The oil find is seen as a blessing by most Ghanaian" because the certainty of revenues that will be generated from this sector is high and also a boost in the country"s economy. In a World Bank report dated November 2009, it is certain that the six of government revenue derived from the oil and gas sector will dwarf the revenues currently generated by the mining sector. The World Bank bases its projection of potential government revenue on estimated oil reserves of 490 million barrels in the Jubilee field.
Assuming a price of IIS$ 75 per barrel, the World Bank estimate puts potential government revenue from oil at an annual average of US$ 1 billion between 2011 and 2029. In addition to this, the associated production of gas is estimated to generate revenues around one tenth IL revenue amounting to approximately IIS$ 120,000 annually (ref). According to figures from GNP, Ghana"s projected take from the Jubilee field will be in the range of 38-51% of total oil revenue. Job creation and increase in employment opportunities are expected to go up.
As oil and gas companies may hire local companies as sub contractors or service deliverers. Indirect employments may also be generated in local communities. These and other economic and financial analysis of the oil and gas impact of oil and gas exploration and extraction on the socio-economic, the impact on aquatic life, environmental and health of rounding communities as well as the entire country have to be considered and not only the revenue that will be generated from the sector. . 1 Rationale and Justification for the study The oil find areas in Ghana including Amaze East Municipal, Seconds Djakarta Metropolitan,Eliminable, Anta West, Comer, Agony West District Assemblies and their surrounding communities like cape three points, half Assign, Eliminable, Princes Town, Axiom, Discover, Bus, Miami, Awaked,Water, Seconds, Eczema, Mournful and Seconds-Djakarta are the areas which are most likely to be affected by these oil and as activities.
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The impacts that may result from the actions and inactions of these multinational oil companies could result in many unhealthy environmental and socio- cultural situations like: ; Grabbing of farmlands for petroleum production and its auxiliary services by potential investors and local business operations and its potential relocation and socio-cultural challenges. ; Potential degradation of the environment including land degradation, marine water pollution, gas flaring effects like increased green house emissions , poor public health and safety. Increase prevalence of infectious diseases like, HIVE, malaria, tuberculosis and other oil extraction and pollution related problems and diseases such as skin rashes, eye inflammatory diseases, respiratory tract infections and others. ; Social conflict and increasing harassment and intimidation of inhabitants by oil company personnel and state security. ; Increasing unemployment of the local people, widening poverty gap and underdeveloped infrastructure within affected communities.
It is within the above context that this study was designed to conduct evidence based search on the effects of oil and gas exploration on water quality and aquatic life in oil rich coastal communities in the Western Region, Ghana. This evidence based research would generate data that would build the capacities of citizens, to engage government (local and national levels), oil companies and other stakeholders on the opportunities and potential (positive and negative) impacts of oil production on aquatic life in the oil rich communities.
This study also seeks to make communities and civil societies aware of possible implications of oil and gas extraction on the marine ecology (UN Convention on oil pollution prevention) in Ghana and the effect of oil and gas on the environment. For example, between December 2009 and May 2010, SAMOS energy a member of the Jubilee partners on three different occasions discharged Low Toxicity Oil Based Mud into the marine waters of Ghana. Discharge of oil drill cuttings including low toxicity oil based mud has serious implications on marine ecology as shown in fig. . 0 below. Fig. 1. 0 A partially discomposed whale found on the shore of Half Assign. (Source: Fishermen Association in Half Assign during the commencement of the Jubilee According to a report by David Lincoln (2002) indicates that, the environmental impacts of the Oil and Gas Industry"s exploration operations are pervasive. No country or province which has been exposed to a prolonged history of offshore hydrocarbon exploration has been left untouched by the inevitable accidents and unforeseen consequences of the petroleum industry.
Management Development and Productivity Institute, seeks through this research work to investigate the effects of oil and gas exploration on marine water quality and other water bodies in the study area. The study seeks to come out with strategies of elution prevention to mitigate the effects of continuous oil and gas exploration in the study area. The results of the study would serve as a platform for all stakeholders in the oil and gas industry to: - Engage government and private sector (oil extraction companies) on coloratura, gender and environmental related issues on oil and gas. Establish a baseline on community interests, floral and faunal resources, knowledge and participation in oil governance for comparative analysis of project impact (positive and negative). This will cover relevant areas like land (including water) management of hazardous waste and the anticipated impacts on urban and rural communities and livelihoods - Train 10 selected local communities on the benefits of oil and gas extraction, environmental pollution threats and indicators, indicators/ pollutants identification and response mechanism. . 2 Aims and Objectives The overall aim of this project is to collect evidence of effects of oil and gas extraction on water quality, fisheries resources, flora and fauna species; as well as investigate other issues such as sustainable environmental management resulting from oil and gas extraction.
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