This proves an opposite relationship that a lessening in anthropogenetic substance consequences in an addition in ozone thickness.

Decision

Because the ozone plays such an of import function to human life and the ecosystem, it is of import to understand the behaviour and variableness of its thickness. Knowing the ozone’s behaviour allows us to protect our hereafter and cognize to diminish the usage of anthropogenetic substances/processes. By analysing informations over old ages, scientist can foretell whether or non the ozone is being depleted faster than it is of course being created or if it is repairing itself.

Harmonizing to the informations the ozone fluctuates in thickness globally due to latitudinal place, seasonal alterations and the increase/decrease of anthropogenetic substances. While latitudinal place and seasons is a natural procedures in assisting with creative activity and devastation rhythm of the ozone, the sum anthropogenetic substances is something that can be controlled. The information proves that a lessening in anthropogenetic substance consequences in an addition in ozone thickness.

Appendix:

Appendix 1: The monthly norm and one-year mean ozone thickness recorded by the TOMS for the latitudinal set -60/-55 for the old ages 1997 - 2005. The ozone thickness is measured in Dobson Units ( DU ) . The one-year mean calculated does non include the nothing ( 0 ) records.

Monthly Average and Annual Mean Ozone Thickness For the Latitudinal Band -60 / -55

Thickness measured in Dobson Units ( DU )

Year

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Annual Mean

1997

309.5

297.8

292.4

294.9

292.9

297.2

301.7

314.6

323.6

326.8

323

309.3

307

1998

304.5

295.4

289.1

290.2

299.3

318.7

323.1

317.9

316.3

334.9

332

310.9

311

1999

301.5

292.8

288.8

290.6

299.9

309.8

316.3

314

325.5

333.6

329.8

306.5

309

2000

297.2

293.9

291.6

291.4

291.3

295.2

296.5

295.7

321.7

344.5

337.3

322.1

307

2001

307.8

297.9

295.1

296

305.6

315.8

315.4

310

321

328.8

330

309.2

311

2002

301.6

292

294.7

291.8

299.5

313.5

327.5

338.8

351.5

367.9

343

325.2

321

2003

313.3

304.2

295.2

293.9

297

299.1

303.6

299

315.3

344.1

342.2

321.1

311

2004

307.3

299.6

295.7

302.1

301.1

308.2

310.6

321.4

334.9

344

329.4

313.7

314

2005

308.8

295.1

287.4

287.9

290.5

299.6

303

317.4

329.5

342.9

338.6

0

309

Appendix 2: The monthly norm and one-year mean ozone thickness recorded by the TOMS for the latitudinal set -40/-35 for the old ages 1997 - 2005. The ozone thickness is measured in Dobson Units ( DU ) . The one-year mean calculated does non include the nothing ( 0 ) records.

Monthly Average and Annual Mean Ozone Thickness For the Latitudinal Band -40 / -35

Thickness measured in Dobson Units ( DU )

Year

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Annual Mean

1997

270.3

269.2

267.3

266.2

271.6

280.5

290.1

305.6

319

317.3

302.9

285.8

287

1998

277.4

272.8

271.8

273.8

284.3

300.8

316.3

323

335.8

329.9

312.8

295.6

300

1999

271.5

268.9

267.8

268.3

272.9

286

302.8

318.8

327.4

327

311.6

286.6

292

2000

274.5

268.7

265.2

268

277.9

296.1

312.2

330.2

336.4

331.1

309.6

286.6

296

2001

278.9

271

268.2

269.9

279.6

301.1

319.3

326

335.4

332.1

317.8

297.6

300

2002

284.3

279.8

274.5

276.4

282.5

296

311.3

326.6

330

330.8

311.3

297.7

300

2003

284.3

279.5

273.9

272.6

276.4

296

314.8

331.4

339.5

334.8

316.6

292.9

301

2004

280.4

273.8

270.5

263.5

270.8

279.9

294.5

312

324

319.6

305.7

285.7

290

2005

275.7

272.1

271

271.2

281.7

303.8

319.7

335.2

340.7

335.6

309.8

0

302

Appendix 3: The monthly norm and one-year mean ozone thickness recorded by the TOMS for the latitudinal set -10/-5 for the old ages 1997 - 2005. The ozone thickness is measured in Dobson Units ( DU ) . The one-year mean calculated does non include the nothing ( 0 ) records.

Monthly Average and Annual Mean Ozone Thickness For the Latitudinal Band -10 / -5

Thickness measured in Dobson Units ( DU )

Year

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Annual Mean

1997

254

257

260.5

260.3

255.4

256.8

258.7

259.5

265.5

266.8

259.7

247.9

259

1998

242.2

245.9

248.7

249.1

249.6

250.1

256.6

264.9

272.9

273.7

269.4

267.3

258

1999

260.9

262

260.6

262.2

262.1

261.3

264.5

267.5

273.1

272.7

265.3

258.2

264

2000

257.7

258.4

260.7

261.1

259.7

258.5

258.2

263.6

269

264.2

258.5

253.5

260

2001

253.1

249.5

251.8

252.6

248.8

247.5

250.8

257.4

269.5

273.3

272.8

270.1

258

2002

269

271.4

269.6

267.2

261.5

258.9

258.5

263.9

268.3

268.8

264

254.6

265

2003

252.1

253.5

255.7

255.4

254.1

255.9

257.4

262.9

268.9

264.3

260

258.5

258

2004

254

258.9

261

262.7

261.4

260.6

264.5

267.6

273.3

267.3

261.9

256.6

262

2005

253.2

253.2

252.4

251.6

251.1

252.7

256

259.8

264.2

264.5

257.8

0

256

Appendix 4: The monthly norm and one-year mean ozone thickness recorded by the TOMS for the latitudinal set 15/20 for the old ages 1997 - 2005. The ozone thickness is measured in Dobson Units ( DU ) . The one-year mean calculated does non include the nothing ( 0 ) records.

