According to social learning theorists what Is the major way In which moral behaviors are learnt.Social learning theory posits that learning Is a cognitive process that takes place in a social context and can occur purely through observation or direct instruction,even in the absence of motor reproduction or direct reinforcement and on addition to the observation of behavior is governed solely by reinforcements by placing emphasis on the important roles of various internal processes In the learning individual.Q)according to psychoanalytic theory what Is the critical event in the development of morality.
He summonsing of the doodles complex the child will have to realize that Insets(love for the opposite sex parent)l’s forbidden and that is just the beginning now the child will also have to internals parental authority. Q)stealing-for a creditable motive-for selfish gain lying-an obvious exaggeration that no-one would be deceived by-intentional and convincing lie that does deceive an adult. Lying-an honest mistake whose uniqueness unfavorable affect an adult-a deliberate lie which, by chances does not cause any real Inconvenience.
Q)place each of the 6 statements a-f under appropriate heading of heterogamous morality and autonomous morality. Heterogamous morality *lies to adults were worse than lies to children. *took little notice of intention. *made little differentiation between lies to adults and lies to peers. Autonomous morality *took Intention into account. *lying is wrong in itself. *lies are wrong because you get punished for them. Q)LA-pre-moral or presentational morality -childrearing rules to avoid punishment and conform to obtain rewards and favors returned and children follow rules when it is In their best interest.
Q-conventional morality-children conform to avoid disapproval and dislike by others they also have respect for authority and a desire to avoid disapproval,the children value trust, loyalty,respect and gratitude. B-post-conventional-children conform to democratically accept the law and also to avoid self-condemnation,they are aware that there are different views ND values and are relative,when there are differences between law and conscience,conscience over rules in the final stage shows the development of the individual conscience.
Q)we have Just started that Gallagher stages are in invariant order, what does this mean. Goldberg was Interested In how morality develop,that is at what age and in what order to children develop their understanding of right and wrong. Gallery argued that while different moral concepts appeared in different ages in different children,the order in which these concepts appeared was always the name across children,so every child who understood stage 2, moral principals had to first pass through stage 1 moral principals. His idea that moral concepts appeared In the same sequence In different children-l’s the Idea of Invariant order that Is,the sequence, children always go stage 1 to 2 to stage 3 and so forth,they do not skip stages or move through them in mixed up orders,not all children necessarily reach the highest stage,they might lack intellectual stimulation,but to the extent they do go through the stages,they proceed in order.