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Gender inequality: Overview

As such, considerations of occupational segregation and human capital theories are together not enough to understand the continued existence of a gendered income disparity.[6] The glass ceiling effect is also considered a possible contributor to the gender wage gap or income disparity.This effect suggests that gender provides significant disadvantages towards the top of Job hierarchies which become worse as a person’s career goes on.

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The term glass ceiling implies that invisible or artificial barriers exist which prevent women from advancing within their Jobs or receiving promotions.

These barriers exist in spite of the achievements or qualifications of the women and still exist when other characteristics that are Job-relevant such as experience, education, and abilities are controlled for. The inequality effects of the glass ceiling are more prevalent within higher-powered or higher income occupations, with fewer women holding these types of occupations. The glass ceiling effect also indicates the limited chances of women for income raises and promotion or advancement to more prestigious positions or Jobs.

As women are prevented by these artificial barriers, from either eceiving Job promotions or income raises, the effects of the inequality of the glass ceiling increase over the course of a woman’s career. [10] Statistical discrimination is also cited as a cause for income disparities and gendered inequality in the workplace. Statistical discrimination indicates the likelihood of employers to deny women access to certain occupational tracks because women are more likely than men to leave their Job or the labor force when they become married or pregnant.

Women are instead given positions that dead-end or Jobs that have very little mobility. [4] In Third World countries such as the Dominican Republic, female ntrepreneurs are statistically more prone to failure in business. In the event of a business failure women often return to their domestic lifestyle despite the absence of income. On the other hand, men tend to search for other employment as the household is not a priority. [11] The gender earnings ratio suggests that there has been an increase in women’s earnings comparative to men.

Men’s plateau in earnings began after the 1970s, allowing for the increase in women’s wages to close the ratio between incomes. Despite the smaller ratio between men and women’s wages, disparity still exists Census data suggests that women’s earnings are 7 percent of men’s earnings in 1999. [7] The gendered wage gap varies in its width among different races. Whites comparatively have the greatest wage gap between the genders. With whites, women earn 78% of the wages that white men do.

With African Americans, women earn 90% of the wages that African American men do. With people of Hispanic origin, women earn 88% of the wages that men of Hispanic origin do. There are some exceptions where women earn more than men: According to a survey on gender pay inequality by the International Trade Union Confederation, emale workers in the Gulf state of Bahrain earn 40 per cent more than male workers. [12] Professional education and careers[edit] The gender gap also appeared to narrow considerably beginning in the mid-1960s.

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