This model was designed in order to improve some issues of effective leadership. That is; the model explains what should happen in a decision making environment. The model examines that leaders could frequently improve performance of a group by employing optimal amount of involvement in decision making process. This model naturally makes us to conclude that, it is gender neutral. (Butterfield and Grinnel, 1999) The situational leadership theory This model looks at the optimum method for leaders to tackle their leadership style based on the leadership type the leader is involved in.
the model examines task behaviour in relation to the nature of work being done by the leaders. Task behaviour is related with a direct leadership approach where responsibilities are spelt out by the leader of a group. The model points out that level of maturity of the leader both psychological and job affect the style of leadership maturity. This model also does not correlate gender to leadership. (Butterfield and Grinnel, 1999) The contingency model
In contrast to situational model, this model stipulates that effectiveness of leadership is basically determined by choosing the right type of a leader for a specific situation or different situation to relate with the specific leadership style and the situation that arises. This model focuses a lot on individual aspects of the leader rather than focusing on followers or situations. The model states that, personality characters are established during an early stage in life and past experiences of the leader will have affect leadership style that leader will employ.
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(Butterfield and Grinnel, 1999) Main developments, arguments, debates, changes, influences; This part of the paper examines the studies that were carried out in regard to this topic. Some earlier studies carried out pertaining this topic including one carried out in 1990 by Eagly and Johnson revealed that women are liked leadership style which was more interpersonally oriented while men were found out to embrace task oriented leadership style. The study concluded that women were more democratic and thus, embraces democratic leadership.
On the other hand men were found to be more directive or autocratic. (Eagly and Johnson, 1990) In 2003 a Meta- analysis of the finding of Eagly et al, (2003) revealed that women were more likely to adopt transformational leadership style as opposed to their male counterparts. This leadership style is characterized by the leader being more encouraging, coaching and creative in problem solving. Women as leaders were observed to reward good work than men leaders who were mostly likely to censure the subordinates and in most case adopted hands off leadership style. (Eagly et al, 2003)
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