Comparison Of Methods Of Research Education Essay
In this chapter the writer attempts to discourse the research methods required in the context of survey and besides warrant its usage and restrictions.This survey was undertaken to analyze the impact of mega-events and the promotional schemes undertaken to shift a finish ‘s touristry industry.While carry oning this research it was indispensable that a methodological analysis be chosen to outdo suit the survey.
Harmonizing to Howard and Sharp ( 1996 ) , the pick of research methods is considered to be an built-in portion of any research undertaking, which greatly influences the consequences obtained.
Since the purpose of the thesis is to show the importance of mega-events and the demand to be after for these events, more self-generated and flexible attack was required to develop the apprehension of Sydney ‘s image in the touristry industry. Second, the informations had to be gathered from different beginnings, both primary and secondary, to to the full understand the phenomenon. Finally, the writer besides attempts to offer practical value and thoughts which could be utile in this issue. Based on these considerations, the research was conducted utilizing qualitative research design. Qualitative research allows the topics being studied to give much ‘richer ‘ replies to inquiries put to them by the research worker, and may give valuable penetrations which might hold been missed by any other method. It besides provides valuable information to certain research inquiries in its ain right. Robson et al. , in 1992 stated qualitative research to be ‘A wide-ranging trade embracing many different attacks, and can run from big, time-consuming Government/Social research contracts to pre-testing of consumer advertisement ‘ ( Chisnall, 2001, P195 ) . Harmonizing to Chisnall, the kernel of qualitative research is that it diagnostic ; it seeks to detect what may account for certain sorts of behaviors like trade name trueness. Qualitative research normally has no measurings or statistics but uses words, descriptions and quotation marks to research significance. Qualitative methods aim to do sense of, or construe, phenomena in footings of the significances people bring to them Qualitative research may specify preliminary inquiries which can so be addressed in quantitative surveies ( Greenhalgh & A ; Taylor, 1997 )
One of the cardinal differences between qualitative and quantitative research is that qualitative research attempts to generalise comparatively simple information by executing statistical analyses, whereas qualitative research attempts to larn about a complex phenomenon by seeking penetration. In simple words quantitative research replies ‘how many ‘ of a inquiry whereas qualitative research replies ‘why ‘ of a inquiry. Quantitative research begins with an thought ( hypothesis ) , which is converted into informations through measurings and this at the terminal helps the research worker to pull decisions. Qualitative research, in contrast, begins with an purpose to research a peculiar country, collects “ informations ” ( observations and interviews ) , and generates thoughts. The strength of the quantitative attack lies in its dependability ( repeatability ) -that is, the same measurings should give the same consequences clip after clip. The strength of qualitative research lies in cogency ( intimacy to the truth ) -that is, good qualitative research, utilizing a choice of informations aggregation methods, truly should touch the nucleus of what is traveling on instead than merely planing the surface ( Greenhalgh & A ; Taylor, 1997 ) .
Of the assorted methods of qualitative research, instance survey was found to the best suitable attack for this thesis. In most of the researches undertaken, if the research involves ‘how and why inquiries, they are more explanatory and likely to take to the usage of instance surveies. This is because instance survey trades with the operational links necessitating to be traced over clip, instead than mere frequences or incidences. For illustration, if one wanted to analyze how a community successfully thwarted a proposed main road ( lupo et Al, 1971, cited by Yin, 1994 ) , it is less likely to trust on a study or scrutiny of the records and might be better off making a instance survey. Harmonizing to Yin ( 1994, P13 ) :
A Case Study is an empirical enquiry that investigates a modern-day phenomenon within its real-life context, particularly when the boundaries between phenomenon and context are non clearly apparent.
Harmonizing to Schramm ( 1971 ) , the kernel of a instance survey, the cardinal inclination among all types of instances survey, is that it tries to light a determination or a set of determinations: why they were taken, how they were implemented, and with what consequences ( cited in Yin,1994, P12 ) . Harmonizing to Stake ( 1994, P236 ) , a instance survey is non a methodological pick, but a pick of object to be studied. As a signifier of research, instance survey is defined by the involvement in single instances and non by the methods of enquiry used.
