This survey aims to find whether jaming behaviour had a important consequence on the memory keeping pupils who took Physics 82 ( Fundamental Physics II ) during the 2nd semester of school twelvemonth 2006-2007. A trial was given to these pupils after one semester ( first semester. 2007-2008 ) .
A comparing was made between the tonss of pupils who acknowledged frequent usage of jaming methods and those that did non. Datas shows that keeping decreases with clip whether the pupil crammed or non. However. pupils that crammed have faster rate of lessening in memory keeping.
Cramming is defined as analyzing a comparatively big sum of capable affair in a short period of clip. It can be regarded as a despairing step of pupils to go through tests. complete undertakings. The effect of such mode of survey is low memory keeping [ 1 ] . This survey aims to corroborate or confute this stereotype. It is possible that classs reflect merely short term larning since they are given at the terminal of the semester and there is no confidence for long term keeping. Harmonizing to Duda. memory keeping is enhanced if. for illustration. a five hr survey session is broken down into five separate one hr Sessionss [ 1 ] . This applies to jaming where a individual survey session merely before an scrutiny is less effectual than several short survey Sessionss. A study was conducted to verify these premises utilizing UP Los Banos pupils who took Physics 82 during the 2nd semester of school twelvemonth 2006-2007. The study was limited to these pupils who are presently enrolled in Physics 83 during the first semester of school twelvemonth 2007-2008. Physicss 82 screens cardinal constructs in electricity and magnetic attraction.
This survey aims to:
1. Determine whether there exists a correlativity between the chronological order in which Physics 82 constructs were taught and the students’ memory keeping of these constructs. 2. Determine the per centum of pupils who acknowledged to hold employed jaming methods for their Physicss 82 semester.
3. Determine whether there is a appreciable difference between students’ concluding class ( 1-5 graduated table ) in Physics 82 and their study class for both for the crammers and the non-crammers.
1. 1 Hypothesiss
1. There no strong positive additive correlativity between the chronological order in which PHYS 82 constructs were taught the old semester. and their memory keeping of these constructs. Earlier subjects taught are more maintained than earlier subjects. 2. There is no important difference between crammers and non-crammers concluding class ( 1-5 graduated table ) in Physics 82. and between crammers and non-crammers study mark. Grade is non a good index of jaming behaviour.
3. There is no strong additive correlativity study mark and Physics 82 concluding class for both crammers and non-crammers. Grade is non a good index of memory keeping. 4. There is no important difference between the between the students’ concluding class ( 1-5 graduated table ) in Physics 82 and their study grade both for the crammers and the non-crammers. Cramming has no important consequence on the student’s memory keeping of Physicss 82 constructs.
The study population consisted of all Physicss 83 pupils that took Physics 82 the old Semester. The Survey was done in category hours of Phys83 to all pupils. The population needed was filtered out afterwards. The study inquiries included 16 subjects in Physics 82 which were divided into 4 sets reflecting the first to the last one-fourth of the semester. Questions were generated for each subject. Five basic equations and two to four conceptual jobs were taken from the subjects. This was to guarantee that the study was representative of the whole Physicss 82 semester. The questionnaire study was divided into three parts. personal information. fiting type and multiple pick. The first portion consisted of personal information and besides asked the pupils to rate themselves in a graduated table of 1 to 5 where 5 was the highest.
The information taken were the undermentioned: ofrequency of jaming in exams and/or undertakings: “I cram my survey for the dark before exams” ostudy modus operandi: ( 1-2hrs ) . ( monthly ( 1 ) … . hebdomadal ( 5 ) ) I do non analyze for quizzes/do assign in front oPreparation clip for test ( a dark before ( 1 ) … . three hebdomads before ( 5 ) ) I review merely near exam day of the months oStudents claim on good keeping: “I forgot my Physicss 82” oLikelihood of jaming in the hereafter: “I expect myself to jam for the coming tests due to ineluctable fortunes. ” From these the pupils were so categorized to two sets as non-crammers ( labeled as R ) . holding less than 65 % of entire points in portion I. and crammers ( C ) whose high mark in portion I acknowledge their usage and likely hereafter usage of jaming methods. The per centum of pupils C and R in the population were so taken. The undermentioned comparings were made: ( 1 ) between C and R Physics 82 concluding class. ( 2 ) between C and R study tonss. and ( 3 ) between Physics 82 concluding class and study tonss of all respondents.
In the 2nd portion. pupils were asked to fit an equation with a construct. There were 20 equations and matching constructs. Each lucifer was given 1 point. Examples of the inquiries were [ 2 ] : Column AColumn B
1. Coulomb’s Law
2. 1 Volt K. 1AmpCoul=1Joule/Coulomb
Part 3 ( multiple pick ) consisted of 8 conceptual and 8 computational inquiries. The followers are some illustrations: 1. Which of the followers is false about electric potency? A. is the energy per unit charge
B. is dependent of charge go throughing per unit clip in a music director. C. it is a scalar measure
D. electric potency surfaces lines cross each other
2. Which of the undermentioned is true?
I. An Ohmic Conductor has a additive Voltage and Current relationship. II. When Ohm’s Law is non obeyed the electric resistance ( ? ) of a substance is changeless in the equation E=?J ( J is current denseness ) .
