Uses case duty approach, The study the experience of successful managers or the mistakes that managers make or the attempt to solve management problems we will learn how to apply the most effective management techniques. Compare situations such as what worked and what did not work and apply It. Human Behavior School Since the management Involves working with people, the study of management should be centered In Interpersonal relationships. The approach looks at the people part of management in order to accomplish objectives. The approach looks at what motivates people The Social System School
Related to the human behavior school, the approach looks upon management as a social system, or a system of cultural interrelationships. The approach identifies the nature of the cultural relationship of different groups and attempts to a relate a system. Decision Theory School The approach looks at rational approaches to decision making or the selecting from among possible alternatives to an action or idea. It looks at the decision, the person making the decision or the organization making the decision. It evaluates alternatives.
Since management is about making decision, the future development of management theory will include decision making as a center focus. Mathematical School Looks at management, decision making, organizations, and planning as a logic process. The model includes examining a problem in its basic relationships and in terms of selected goals or objectives. 1 OFF The Classical Doctrine Deals with the anatomy of formal organization, that is built in four key pillars. THe theory has relevant insights into the nature of organizations but is limited to its narrow concentration on the formal anatomy of organizations.
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The division of labor The cornerstone among the four elements, The scalar and functional processes Deals with the vertical and horizontal growth of the organization. Deals with the growth of the chain of command, delegation of authority, unity of command, and the obligation to report. Structure logical relationships of functions in an organization, arranged to complete objectives. Span of control concept relates to the number of subordinates a manager can effectively supervise. Classical organizational theories focus on formal concepts related to management and workplace efficiency.
Tailor's scientific management approach falls under the classical theory. This approach focused on increasing productivity through mutual trust between management and employees. Neoclassical Theory of Organization Related to the human relations movement. Looks at the pillars from classical doctrine but are modified by people, acting independently or within the context of informal organization. The neo-classical theories focused on the importance of the individuals within the organization. Classical theories use the workers as a functional piece of the organization, but disregard factors of human nature and individuality.
Neo-classical theory looks at the social elements of the workers within the workplace. The main concept behind neo-classical theory is that productivity increases as a result of higher employee morale. Modern Organizational Theory The discussion about the difference between leadership and management can be controversial. A person can be a leader without being a manager and a person can be a manager without being a leader. Title of "manager" does not give subordinates or followers. Both leadership and management have similar and different attributes.
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