For the writer to accomplish the purpose of this thesis, a instance survey attack was utilized. this was achieved by making a instance survey on the Sydney 2000 Olympics. The ground behind taking the Sydney 2000 Games in peculiar is due to the congratulations Australia received from the universe ‘s touristry and featuring leaders for its attack to maximizing the touristry chances presented with Sydney ‘s theatrical production of the 2000 Olympic Games. The president of the International Olympic Committee ( IOC ) , Juan Antonio Samaranch, said the Olympic games had helped get the better of perceptual experiences that Australia was excessively far off for a vacation. It provided a sporting and cultural phase for all of the continents and boosted touristry in Australia. The type of instance survey used was explanatory instance survey as bing theory was used in order for the research to understand the planning and schemes used by Sydney for the games to advance it as a finish.
Restrictions of the Case Study Approach
Case surveies can be both descriptive and explanatory and are therefore considered a good attack for transporting out qualitative research. However, there are besides a few restrictions of the method attached to its usage. Yin ( 1994 ) states that instance survey ‘s findings can be generalised to theoretical propositions but non to recite frequences. Thus it is difficult to do general reappraisal from one instance survey. Yin provinces “ possibly the greatest concern about the usage of instances is the deficiency of cogency of the instance study research ” ( Yin, 1994, P10 ) .There ever remains a hazard of excessively much informations being gathered which may non be of existent relevancy to the survey. Case survey informations is time-consuming to roll up, and even more time-consuming to analyze. Hence, there is a reluctance to fund such a research if undertaken on a big graduated table. A Yet cutting corners on either of these aspects is likely to earnestly weaken the value and credibleness of any findings produced. As yin ( 1994 ) pointed out instance surveies most frequently do non impart themselves to numerical representation. Hence the in deciding grounds and colored findings may act upon the waies of the findings and the decisions.
Looking at both the strengths and failings of the instance survey method, and to obtain a clear apprehension of the instance, the writer besides collected informations utilizing primary research informations aggregation methods. This was done to obtain balanced descriptive and explanatory information for the research supported by grounds of informations collected through primary research.
Primary research is research used to roll up informations for a specific undertaking. Primary research involves really traveling out to the field and carry oning some type of study or fact finding probe among the existent people. Primary informations are normally gathered by the research worker via studies, experiments or observation methods. However, interviews and questionnaires are most popular and normally used methods of primary informations aggregation. The information therefore collected may be qualitative ( in the signifier of words ) or quantitative ( in the signifier of figure ) .
Primary research was used in this undertaking to place the cardinal schemes of Sydney 2000 Games and the impact of these schemes on Australia ‘s touristry. Primary research was one of the most hard facets of this thesis. To roll up primary informations, the research worker used questionnaire technique to finish this thesis. The research worker explains below the different option techniques that were considered to roll up informations before zeroing down on the questionnaire technique.
Veal ( 2006 ) is of the sentiment that interviews are likely the lone manner of obtaining a realistic image of the manner people view the topic of research. Howard and Sharp ( 1993, P139 ) suggest that most scientists would see the interview as supplying higher quality information that is free from bias than many other methods available to them. Types of interviews range from a to the full formal structured interview to an informal unstructured interview and semi-structured interviews.
A to the full structured interview is when the research worker has drafted a elaborate questionnaire. The inquiries are asked as per their order for every interview so as to follow a common form and guarantee that all the subjects have been covered. This method is like utilizing a questionnaire but by being face-to-face with the interviewee and there is besides a range of some personal interaction. However, due to a stiff construction and the form of inquiry that the interviewer follows, the interviewee has less range to set forth extra information.
An unstructured interview is based on a more flexible and adaptable attack. In simple words it is a little more than a conversation. In this method the research worker refrains from seeking to construction the interview. The interview keeps the conversation unfastened in order to derive more information. This method besides follows a fixed lineation but is non driven by prepared inquiries. There is a range for interview to spread out the issues or supply information of related issues as there is no limitation on the type of information provided.
