Geochemistry, Pollution Analysis and Management of Groundwater in Karaj field, Iran
All living things depend perfectly on a supply of fresh H2O and in term of human necessities ; H2O is considered most of import following merely to air. Water is used for many intents Viz. , domestic, agribusiness, industry and other multi assorted demands.
However, many people around the universe are inveterate short of H2O even for personal demands. There are several grounds for dearth of H2O and most of import among them is increasing population. Increasing population and altering universe, demand increased demands of consumptive and non-consumptive H2O. Therefore, it is true that fresh H2O is indispensable for human endurance and is an indispensable demand for sustainable development. Worldwide agribusiness histories for 69 % the lion’s portion of H2O usage and agricultural demand is turning as population continues to increase. Major portion of this demand is met with land H2O resources and therefore land H2O tabular array is gone down alarmingly and status is unstable. In add-on, H2O quality is merely every bit of import as measure. The H2O in many topographic points is contaminated and H2O born diseases continue to be scourages of human sort. Management of H2O resources particularly groundwater is really complex in position of the viing demands for use. The survey demands realistic assessment of current and awaited demands for H2O by assorted H2O utilizations. It is hence of import that latest modern techniques of survey and rating of H2O resources by following the modern methodological analysiss like Arc GIS SPSS, Rockwork, Rockware and etc, packages.
Aim and range of the present survey:
Measuring the measure and quality of H2O resources is the of import facet in H2O resources planning and direction. Unfortunately much of the world’s population specially in state like Iran lacks a suited and safe H2O supply and many a clip supplies are disrupted. With turning population these types of
Problems are traveling more common in close hereafter. Hence interdisciplinary surveies are required with mention to the research job in undertaking the bing jobs expeditiously and get the better of.
The present survey purposes to measure land H2O resources and its quality since pantie surface H2O resources available in Karaj field, Iran and analysing its tendency, both in infinite and clip. An effort is made to understand the nature of the job in footings of land H2O related issues and to come out with an appropriate solution on a scientific footing. The attack towards the job will be multidisciplinary as it includes, geological, hydrological, hydrogeochemical and environmental conditions of the country.
Karaj Plain is one of the huge upland field of Iran, with an mean one-year rainfall of 260mm and entire one-year infiltration of groundwater is estimated to be 56 million three-dimensional metres. The demand of fresh H2O for assorted multi-user like anthropogenetic demands, agribusiness pattern and industrial demand is about 61.5 billion three-dimensional metres. At present, there is a deficit of 5.5 billion three-dimensional metres in a twelvemonth and this may be farther agrivated due to increase of population and resulted more demand in close hereafter. Decrease in volume of groundwater reservoirs will besides accordingly do the decrease of the quality of groundwater. Apart from this the land H2O of the country is badly polluting from inflow of pollutant waste H2O of industrial workss and human waste wastewaters in Karaj metropolis. Further Increasing development of industry, agricultural pattern and inordinate population growing in the part consequences more of taint of groundwater in the part. Therefore measuring the measure and quality of groundwater resources and its judicial use is the of import facets in H2O resources planning and direction of the survey country.
Reappraisal of literature:
The campaigner has looked into the above discussed jobs in the chosen country and noticed that non much work has done. There are merely meager studies in the literature. The quality of groundwater in Karaj Plain since the last 10 old ages has been investigated and tested by Tehran Regional Company and the concentration of cations, anions, coarseness etc. , are studied. Recently, State Geological Organization has analysed, dirt and surface and land H2O resources in and around Tehran metropolis. There is a study on ‘Study of concentration of heavy metal elements in groundwater resources of Garmabdasht in Gorgan, by Sahar Armanpour et Al 2007. There are besides studies on “Geochemical procedures are responsible for the spatial-temporal fluctuations in groundwater chemical science in the western portion of Iran” ( Fazel Tavassol, Sajjad et Al. 2008 and Fazel Tavassol, Sajjad 2009 ) . Hence an in deepness survey of qualitative and quantitative analysis and direction of land H2O resources in Karaj field is much needed.
