Sport psychologists have been becoming increasingly important in the realm of sports; helping athletes in their focus and controlling emotions; such as anxiety. Moreover, they have also become assistants to team organizations In selecting potential players, As previously stated, much research has been completed in an effort to not only increase performance but to also predict future performances. As result, many theories have evolved. These theories range from the achievement goal theory (ACT), to the self determination theory (SDTV), ACT states that an Individual will poses either an ego goal orientation or a task goal orientation.
Researchers have examined different aspects of athletes' motivational orientations in hopes to predict a successful performance. Based off this research, it has been shown that when athletes have a high task goal orientation they are more likely to give a successful performance. However, it has been shown that athletes at the elite level of competition possess both a high task orientation and ego orientation. This is important to coaches when considering how to motivate players. One motivational tactic that has been heard on the sidelines at sporting events Is the coach telling his players to be aggressive.
Moreover, athletes routinely site aggressive play as the factor In a win or loss. In this regard, the focus of this proposed study is to investigate what role aggression has on an athletes' motivational orientation and whether aggression has a positive correlation with performance. Aggression Is seemingly becoming more evident in sports. Moreover, aggression has evolved as a positive attribute In the eyes of athletes and spectators alike, and has earned itself an important role in team sports (Rascal, Coulomb-Cabbage, & Delegate, 2004).
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However, little research has been conducted on aggression and how TTS manifestation will affect an athlete's performance, or if aggression is more prevalent In one goal orientation over another. To study the occurrence of aggressive behavior, the proposed study will look at athletes In the sport of boxing which is often viewed as a highly aggressive and sometimes barbaric sport. Boxing is 1 OFF play them must also have a certain degree of aggression that motivates them to continue the sport. However, a conceptual definition of aggression is that it is a negative personality trait that is connected with sport participation (Keller, 2004).
Aggression has been further broken down into two categories; hostile and instrumental. Hostile aggression is defined as behavior that is performed with the sole intention of inflicting harm on a person and is seen as being an emotional response out of frustration or anger; while instrumental is considered non-emotional and is behavior that intentionally causes injury or harm to an opponent in the pursuit of another non-aggressive goal such as scoring or winning (Rascal, Coulomb- Cabbage, ; Delegate, 2004).
With this in mind, this study will also measure assertiveness; which is defined as a non-hostile, non-coercive tendency to behave with intense and energetic behavior to accomplish one's goal, and within the sport setting is within the rules of competition. Assertiveness will primarily be included because the primary goal in boxing is to inflict injury or harm on an opponent. This study will also measure the goal orientations of the athletes. Previous studies have shown that when athletes have a high ego low task orientation they are more prone to aggression and a win at all cost mentality (Rascal, Coulomb-Cabbage, & Delegate, 2004).
Therefore, it is hypothesized that 1) the goal orientation of the boxers will be influenced by the level of aggressiveness or assertiveness 2) aggression will be correlated with a high ego-orientation and assertiveness will be correlated with a task-orientation 3) assertiveness will have a positive correlation with performance and aggression will have a negative correlation with performance 4) assertiveness will be viewed and considered to be aggression by the athletes in the study. Method The design of this study will be non-experimental and will utilize surveys and researcher observation.
The study will have two independent variables, aggression and assertion; and three dependent variables, task-orientation, ego-orientation and performance. Performance will be Judged by a win or loss. Aggressive behavior will be considered illegal blows. This will include low blows, kidney punches, rabbit punches (punches to the back of the head), hitting on the break (when the referee calls a halt to the action), hitting an opponent while down on a knee, and excessive holding. Assertive behavior will be pressing the action, and a high volume of punchers thrown (>50 punches/round).
The distinction between aggression and assertiveness will not be made to the athletes and will be used as criterion for observers when rating the performance of the athlete. The participants in the study will be 30 active professional (n=10) and amateur (n=20) boxers between the ages of 18 and 25. Active participation will be defined as having at least one fight 2 months prior to the study and the subjects must have a fight scheduled to take place during the study. Participants will receive information on the parameters of the study and will be informed that all data collected will be anonymous.
In addition written onset will be obtained by all subjects. The subjects will complete surveys that will rate the performance of their last competition, goal orientation, aggression, and assertiveness. The outcome of their last competition (whether the athlete won or loss) and demographic information will also be used in the data analysis. To assess developed by Roberts and Plague will be used. This scale has shown both reliability and validity for assessing task and ego goal orientations. Aggression will be measured in two ways; first, the subjects' global aggression will be assessed by the Buss-Darker Hostility Inventory (BID) scale.
This will be used to see if aggression is a core trait of the athlete. Questions are answered either true or false and indicate whether the actions described are thought to be self-descriptive; and second, the subjects' situation-specific or sport aggression will be measured with the BAG-S scale. This is a 30 item inventory that measures both hostile and instrumental aggression. It uses a 4-point Liker scale with 1 being strong agreement and 4 being strong disagreement. To assess assertiveness, the Rather Assertiveness Schedule (RASA) will be used.
This is a 30-item questionnaire that measures perceived assertiveness. It uses a six point scale that ranges from 3 to -3; with 3 being very characteristic of me and -3 being very uncharacteristic. Additionally observers will measure the subjects' level of aggression and assertion during competition using a 4- point Liker scales with 1 being very aggressive and very assertive and 4 being little aggression and little assertion. Analysis Analysis of the data will be conducted using several methods. For assessing the levels of aggression and assertion on performance the Pearson Correlation Coefficient will be used.
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