This type of interview provides a balance between the other two signifiers of interview. It is basically conducted with the interviewee possessing and following a list of inquiries but at the same clip gives the interviewee the chance to show positions freely. A major advantage of this type of interview is its adaptability. Veal ( 2006 ) suggests that the usage of a checklist is more practical than to the full elaborate inquiries as the latter can disrupt the flow of interviewThere is a possibility that the interviewee might touch upon an of import and untapped facet of the researched issue and may alter the class of research in order to look into them.
Bryman ( 2001, P313 ) suggests, “ qualitative semi-structured questioning tends to be flexible, reacting to the way in which interviewees take the interview and possibly seting the accent in the research as a consequence of important issues that emerge in the class of interviews. ”
Interviews may be conducted face-to-face, via telephone or mail questionnaires. The method in which the interviews can be conducted depends on assorted factors like budget and clip. The research worker was in England to make the research between December and May, but the interviewees were from Sydney. Thus, sing the clip and budget restraint, the research worker used e-mail questionnaires as a method of carry oning the research. the research worker contacted the respondents via mail saying the intent of thesis and the method that will be followed to roll up informations. After a positive answer from the respondents, a questionnaire was prepared and was e-mailed to the research workers. Over a period of 5months from January 2010 to may 2010 assorted e-mail were exchanged back and Forth to roll up as much information as possible. The respondents were besides happy to give entree to assorted studies and paperss sing the subject researched.
The type of inquiries that were usages were non-directive and unfastened to let more latitude for response, generalized and probed to do the respondents experience more comfy to talk freely.
Questionnaires are a popular agencies of roll uping informations. They are utile when the research is to be undertaken on a big graduated table. They can be easy posted e-mailed and faxed and hence, have a broad geographic coverage. They are peculiarly utile when the respondents are willing to supply information but want to keep their namelessness at the same clip. Unlike other research methods, the respondent is non interrupted by the research instrument. Questionnaires reduceA interviewer biasA because there is unvarying inquiry presentation ( Jahoda, et al. , 1962 ) However, it may be hard to obtain a good response rate as frequently there is no strong motive for the respondents to react. It could be a delayed and a boring method when the research worker has to wait for the responses to be returned. One of the chief drawbacks of this method is that there is no control over who completes the questionnaire. Furthermore, respondent can read all inquiries beforehand and so make up one’s mind whether to finish or non. For illustration, possibly because it is excessively long, excessively complex, uninteresting, or excessively personal. They do non give the respondents the freedom to set forth their positions and sentiments on the subject researched. Hence, it is hazardous and non wholly fruitful to utilize this method on its ain for informations aggregation.
Recording is a technique in which the research worker uses a tape recording equipment to enter the informations to be gathered. One of the of import things to retrieve in this method is that recording equipments can be used by the research worker merely if the interviewee/respondents agree to its usage. Gillham ( 2000 ) justifies the usage of tape-recorder as a method strongly recommended if the interviewee agrees. This helps the research to maintain a word by word history of the information the interviewee provides so as non to lose out any of import information. although it is said that the interviewee might experience uncomfortable with the usage of tape recording equipment, taping the interview aids the hearing procedure and provides an indifferent record of responses. Harmonizing to Gill and Johnson ( 1991 ) , in contrast to observe pickings, after a few proceedingss of taping, respondents become unaware of the recording equipment. However, one of the most of import grounds for the research non following this technique is due to the boring, time-consuming and dearly-won techniques of transcripiting the information recorded. Furthermore, Some people are really self-aware in forepart of cameras or audio recording equipments. Recording the session may make a barrier between you and them, and do them less blunt than they would otherwise be.
