Last Updated 28 May 2020

Can Sea Water Generate Usable Energy Environmental Sciences Essay

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Alternatively of following the conventional fuel oriented power coevals methods and dispersing its heat into environment, we evaporate saline H2O into steam and utilize its energy to bring forth power. Using this strategy would do sea H2O useable in power coevals which at the minute is merely being used for chilling intents in the power workss. The steam used for bring forthing electricity is finally collected, condensed and used for drinkable intents. The proposed strategy may be seen as Steam Power Generation with extra characteristic of desalinization. We set up an experimental trial bed in order to cipher the electric power available utilizing this strategy. To guarantee safety for human ingestion, we besides perform chemical trials on the desalinated H2O to see whether it is fit to be used for imbibing and agricultural intents. Our decisions are based on existent experiments and research lab trials ; processs outlined here may be used at larger graduated table for more in-depth analyses. We besides highlight future extensions and alterations in this work.

Keywords: DC Shunt Generator, Desalination, Measurement, Power Generation, Thermal Plants

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Most of the Earth 's H2O is either belowground or in ocean. In both instances the high composing of different salts and minerals present in the H2O makes it useless for human public-service corporations. Merely 1 % of the Earth 's H2O exists in lakes, pools, or in any other soft H2O beginning, which is non sufficient for 1000000s of human existences. Human presently use 18 % of the accessible H2O every twelvemonth [ 1 ] . This calls for doing usage of other beginnings of H2O, for case sea H2O, which is available in copiousness. Before utilizing sea H2O, nevertheless, its salt content needs to be removed. The remotion of salt from sea H2O, called Desalination, occurs of course at ocean 's surface. The Sun evaporates saline H2O from the huge seas and oceans therefore giving rise to `` Natural Desalination '' [ 2 ] . These bluess occupy a cloudy construction which consequences in the purest signifier of H2O - `` rain H2O '' . Apart from natural desalinization, there are two thermic desalinization procedures used worldwide viz. `` Multi Effect Desalination '' ( MED ) and `` Multi Stage Flash Distillation '' ( MSF ) [ 3 ] . In both of the mentioned engineerings, saltwater is evaporated and so condensed to get fresh H2O, though the procedures involved are rather different in each of them.

Pakistan is blessed with more than 1000km long seashore line [ 4 ] . Rational use of this H2O resource is polar for the upheaval of an agricultural state like Pakistan. Sea H2O, nevertheless, has built-in job of holding salts and other minerals which need to be removed before doing it useable for drinkable and agricultural intents. Not merely in agribusiness, H2O play an of import function in carry throughing the power demands of the state. Country relies significantly on Thermal Power Generation, which burns fuel to heat H2O in the boilers for bring forthing electricity. Karachi Electric Supply Corporation ( KESC ) has 1756MW installed capacity for Thermal Power Generation [ 5 ] . Despite holding a big reservoir of sea H2O, its application in both agribusiness and power sectors of the state is impossible without taking its inherently dissolved salts and minerals.

Desalination, although can give important benefits, brings considerable environmental harm because of its terminal merchandises. Some conservationists have claimed that the residuary by-product after desalinization with high salt concentration is a large Marine pollutant when thrown back into the sea at high temperatures [ 6 ] . On the other manus, desalinization has obvious cost benefits. Desalination might go even more economically feasible if renewable energy is used to heat the sea H2O alternatively of firing coal, oil or other fuels. The thought of utilizing renewable energy for desalinization is already in pattern at Perth Desalination Plant, which is partly powered by air current energy [ 7 ] . In an effort to foreground the possibility of utilizing desalinated H2O for power coevals before condensation, in this paper introduces a strategy to desalt sea H2O by heating it in boilers and to utilize the kinetic energy of steam to bring forth electricity. The proposed thought will non merely do sea H2O useable for agricultural activities but will besides bring forth considerable sums of electric power, which we need most desperately during the on-going power crisis [ 8 ] . In this paper, we are peculiarly interested in measuring the sum of electricity which can be generated utilizing the proposed set up and its impact on the chemical belongingss of H2O. It is deserving adverting that we are interested in the alterations in H2O belongingss caused by heating the sea H2O ; we ignore the alterations brought approximately due to the hit of H2O with the turbine blades.

Rest of the paper is organized as follows. Proposed conventional and experimental set up is detailed in subdivision 2. Power generated following the proposed strategy is evaluated in subdivision 3. Consequences from chemical trials done on the condensed H2O are given in subdivision 4 and decisions are drawn in subdivision 5. Mentions are given at the terminal of the paper followed by the appendix incorporating the chemical trial study on the condensed H2O.


As mentioned earlier, the thought being evaluated in this paper is to boil sea H2O to acquire rid of its salt contents and utilize the kinetic energy of the ensuing steam to bring forth electric power. It can be seen from the proposed set up shown in Figure 1 that salt H2O is heated in a boiler under decreased force per unit area. The salt contents are retained into the boiler and the generated dry steam is sent out to the reaction-type steam turbine. The steam loses its kinetic energy against the turbine blades in the turbine doing the traveling blades to revolve. This turbine coupled with the generator acts as its premier mover and hence electricity becomes available at the generator terminuss. Upon hit with the turbine blades, dry steam becomes wet and is subsequently condensed in the capacitor. Our experimental set up has used low capacity boilers, turbines and capacitor in order to enforce that the power we generate would be the minimal available from the set up. Bigger devices can of class output better power end products when used commercially. The shaft diameter of the turbine was 2.6cm, while that of turbine was 16cm. The blade tallness was 3.8cm and the nozzle angle was 20o. These specifications are given in Table I.

