1.What is the importance of interpersonal skills?
The importance of interpersonal skills is that you need to understand how to deal with other people and involve your acceptance of others, without prejudice in order to achieve your task.
What do managers do in terms of functions, roles, and skills?
Management is a process that is used to accomplish organizational goals; that is, a process that is used to achieve what an organization wants to achieve. Managers are the people to whom this management task is assigned.
In terms of Functions, Managers do Planning, Organizing, Directing and Controlling.
To be an effective manager, it is necessary to possess many skills. Not all managers have all the skills that would make them the most effective manager. As technology advances and grows, the skills that are needed by managers are constantly changing. Different levels of management in the organizational structure also require different types of management skills. Generally, however, managers need to have communication skills, human skills, computer skills, time-management skills, and technical skills.
3.What is organizational behavior (OB)?.
Organizational Behavior (OB) is the study of the organization itself and also of the interface between human behavior and the organization. A field that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structure have on behavior within organizations in order to achieve the goals.
4.Why is it important to complement intuition with systematic study? Consciously or unconsciously we are all students of behavior. We observe others and attempt to interpret what we see. We “read” people all the time and even attempt to predict what they might do under different sets of conditions. We develop some generalizations in explaining and predicting what people do and will do. These generalizations come as a result of observing, sensing, asking, listening, and reading, or else secondhand through the experience of others. There are certain fundamental consistencies underlying the behavior of all individuals that can be identified and used to alter conclusions based on individual differences.
The consistencies allow predictability. Systematic study means looking at relationships, attempting to attribute causes and effects, and basing our conclusions on scientific evidence; that is, on data gathered under controlled conditions and measured and interpreted in a reasonably rigorous manner. Systematic study replaces intuition or those “gut feelings” you often hear experienced managers talk about. While some of our appraisals may prove highly effective in explaining and predicting the behavior of others, we all carry with us a number of beliefs that frequently fail to explain why people do what they do.
This occurs because many of the views we hold concerning human behavior are based on intuition rather than fact. There is a better way; a systematic approach to the study of behavior can improve your explanatory and predictive abilities and will uncover important facts and relationships, and provide a base from which more accurate predictions of behavior can be made. Most behavior does not occur randomly; it generally has a cause caused and direction based upon some end that the individual believes, rightly or wrongly, is in his or her best interest. Because of differences between individuals even in similar situations, people do not all act alike. 5.What are the major behavioral science disciplines that contribute to OB? The major behavioral science disciplines that contribute to OB are such as Psychology, Sociology, Social psychology, Anthropology and Political science.
6.Why are there few absolutes in OB? There are few, if any, simple and universal principles that explain organizational behavior. There are laws in the physical science-chemistry, astronomy, physics – that are consistent and apply in a wide range of situations. They allow scientists to generalize about the pull of gravity or to be confident about sending astronauts into space repair satellite. But as a noted behavioral researcher aptly concluded, “god gave all the easy problems to the physicists”.
Human being are complete, because they are not alike, our ability to make simple, accurate and sweeping generalizations is limited. Two people often act very differently in the same situation, and the same person’s behavior changes in different situations. For instance, not everyone is motivated by money, and you behave differently at church on Sunday than you did at the party the night before. That doesn’t mean, of course that we can’t offer reasonably accurate explanations of human behavior or make valid predictions. However, it does mean that OB concepts must reflect situational, or contingency, conditions.
We can say that x leads to y, but only under conditions specified in z. the science of OB was developed by using general concepts and then altering their application to the particular situations. So, for example, OB scholars would avoid stating that effective leaders should always seek the ideas of their follower before making the decision. Rather, in some situations participative style is clearly superior. But, in other situations, an autocratic decision-making style is more effective. In other words, the effectiveness of a particular leadership style is contingent on the situation in which it’s used.