Roll uping informations is clip devouring and expensive, even for comparatively little sums of informations. Hence, it is extremely improbable that a complete population will be investigated. Because of the clip and cost elements the sum of informations you collect will be limited it is really of import to take a little sample to roll up the information from. Harmonizing to Fink ( 1995, P1 ) ‘the best sample is representative, or a theoretical account, of the population ‘ . A right taken sample of an appropriate size will give consequences that can be applied to the population as a whole. Due to the characteristic and nature of this research, the writer chose to concentrate on the sentiments of the people who were in any manner involved with the 2000 Games. These were people in cardinal places from the Australian Tourism Commission, Tourism New South Wales and the Sydney Olympic Park Authority. The respondents were encouraged to talk as much, or every bit small as they wished bout the issue. One individual from the Australian Tourism Commission, two from Tourism NSW and one from the SOPA were interviewed. Besides in order to derive penetration on the research subject from an academic point of view, a A professor in the school of leisure, athletics and touristry at the University of Technology was besides interviewed. The research worker is of the sentiment that the respondents have provided the thesis with sufficient qualitative information to pull decision and the signifier recommendations. Not merely did the respondents respond to the inquiries e-mailed to them but they were really accessible and flexible in their attack and provided the research worker with a figure of of import paperss and studies which proved to be truly of import for the research.
As the subject that the writer has undertaken to research is an event which has occurred in the yesteryear, there is already huge and utile stuff available through assorted beginnings like, journal articles, newspapers, media and cyberspace which can turn out every bit of import to the thesis. At this phase the usage of primary research methods is limited and the research had to utilize assorted beginnings of informations. This is called secondary research.
Restrictions of primary research
Primary research is considered to be one of the most widespread and effectual ways of garnering reliable informations. However, there are a figure of possible jobs and restrictions to utilizing primary research as a exclusive method of informations aggregation.
The most of import job faced by the research worker was of clip money and distance. the research worker was based in Sheffield during the clip of this thesis and the respondents were from Sydney, hence, the research worker found it really expensive to really go to Sydney to carry on the interviews in individual and had to therefore usage alternate methods. Furthermore, clip restraint was another job the research worker faced.
The research worker besides had troubles in contacting and acquiring the right people for garnering the information from. Sometimes it was non possible to speak to the right people and this created troubles in making a program for informations aggregation. And in conclusion, the research worker ain deficiency of experience in be aftering the research and the inquiries as good. If the inquiries did non cover all the of import issues, if they were non good phrased or if the research did non win to obtain the right replies and relevant informations, so the research would non supply qualitative informations and the research worker would hold to get down the whole procedure once more from abrasion. In malice of all these jobs, the research worker managed to garner the relevant information required. The contacts were obtained from an extended hunt and the respondents were besides really helpful and accessible and provided with a huge sum of informations to the research which proved really utile for the thesis.
Secondary research occurs when a undertaking requires a drumhead or aggregation of bing informations. As opposed to primary research informations, secondary research informations already exist. in simple words, Secondary research is where you use information that other people have gathered through primary research. Normally, secondary research is used in order to place what earlier research workers have done and it besides helps to supply countries of possible probe which would be interesting and valuable. It helps to place possible spreads or logical extensions between old and bing work. . Sometimes secondary research is required in the preliminary phases of research to find what is known already and what new informations are required, or to organize research design. Harmonizing to HHHHHH Howard and crisp ( 1996 ) , secondary research means to seek for information that is given by other research workers and published in some signifier that is already accessible.
The secondary beginnings could include old research studies, newspaper, magazine and journal content, and authorities and NGO statistics. In order to acquire a elaborate apprehension of the research issue information was gathered from newspaper articles, diaries and books which were available at the Sheffield Hallam university library. Besides on-line diary articles, intelligence web sites and computing machine database was besides used to garner information. The bing literature enabled the research worker to place any repeating issues or subjects. The books and diary articles, in peculiar, helped the research worker to make a background for theoretical cognition.
Events like the Olympic games are a universe phenomenon and are therefore captured by the universe media. These events attract a batch of promotion from the imperativeness. For this ground, newspapers, magazines and telecasting were of great significance to the research, non merely because they provided with tonss of up-to-date information but besides because they contained interviews, and articles with different attacks on the research topic. These interviews provided information on how the games were perceived by the locals, the promotional schemes adopted.
