Holocaust

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When did the Holocaust begin? I. January 1933- Hitler sworn in as the chancellor of Germany A. Whereas before it was only a plan (one which people though Hitler would forgo when actually in office) was now set into motion.

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B. April of the same year would see the beginning of Hitler’s implementation of such anti- Semitic legislation, starting with the prohibition of Jews from the Civil Service. II. November 1935- Nuremberg Laws enacted A. Jews are now subject to a myriad of prohibitions, aimed at their disemancipation. B. Anti-Semitism takes on a legislative form III.

November 1938- Kristallnacht A. 7500 Jewish businesses destroyed B. 267 shuls burned C. 91 Jews killed D. 25000 arrests E. Much legislation is made against Jews. They are now banned from public schools, cinemas, etc. F. The Anti- Semitism is brought out from the parliament and into the streets and homes of the Jews. IV. September 1939- Germany invades Poland A. Aditionally, there is the outline by Heydrich of Jewish policy. 1. Einzatzgruppen 2. Complete census of Jews in Poland 3. Judenrats 4. General Gouvernment 5. A-B Aktion B. Forceful, violent anti-Semitism is made into official policy. V.

June 1941- Germany invades Russia A. Slaughter intensifies. 1. Babi Yar 2. Mass ghettoization VI. January 1942-Wannsee Conference A. Defined and outlined the “Final Solution” 1. Mass murder is employed-institutional murder. VII. These changes both reflect a pre-determined policy which was being implemented in steps, but situations- both military and social- which were presented to the Nazis forced them to reexamine or restructure policy based on need or opportunity. A. Though much legislation was pre-planned, Wannsee, for example was a response to Nazi failure to fully implement Holocaust goals.

This meeting was not necessarily planned before the war, but necessity brought about such an increase in the mass murder. VIII. It is impossible to designate a single moment as it is more like a snowball, building up from ages of anti-Semitism and slowly becoming the Holocaust. Question 2- Emigration I. Jews decided to remain in Germany prior to 1938 for three main reasons: A. They and their families have been Germans fro generations and they were not prepared to leave their homes and businesses. B. They were nationalistic and felt pride and connection to Germany. 1.

Central Union of Germans of Hebrew Faith -“No one can rob us of our home and our fatherland. ” 2. Rabbi J. Layman, reform rabbi- political change had not affected their commitment to Germany as Germans of the Hebrew faith. Most Jews should stay in Germany because this is their homeland. C. They thought this was only temporary an that the storm would pass. D. Additionally, they really had no where to go. As many hundreds of thousands of Jews did emigrate, the Evian Conference in Evian, France saw many Western European and American countries basically close their doors to Jewish emigration. II. Nazi stance on Jewish emigration

A. In 1934, Hitler was advised that emigration would be the answer. 1. Adolf Eichmann bought land in Equator to send the Jews there. B. But in 1937, Nazis changed their minds and emigration wasn’t the answer. C. Nov 1940- Polish Jewish emigration is prohibited. D. October 1941- All Jewish emigration is prohibited out of German occupied territory E. However, Transfer Agreement was enacted in which Jews could buy German products, ship them to Palestine and sell them through the Jewish Agency there. 1. Through this agreement, over 50,000 Jews immigrated to Palestine. Question 3- Jewish Responses to Nazi Law I.

Stages of Anti- Jewish Laws A. There were three stages: 1. Removal from Public Life a. Removal from entertainment and press (1933) 2. Anti-Semitism as Policy of State a. Expelling Jewish Immigrants (1934) b. Nuremberg Laws (1935) 3. Deemancipation a. Out of Economic Life (1938) b. Ousted from Public Schools (1938) II. Jewish Reactions- as the needs arose due to various legislation, the Jews responded in various ways. A. April 1933 the Central Committee for Help and Reconstruction- coordinated welfare activities B. September 17, 1933, the National Representation of the German Jews- political representation C.

Jewish organizations focused on social work and aid to the needy. D. They established a Jewish educational system for children who had been ousted from the German educational system E. Disseminated information about various countries of destination, and they offered language and vocational classes. Question 4- Raul Hilberg’s Schemes I. Stage One- Identification, Marking, and Concentration A. Nuremberg Laws of 1935 identified someone with three or more Jewish grandparents as a ‘full Jew’- these laws were applied to Poland basically as soon as it was taken over. B.

September 21, 1939- Conference led by Heydrich, Chief of the Reich Central Security Office in Berlin discussing long-term future of Polish Jewry. States that there is an “final aim. ” Calls for concentration of Jews in cities, and the formation of ghettos. C. November 23, 1939 Jews were required to be in public with external markings, a white band with the Star of David D. Laws 1. Jews can not relocate without Nazi permission 2. Spatial separation from Poles 3. Other racial Laws E. Concentration of Jews into the General Government and into Ghettos. 4. Most famous ghettos were in Warsaw and Lodz II.

Stage Two- Mass Murder A. 1941- Einzatsgruppen employed to kill Jews B. December 1941- Chelmno- first use of gas C. 1941- Babi Yar D. January 1942- Wannsee Conference established “Final Solution. ” E. Use of Concentration Camps and industrialized murder (Auschwitz, etc. ) Question 5- Jewish Resistance I. There was definitely more Jewish resistance than is popularly mentioned. A. Western Europe- fought in mainstream resistance movements B. Eastern Europe- formed their own partisan units C. April- May 1943- Warsaw Ghetto Uprising 1. ZOB, ZZW- Warsaw Jewish fighting units D.

There were many other small uprisings in other ghettos. E. Some concentration camps had uprisings. 1. Auschwitz (1944) 2. Sobibor (1943) 3. Treblinka (1943) II. Additionally, there was unarmed resistance A. In Warsaw, leaflets were distributed urging people to avoid deportations, as they were in fact trains to death camps. B. Yehuda Bauer also defines resistance as any activity that gave the Jewish people dignity and humanity in the most humiliating and inhumane conditions. Hence, most of such acts of ‘resistance” went undocumented. Bauer comments how much resistance there really was, despite the conditions they had to endure. stt