Geographic place of the studied part:
one of the biggest metropolis of Alborz Province is Karaj metropolis. The survey country, Karaj field is situated in Northwest of Tehran, Iran, lies between latitudes 34°50? to 35°30? N and longitudes 47°12? , to 48°10? E covering an country of 811 sq kilometer. Its northern side is situated in the northern Highlandss of Karaj, the eastern side is Kan River, the western side is Hashrgerd Plain and the southern side is Mallard and Saleh Abad. The mean tallness of the part is 1500 m above MSL.
The most of import metropolis located in this Alborz Province is Karaj, which is metropolis including some big and little metropoliss with populations of more than 1728000 individuals and an country of 162 sq kilometer. There are more than 3000 big and little graduated table chemical, automotive and nutrient industries in the part. Area of farming areas is estimated to be about 17000 hectares.
Location of the survey country
The undermentioned aims are formulated for chosen survey country:
- Designation of different hydrogeomorphical conditions and lineament analysis of the survey country.
- Appraisal of groundwater quality and hydrogeomorphical mold.
- Evaluation the H2O resourses by environmental impact appraisal ( EIA )
- Conservation and direction of groundwater in the survey country.
Materials and methods used in theChosencountry of research:
The undermentioned methods are to be adopted in the present probes and analysis:
- Geological map of the survey country will be complied utilizing bing regional geological map, satelite imaginations and GIS packages.
- Analysis and spatial distribution theamatic maps of rainfall will be constructed utilizing meteoric informations and GIS packages
- Morphometric analysis and hydrogeomophic zones of the Karaj field will be done utilizing SOI toposheets, Satelite Imageries and GIS. ( Arc GIS10, Global Mapper 14, PCI.Geomatica.2012.SP1 )
- 35 groundwater samples will be collected in a grid form from the survey country for premansoon and postmansoon seasons by following international criterion techniques. Physico-chemical features of land H2O samples will be carried out utilizing modern and sophisticated analytical instruments like Flame Photometer, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry, UV-Vissible Spectrophotometer and Titrimetry method.
- Analysis of the quality of groundwater resources will be made in understanding the rock- H2O interaction, distribution of major and minor elements and impact of pollutants in H2O resources utilizing available criterion package and diagrams.
- Environmental Impact Assessment of the survey country will be carried out ( Arc GIS10, PCI.Geomatica.2012.SP1, SPSS ) . The advantage of this technique is that it takes into history of all the facets of the environment i.e. ecology, physical/chemical facets and human/social involvement etc, .
- By sing all the above facets and parametric quantities, hydrogeochemical theoretical account will be proposed ( Arc GIS10 ) . This theoretical account will be much helpful for preservation and better direction and use of the groundwater resources.
Result of the research probe:
- Assess the impact of over development of land H2O and pollution impact on aquifer system and land H2O quality.
- Suggest remedial steps to minimise the land H2O backdown by following progresss irrigation techniques.
- Management of H2O resources and used as a theoretical account to follow in other similar countries.
- Armanpour, Sahar- Karami, G- Yakhkoshi, E ( 2007 ) , Study of concentration of heavy and chief metal elements in groundwater resources of Garmabdasht in Gorgan, the first environmental and medical geological conference.
- Fazel Tavassol, Sajjad –Manshuori, M, 2008, survey on grounds and jobs of aquifer overdraft in Asad Abad Plain in Hamedan, the 4th national conference of geology and environment in Eslamshahr ( in Persian ) .
- Fazel Tavassol, Sajjad ( 2009 ) , maestro ‘s class thesis, Study of Chahardoly Aquifer Gaseous Reasons and its Environmental impacts, Tehran Azad University, Sciences and Research Branch, P81 to 83 ( in Persian ) .
- Water Resources Studies Unit of Tehran Regional Water Company ( 2005 ) , study on suggestion for extension of the prohibition in the studied part of Tehran-Karaj.