Books and Diaries
Books and diaries in general are considered to be a good beginning of information in any research. They are utile in peculiar to organize the theoretical background of the research. The diaries contain documents written by pervious research worker on the researched subject. They form a background for research and are besides utile in taking any irrelevant points or issues in the bing research worker and frailty versa. In this research besides, the research worker has made extended usage of book and diaries in every phase and chapter of the thesis. It helped the research worker to acquire a good apprehension of the subject. These were readily accessible at the Sheffield Hallam university library.
Computer Data Base ( Internet )
Harmonizing to Howard and Sharp ( 1996 ) , computing machine database is a beginning of considerable importance. There are a figure ofA hunt enginesA that can be utile in seeking the cyberspace, The cyberspace has the advantage that it is easy to entree, it has tonss of information, and it is sometimes the most up-to-date beginning of information.A Databases for merchandises and services are available online. These databases like EMRALD are maintained by dedicated international organic structures and are besides developed straight by universities and other research establishments.
The subject of this thesis is an event which occurred in the yesteryear ; hence, the electronic database was of huge aid for this thesis in peculiar. The research worker used Emerald and Google Scholar to entree online articles and documents of trade diaries. Handiness to the information was reasonably easy. However, due to the huge sum of relevant and irrelevant informations available online it was necessary to be critical of the cogency of any information available online.
Restrictions of secondary research
In malice of the easy handiness and the sum of informations available through these secondary resources, there are some restrictions to this signifier of research as good. The most of import is the inquiry on the quality and relevancy of the available informations. Data available through these resources is of the work and researches done in yesteryear and might non be up-to-date information. There are besides several contrasting informations available online which make it more hard for the research worker to critically analyze the information and rely n his inherent aptitudes with respects to the usage of this information. This can sometimes take to irrelevant information being included in the research and the research might besides lose its path. Many times a research worker finds that research that appears assuring is in fact a “ teaser ” released by the research provider. This frequently occurs when a little part of a survey is disclosed, frequently for free, but the full study, which is frequently expensive, is needed to derive the full value of the survey.
Keeping all these facets in head, the research worker has tried her best to utilize the most recent publications and articles from books, diaries and magazines in order to cover all the facets of the subject researched. The research worker tried to look for the most up-to-date information available.
Sum uping and analyzing the information was one of the most hard parts of the thesis. Harmonizing to Veal ( 2006 ) the research worker is faced with practical jobs of how to pull off the pile on interview notes and transcripts. There are many different types of qualitative informations analysis methods. The type of analysis used depends on the information collected, the purpose of research and the clip and fundss available. For the informations to be analysed, it must be put in simple words which can be easy analyzed. This might be in the signifier of transcripts from the interview, notes and replies from the open-ended questionnaires and the journals and diaries maintained by the research worker.
When multiple instance surveies are used to roll up the information and where the research worker has to happen and analyze recurrent subjects in each survey the research worker can utilize thematic analysis. However, where the focal point is on secondary stuff in general and media analysis in peculiar, content analysis method is used. Contented analysis is a technique that has applications in touristry research ( Finn et al, 2000, P135 ) . It is a technique that is applied to non-statistical informations and allows analysing it in a systematic manner. A Using this method the research worker surveies the transcripts in item and assigns codifications ( figure or words ) , to specific characters within the text.. The research worker may already hold a list of classs or she may read through each transcript and allow the classs emerge from the information. This type of analysis can be used for open-ended inquiries which have been added to questionnaires in big quantitative studies, therefore enabling the research worker to quantify the replies. This is farther supported by Finn, who states that content analysis is a quantitative agencies of analysing qualitative informations ( Finn et al. , 2000, P134 ) .
The chapter has discussed the informations aggregation procedure and methods used by the research worker to garner information. In order to garner the most relevant and appropriate information, the research worker has made usage of both primary and secondary methods of research. This has helped the research worker to cover all the of import facet and to derive both practical and theoretical cognition. The research was completed in a period of four months. The following chapter take a expression at the consequences and analysis of the information gathered.