A. I merely
B. II merely
C. Both I and II
D Neither I and I
1. The strength of visible radiation is Io=100 Watts 1 metre off from its beginning. What is its strength if the distance is doubled? A ) I=Io/4
B ) I=Io/2
C ) I=0
D ) I=Io/8
Tocopherol ) none of the above
2. In a DC R-L circuit. the current rises bit by bit to 5 ?A in 8?sec. What is the induced EMF of the 10H inductance? A ) 6. 25V
B ) 0. 625V
C ) 6V
D ) 12. 5V
Tocopherol ) none of the above
Problem work outing accomplishments were besides tested to derive penetration on the student’s accomplishments in runing some equations in portion 2. Separate 3 consisted of 16 points of 2 points each. The inquiries were structured so that 5 fiting type points ( Part 2 ) . 2 conceptual and 2 computational multiple pick points ( part3 ) represented each one-fourth of the Physics 82 semester. It was ensured that all points in the four quarters are of comparable degree of trouble. In order to prove the dependability of the study. we repeated some jobs in the questionnaire so as to deduce whether the pupils focused on replying the study or simply guessed the replies. The questionnaire had a sum of 52 points. 20 points for portion two and 32 points for portion three. Each one-fourth has perfect mark of 13 points. A correlativity between the sequence of these quarters and mean points per one-fourth was taken.
3. Consequences and Discussion
All of the 48 Physicss 82 pupils who are enrolled in Physics 83 took portion in the study. Simple statistical methods were employed since the study involved the whole population. In portion I. it was assessed that there were about 32. 56 % crammers and 67. 44 % non-crammers in the population. The mean of the concluding classs of non-crammers was 2. 36 while that of those who cram was 2. 42. Since the scaling system is in a graduated table of 1-5 with 1 being the highest. the 1 with lower mean implies a higher class. Those who cram tends to hold a lower class than those who do non jam. This tendency was besides observed in the difference in the norm of study tonss between the two classs where non-crammers had a 59. 41 % norm and crammers had a 55. 47 % . The difference between the two norms was 3. 94 % . These difference is non significantly discernible in the 1-5 scaling system ; therefore. illation in jaming behaviour based on classs is non dependable.
Figure 3. 1 Linear Regression of matching mean study mark of pupils per one-fourth in the fake test to prove natural debasement of keeping through clip.
In figure 3. 1 the tendency of mark addition is shown with a correlativity of 0. 566. This shows a natural debasement of memory keeping through clip since in the most recent one-fourth. 4th one-fourth. the mean class of the pupil in the fake test were higher than their mean class in the old one-fourth. The mean points of 1st & A ; 2nd. and 3rd & A ; 4th are so averaged in braces that reflected foremost and 2nd half the of the Physics 82 semester. Figure 3. 2 Average tonss of pupils per one-fourth in the fake test.
The norm of the 2nd half is 7. 802326 which is higher than that of the first half which is equal to 7. 476744. This farther justifies the debasement of memory of keeping with clip.
Figure 3. 3 Linear correlativity of Physicss 82 concluding class and study mark
Figure 3. 3 shows the correlativity between the study mark and the concluding class of the pupils in natural philosophies 82 last semester. The negative correlativity is due to the fact that 1 is the highest in the 1-5 graduated table Rating System. Students who got high classs in Physics 82 besides got high tonss in the study. The correlativity of -0. 62263 implies that the concluding class of the pupils is a strong index of memory keeping where a high class likely implies high keeping.
Table 3. 1 Average difference and average difference between natural philosophies 82 concluding class and study grade CategoryMean DifferenceMedian Difference
Crammer-0. 839-0. 5
Non-Crammer-0. 664-0. 25
Table 3. 1 shows the difference between natural philosophies 82 concluding class and study class ( 1-5 class system ) . The negative mark indicates that all the pupils have lesser study classs compared to their concluding class. There is a important difference between the debasement of class between crammers and non-crammers. The crammers’ class decreased by 0. 839 while that of non-crammers’ decreased by 0. 664. The crammers significantly had less memory keeping than those of the non-crammers.
Memory keeping undergoes debasement procedure through clip. This debasement is further increased by jaming behaviour. Memory keeping has a natural debasement through clip both for crammers and non-crammers. The earlier subjects were less retained than the most recent subjects. Cramming had a important consequence on the student’s memory keeping of Physicss 82 constructs. There was a strong additive correlativity study mark and Physics 82 concluding class as shown in figure 3. 3. Grade is a strong index of memory keeping since it was shown that those who got higher classs had better public presentation in the fake test. Therefore. pupils who obtained higher classs tend to hold more constructs retained. Cramming was shown to lend to memory loss. Crammers had a 0. 5 average bead in class between Physicss 82 concluding class and study grade whereas non-crammers had a average bead of 0. 25. The consequence of this survey is consistent with Duda’s survey which affirms the negative consequence of jaming. The construction of this survey may be implemented on other topics to farther measure the effects of jaming behaviour on memory keeping and may affect other standard on pupil academic public presentation.
[ 1 ] J Duda. Survey shows trial cramming has negative effects on classs. hypertext transfer protocol: //wc. Arizona. edu/papers/94/91/01_2_m. hypertext markup language. Last modified on Feb 2. 2001. [ 2 ] H. D. Young and R. A. Freedman. University Physics: The Modern Physics. 10th edition. USA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. 2000. [ 3 ] Statistics. Encyclopedia Britannica 2005 Deluxe Edition CD. USA. Encyclopedia Britannica Inc. 2005