Frow, N, Marginson, D & Ogden, S. 2005. Encouraging strategic control while maintaining management control. Multi-functional project teams, budget, and the negotiation of shared accountabilities in contemporary enterprises. Management accounting research, Elsevier doi 10. 1016/j mar 2005. 06. 004 This study provides evidence and documentation on how firms and managers in contemporary organizational settings and how they seek to reconcile the need for predictable target achievement and individual controls towards achieving strategic control and change.
Here, the authors clarify the environment of mutuality to jobs as to illustrate the fact that the performance of one affects or is heavily dependent on the performance of another. Likewise, this exploratory inquiry revealed the importance of individual level accountability as saying that motivation strongly impacts the performer such that the lack of it is reduced under situations where there is perception of inability to influence desired outcomes. Lycette, B & Herniman J 2008. New goals setting theory. Industrial Management, Institute of Industrial Engineers.
Industrial management. This paper illustrates the selection and adoption of a critical set of performance metrics needed to serve and play a vital role in ensuring organizational focus needed to achieve business results. However, this document indicates that these metrics, per se, offer minimal value without the appurtenant goals. Here, goals are said to consider both business and psychological aspects, and business goals and metrics are equally chosen based on strategic intents, organizational alignment, customer and business requirements, and return on investment.
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This study opines that favorable business results can best be attained by equally considering psychological factors in goal-setting theory. Grant, AM 2008. The significance of task significance: Job performance Effects, Relational Mechanisms and Boundary conditions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 2008, Vol. 93 No. 1108-124. Doi: 10. 1037/0021-9010. 93. 1. 108 This paper proposes the axiom that task significance increases job performance. Likewise, this paper clearly illustrates through experiments examining the performance effects, relational mechanisms and boundary conditions of task significance.
One experiment with fundraising callers receiving task significance interventions improved their job performances; while task significance increased job dedication in another experiment while in the other, conscientiousness and pro-social values moderated the effects of ask significance of new fundraising calls. Here, task significance interventions are critical in reinforcing motivation for improved job performance. Kaufman, G 2006. How to fix HR. Forethought Personnel Boston, MA. Harvard Business Review
In this document, recommendations in enhancing the performance appraisal and managements systems are lined out as follows: (1) setting a clear mission; (2) getting rid of distractions such as labor—intensive source as benefits, payroll and salary surveys for outsourcing; (3) assessment of HR’s technical knowledge ensuring that HR people are keeping up with the literature of the field; (4) finding the right leader for the HR functions which can bring the credibility human resourcing needs to make changes and holding him accountable.
Adopting these new HR measures is believed to translate into good bottom lines. Grote, D. 2006. Discipline without punishment. The proven strategy that turns problems employees into superior performers. Second Edition, New York, American Management Association. This guidebook provides building superior performance through recognition of good performance and solving people problems. Likewise, performance improvement is conducted through performance improvement discussion. Further, the core of the discussion is made on imposing discipline without punishment. Part II.
Three techniques suggested that are expected to improve individual interactions relative to performance management skills needed to ensure successful implementation of PM systems: (1) the HR professional should possess the distinct personality credible enough to make every component of human capital comfortable discussing sensitive issues with a belief that measures and agreements are assured to implemented as agreed; (2) there is a need to provide adequate policy and logistics support to perform the job based on standards and expectations; and (3) adoption of an well-researched, tested and acceptable performance measurement system objective enough to measure targets and performances as well as training needs that sincerely addresses the learning and growth of the employee. These techniques, among others, are expected to fill in some imperfections of PMs in dynamic organizations.
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