However, under the utilitarian theory certain individual rights are expected to be sacrificed for the benefits of whole group (Robbins et al. , 2012). The right view of ethics relies on the foundation that everybody in a society is entitled to certain guaranteed rights. This ethical principle is highly concerned about protecting and respecting the basic rights, such as the privacy right, the property right, and the free speech right. In this case. People are allowed to exercise their basic rights.
On the other hand, it may result in poor productivity because the extremely high freedom for employees will lead to unrestrained working atmosphere (Robbins et al_, 2012). The theory of Justice view of ethics is an approach that everyone should be treated equally or fairly. For example, in an organization, there are rules and regulations formed by directors. All the rewards which are provided to the employees should be based on these regulated standards instead of personal preference. Managers who follow this view will think that paying people more based on their hard working or great amount of contribution Is the true fairness.
It protects the interests of people who are underrepresented. But the disadvantage of Justice view is that it may discourage employees from making some risky innovations. Eventually, companies are hard to be evolved (Robbins et al. , 2012). The Integrative social contracts theory builds the ethical standards on the basis of existing social norms. To be more specific, managers who follow this view will act ethically based on the local norms in Industries and communities. This theory believe that It can Increase the local welfare, recognize and respect the rights of all people, and minimize harm.
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However, the integrative social contracts theory will carry some drawbacks like arguments due to f Ethics In my opinion, ethic is doing the things which are right to do, and will be beneficial for the society as well. When people are doing things that will help the society better, they are acting in the ethical way. In human societies, there are plenty of moral norms and rules which had formed and existed invisibly. Sometimes, the power of restriction of these rules is much more effective than the specific law. People will obey these regulations not because of fearing punishments for breaking rules, but for the morality of lives.
This deterrent power is extremely strong and useful in the society, especially in civilization. Apparently, this invisible power comes from the ethics. That is how ethics make effects on every part of society. It gives a shared value which is held by everyone with the same background and culture. Not only individuals but also organizations should recognize the importance of social ethics. 3. Examples of Poor Ethics in the Business World Lack of Compassion: Wall-Mart Wall-Mart is the world's second largest public corporation.
In addition, it is the number one retailer in the world as well. But its riches equal its controversies. This story is probably the most apt at describing the unethical treatment of its workers, cause of the sheer senselessness of it. In 2000, a collision with a semi-trailer left 52-year-old Deborah Shank with permanent brain damage and in a wheelchair. Her husband and three sons were fortunate for a $700,000 accident settlement from the trucking company. After legal costs and other expenses, the remaining $417,000 was put in a special trust to care for Mrs..
Shank. However, six years later the providers of Mrs.. Shanks health plan, Wall-Mart, sued the Shanks for the $470,000 it had spent on her medical care. Wall-Mart was fully entitled to the money; in the fine print of Mrs.. Shanks employment contract it said that money won in damages after an accident belonged to Wall-Mart. A federal Judge had to rule in favor of Wall-Mart, and the family of Mrs.. Shank had to rely on Medicaid and social-security payments for her round-the-clock care. Wall-Mart may be reversing the decision after public outcry.
However, this case pinpoints Wall-Mart's often criticized treatment of employees as a commodity and its sometimes inhuman business ethics (Haynes, 2011). Dumping Toxic Waste and Gagging the Media: Trauma Transfigure is a multinational formed in 1993, trading in base metals and energy, including oil. It makes almost 80 billion USED a year. In 2006, it caused a health crisis affecting 108,000 people, after a ship leased by the company was told that, due to toxicity levels higher than expected, the price of transferring the waste on board to the processing plant in the Netherlands had increased twenty-fold.
To avoid the charge, Trauma ordered the ship to dock at other seaports until they could find someone who would dump the waste. At Abidjan, CГ¶et divorce, the waste was handed over to a newly formed dumping company, Comparing Tommy, which illegally dumped the waste, instead of processing it. Many people there became sick due to exposure to the waste, and investigations began to determine whether it was intentionally dumped by Trauma. Trauma said in a press statement that their tests showed the waste not to be as toxic as had been claimed.
This was proven false by a 2009 UN report posted by Weeklies. When newspapers came to publish their own lawyers and started firing legal notices to all news outlets which were saying there was a connection between the dumping and the injuries reported in the Ivory Coast. The Guardian newspaper had conclusive evidence that Trauma knew of the dumping, and had a report they were ready to publish. However, the libel firm hired by Trauma applied for a super-injunction so that the paper couldn't publish the report until a court decision was made (Leigh, 2009).
Abusing Human Rights by Using Military Force: Chevron In the ass, the Nigerian government forced them to abandon their land to oil companies without consultation, and offering negligible compensation. The government took control of this land so that it could be distributed to the oil companies. Resistance movements of the native people turned violent in the early ass, and were threatening to disrupt the operations with mass action. This led to the government declaring that disturbing oil production was an act of treason.
Chevron had a military base at their Socrates facility, in the Delta State of Nigeria, which housed over a hundred soldiers. In 1999, when leaders of the Kiang people came to negotiate with the soldiers, who were already attacking different villages, they were shot at and up to 62 people were killed by the soldiers, including a seven-year-old girl. The soldiers proceeded to set the villages ablaze, kill livestock and destroy fishing equipment (Squire, 2010). 4. Example of Good Organizational Ethics Ethical Website: EBay EBay Inc. Is a corporation that people always connect it with online auction and shopping.
In fact, eBay had built a website which is more than Just shopping. In 2008, eBay published a website which named Worldwide. Com, offering goods produced with social and environmental goals in mind. EBay developed the site with World of Good, a startup focused on ethical supply chains behind consumer products, and licensed the group's name for the marketplace. World of Good will get a share of the revenue from the site, which had been operating for the past six months as an online immunity focused on the social impact of business.
The site will sell fixed-price goods that purportedly have some positive effect on people and the planet. The goal is to help consumers align their social values with their shopping decisions (Meet, 2008). 5. Creating an Ethical Culture a. Establishing Definite Codes of Ethics To avoid ambiguity, an organization can conduct clearly formal ethical rules which will make employees easily recognize these rules and then obey them. For an ethical company, it is always important to establish a fundamental value as the spirit of organization. Ethical Leadership It is necessary to have ethical leaders while we are founding an organization ethically. In an organization, employees will consider the behavior of top manager as a model of what's acceptable behavior in the workplace. When senior managers are observed to take the ethical high road, it sends a positive message to all employees (Robbins et al. , 2012). C. Rewards for Ethical Actions and Punishment for Unethical Actions Managers can set up distinct rewards for employees who achieve goals and follow the organization's code of ethics at the same time.
While people who CT ethically should be visibly rewarded for their behavior, the unethical actions Organizations can offer workshops, seminars, and other ethical training programs to educate employees. Use these training sessions to reinforce the organization's standards of conduct, to clarify what practices are and are not permissible, and to eliminate possible ethical dilemmas. E. Formal Protective Mechanisms To encourage employees to act ethically, organizations should supply formal protective mechanisms. By providing designate ethics counseling apartment, employees are able to discuss and share ethical predicaments.
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