Monthly Average and Annual Mean Ozone Thickness For the Latitudinal Band 15 / 20

Thickness measured in Dobson Units ( DU )

Year

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Annual Mean

1997

236.5

239.8

253.2

267.7

271.9

273.2

276.8

272.7

268.1

263

254

247.7

260

1998

243.8

250.5

262.4

276.3

281

281.6

282.3

280.5

276.1

265

249.4

244.2

266

1999

240

243

255.1

272.2

280.9

282.8

282.2

281

277.9

269.3

259.7

254.7

267

2000

256.3

262.9

270.8

283.4

285.7

283.6

281.5

280.2

275.7

264

253.9

247.8

270

2001

251.1

253.4

267.9

283.8

285.3

283.6

282.9

281.3

274.7

264.2

252.3

241.4

268

2002

241.4

248.6

259.1

275.3

282.5

284.5

282

278.9

273.4

265.2

256.9

245.4

266

2003

244

252.4

270.2

284.1

289.8

289.4

287.2

284.4

277.8

263

248.3

241.8

269

2004

236.7

242.5

257.4

271.1

280.6

286

285.3

281.9

277

266.8

258.9

253.4

266

2005

254.9

260.2

268.2

277.4

283

279.4

279.3

276.1

272.9

263.1

248.8

0

269

Appendix 5: The monthly norm and one-year mean ozone thickness recorded by the TOMS for the latitudinal set 30/35 for the old ages 1997 - 2005. The ozone thickness is measured in Dobson Units ( DU ) . The one-year mean calculated does non include the nothing ( 0 ) records.

Monthly Average and Annual Mean Ozone Thickness For the Latitudinal Band 30 / 35

Thickness measured in Dobson Units ( DU )

Year

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Annual Mean

1997

279.5

286.7

300.3

306.9

303

299.4

291.6

283.8

279.2

278.7

277

282.5

289

1998

291.7

303.7

319.4

325.6

324.6

310.3

297.6

293.3

283.6

272.7

262.1

263.3

296

1999

270.1

281

290.8

305.2

311

303.2

297.7

293

284.4

274.7

274.1

277.3

289

2000

292.5

297.2

310.3

315

311.4

301.1

296.4

291.9

282.5

270

262.3

270.4

292

2001

285.8

292.8

309.3

320.9

317.6

304.2

297.7

292.9

280.6

272.9

266.9

266.9

292

2002

270.9

277.1

296.9

314.6

316.1

309.3

299.8

292.8

283.6

274.8

271.5

281

291

2003

290.5

309.1

317.9

323.4

321.8

311.3

300.7

294.9

283.9

271.3

264

267.4

296

2004

273.1

283.1

295

312.7

316.9

308.5

301.6

293.2

283.8

276.5

269.7

279.2

291

2005

297.6

308.9

314.2

320.3

320.2

308.1

296.9

290.9

280.8

268

261.2

0

297

Table 6: The monthly norm and one-year mean ozone thickness recorded by the TOMS for the latitudinal set 50/55 for the old ages 1997 - 2005. The ozone thickness is measured in Dobson Units ( DU ) . The one-year mean calculated does non include the nothing ( 0 ) records.

Monthly Average and Annual Mean Ozone Thickness For the Latitudinal Band 50 / 55

Thickness measured in Dobson Units ( DU )

Year

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Annual Mean

1997

364.4

383.4

384.9

371.4

359.2

348.3

330

312

302.7

298.7

308.8

342

342

1998

380

397.9

407.4

401.2

381.4

364.2

339.6

320.6

308.6

304.6

329.5

342.1

356

1999

365.3

387.8

413.6

391

372.9

354.7

330.8

314.9

305.6

306.7

312.2

341.4

350

2000

359.8

383.6

387

377

369.8

348.1

327.4

309

301.2

304.5

323.2

362.1

346

2001

377.5

405.3

407.3

395.9

373.6

356.3

332.4

315.6

307.5

310

309.5

343.2

353

2002

361

371.6

397.2

389

375.9

356.2

331.3

316.2

303.7

308.4

318.9

355

349

2003

378

398.4

409.5

401.8

381.2

357.7

340.1

322

307

301.4

318.3

334.8

354

2004

367.2

386.1

399.5

393.7

373.6

354.3

333.4

320.4

304.7

297

304.8

329.9

347

2005

350.2

374.5

390.5

382.6

370.2

351.7

332.7

315.3

301.7

296.6

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