The electromotive force construct up equation for a DC Generator is given in equation ( 1 ) [ 9 ] , where, P is the figure of poles, Z is the figure of music directors, I¦ is the flux per pole, N is the figure of rotary motions per minute and a is the figure of parallel waies and Vg is the mean electromotive force built in the generator.

Table 1: Specifications of equipment used in the proposed apparatus

Volume of boiler


Turbine type

Chemical reaction Turbine

Turbine diameter


Turbine shaft diameter


Turbine blade tallness


Nozzle angle



DC Shunt Generator


Figures: Proposed apparatus for desalinization and power coevals

aˆ¦ ( 1 )


In this subdivision, we report our observations recorded from the set up discussed in subdivision 2. As has been mentioned antecedently, our primary involvement is in measuring the power generated from this set up, which basically depends on the rotary motions per minute of the turbine caused by the steam. Our observations suggest that the extremum revolutions per minute reached utilizing this set up is around 700rpm while mean value remained to be about 450rpm. Following, we evaluate the electromotive force generated by 450rpm in a typical DC Generator. Note that similar computations can be made for a synchronal generator. These observations are recorded in Table 2.

Table 2: Observations on revolutions per minute and end product terminal electromotive force from the proposed apparatus

Peak revolutions per minute


Average revolutions per minute


Terminal Voltage ( peak revolutions per minute )


Terminal Voltage ( avg revolutions per minute )


Mechanical Power ( peak revolutions per minute )


Mechanical Power ( avg revolutions per minute )


Therefore, for a lap lesion ( a=p ) , 6 pole, 1260 music directors, DC generator holding flux per pole of 0.03web used in our set up will bring forth about 283.5V mean electromotive force ( at 450rpm ) and 441V ( at 700 revolutions per minute ) . It must be noted that the dimensions of setup used in our set up is significantly little and greater electromotive forces may be achieved utilizing larger fringe.

WATER Testing

In this subdivision we conduct intense chemical trials on the H2O recovered from the capacitor which had been used to revolve the turbine blades. We conduct these trials to guarantee that condensed H2O is suited to be used for imbibing and agricultural intents. In peculiar, we are interested in observing whether boiling sea H2O in a individual phase boiler has removed all unsought dissolvers. We have performed laboratory trials at Postgraduate Environmental Lab at NED University of Engineering and Technology on H2O collected in the capacitor obtained from 3 separate experiments. We present some of the interesting findings in the undermentioned. We attach one of the studies ( as sample ) in the appendix at the terminal of the paper. We discuss the consequences of chemical trial done on the condensed H2O in the followers. Our parametric quantities of involvement are pH value, Total Dissolved Salt ( TDS ) , Electrical Conductivity and Entire Coli-form. Obtained consequences are tabulated in Table 3.

Table 3: Chemical belongingss of H2O recovered from the proposed strategy



Entire Dissolved Salt


Electrical Conduction


Entire Coli-form


Harmonizing to our trials, the pH value of the condensed H2O increased from 7.6 to 7.8. Condensed H2O, hence, is more basic in nature and helps forestalling wellness jeopardies due to sourness within the human organic structure. It must be noted that the pH values within the scope specified by World Health Organization [ 10 ] . This H2O will act as ordinary pat H2O when used in agricultural activities in footings of pH and will non turn out effectual in killing sources [ 11 ] . Heating the sea H2O at high temperature in our strategy is shown to significantly cut down the TDS value. The condensed H2O has merely 33 % TDS [ 12 ] compared with the original sea H2O. To be precise, TDS was found to be 5870mg/L which is classified `` brackish H2O '' in literature [ 13 ] . Although the salt content has non been removed wholly but writers believe carry oning similar experiments on larger graduated table can give better benefits.

The electrical conduction of the condensed H2O, as given in Table 3 is found to be 10.72 mS/cm. The existent trial study ( besides given in the appendix ) suggests that electrical conduction can be well decreased by following the strategy outlined here. The ascertained value of conduction is similar to that of Divide Lake in Minnesota, United States [ 14 ] . It is interesting to observe that the H2O collected from capacitor has zero entire coli-form, which makes it ideal for drinkable intents in footings of hygiene [ 15 ] .


This paper investigates the thought of heating sea H2O at high temperatures for desalting its unsought contents and bring forthing electricity before distilling the same. Detailed proposed set up for the said thought has been given and by experimentation evaluated. It was found that around 24W of mechanical power is available across turbine blades utilizing really little graduated table research lab equipment. In order to measure the chemical alterations on sea H2O due to inordinate warming and hit with turbine blades, research lab trials were conducted on the condensed H2O. Although the condensed H2O did non turn out to be useable straight for drinkable intents, larger scale versions of similar trials might turn out utile. Still, sufficient betterment in chemical belongingss of sea H2O was observed in the trials. The chief motive for this research comes from the fact that Pakistan is blessed with a big coastal belt, which can be put to utilize in legion ways. This paper highlights one of those utilizations.

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